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We present the electron transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) at high electric bias conduction. When graphene is patterned into a few tens of nanometer width of a ribbon shape, the carriers are confined to a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system. Combining with the disorders in the system, this quantum confinement can lead into a transport gap in the energy spectrum of the GNRs. Similar to CNTs, this gap depends on the width of the GNR. In this review, we examine the electronic properties of lithographically fabricated GNRs, focusing on the high bias transport characteristics of GNRs as a function of density tuned by a gate voltage. We investigate the transport behavior of devices biased up to a few volts, a regime more relevant for electronics applications. We find that the high bias transport behavior in this limit can be described by hot electron scattered by the surface phonon emission, leading to a carrier velocity saturation. We also showed an enhanced current saturation effect in the GNRs with an efficient gate coupling. This effect results from the introduction of the charge neutrality point into the channel, and is similar to pinch-off in MOSFET devices. We also observe that heating effects in graphene at high bias are significant.
Ag–Cu–Pt–Pd quadrometallic nanoparticles which small Pt and Pd nanoparticles were attached on the surface of AgCu Janus nanoparticles were firstly synthesized by sequential reduction of Pt and Pd precursor in the presence of Janus AgCu bimetallic nanoparticles as seeds in an aqueous solution. Even though there was a small amount of Cu2O on the surface, the synthesized nanoparticles were mainly composed of four independent metallic part, not alloy parts. By theoretical calculation and growth mechanism study, we found that different reducing rate between Ag+ and Cu2+ and sequential reduction of Pt and Pd precursors would be key roles for the formation of the quadrometallic nanoparticles.
The interaction between ultrafast lasers and magnetic materials is an appealing topic. It not only involves interesting fundamental questions that remain inconclusive and hence need further investigation, but also has the potential to revolutionize data storage technologies because such an opto-magnetic interaction provides an ultrafast and energyefficient means to control magnetization. Fruitful progress has been made in this area over the past quarter century. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical studies on magnetization dynamics and switching in ferromagnetic materials that are induced by ultrafast lasers. We start by describing the physical mechanisms of ultrafast demagnetization based on different experimental observations and theoretical methods. Both the spin-flip scattering theory and the superdiffusive spin transport model will be discussed in detail. Then, we will discuss laser-induced torques and resultant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials. Recent developments of all-optical switching (AOS) of ferromagnetic materials towards ultrafast magnetic storage and memory will also be reviewed, followed by the perspectives on the challenges and future directions in this emerging area.
Traditional transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) have been widely used for various optoelectronic applications, but have the trade-off between conductivity and transmittance. Recently, perovskite oxides, with structural and chemical stability, have exhibited excellent physical properties as new TCOs. We focus on SrVO 3 -based perovskites with a high carrier concentration and BaSnO 3 -based perovskites with a high mobility for n-type TCOs. In addition, p-type perovskites are discussed, which can serve as potential future options to couple with n-type perovskites to design full perovskite based devices.
A method to directly collect negatively charged nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, in the biosamples simply by applying an electric field in between the sample and collection buffer separated by the nanofilter membrane is proposed. The nanofilter membrane was made of low-stress silicon nitride with a thickness of 100 nm, and multiple pores were perforated in a highly arranged pattern using nanoimprint technology with a pore size of 200 nm and a pore density of 7.22 × 10 8 /cm 2 . The electrophoretic transport of hsa-mir-93-5p across the membrane was confirmed in pure microRNA (miRNA) mimic solution using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (qRTPCR). Consistency of the collected miRNA quantity, stability of the system during the experiment, and yield and purity of the prepared sample were discussed in detail to validate the effectiveness of the electrical protocol. Finally, in order to check the applicability of this method to clinical samples, liquid biopsy process was demonstrated by evaluating the miRNA levels in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients and healthy controls. This efficient system proposed a simple, physical idea in preparation of nucleic acid from biosamples, and demonstrated its compatibility to biological downstream applications such as qRT-PCR as the conventional nucleic acid extraction protocols.
Water is a significant natural resource for humans. As such, wastewater containing heavy metals is seen as a grave problem for the environment. Currently, adsorption is one of the common methods used for both water purification and wastewater treatment. Adsorption relies on the physical and chemical interactions between heavy metal ions and adsorbents. Adsorptive membranes (AMs) have demonstrated high effectiveness in heavy metal removal from wastewater owing to their exclusive structural properties. This article examines the applications of adsorptive membranes such as polymeric membranes (PMs), polymer-ceramic membranes (PCMs), electrospinning nanofiber membranes (ENMs), and nano-enhanced membranes (NEMs), which demonstrate high selectivity and adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions, as well as both advantages and disadvantages of each one all, are summarized and compared shortly. Moreover, the general theories for both adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics are described briefly to comprehend the adsorption process. This work will be valuable to readers in understanding the current applications of various AMs and their mechanisms in heavy metal ion adsorption, as well as the recycling methods in heavy ions desorption process are summarized and described clearly. Besides, the influences of morphological and chemical structures of AMs are presented and described in detail as well.
Owing to the unique structural characteristics as well as outstanding physio–chemical and electrical properties, gra‑ phene enables significant enhancement with the performance of electrospun nanofibers, leading to the generation of promising applications in electrospun-mediated sensor technologies. Electrospinning is a simple, cost-effective, and versatile technique relying on electrostatic repulsion between the surface charges to continuously synthesize various scalable assemblies from a wide array of raw materials with diameters down to few nanometers. Recently, electrospun nanocomposites have emerged as promising substrates with a great potential for constructing nanoscale biosensors due to their exceptional functional characteristics such as complex pore structures, high surface area, high catalytic and electron transfer, controllable surface conformation and modification, superior electric conductivity and unique mat structure. This review comprehends graphene-based nanomaterials (GNMs) (graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO and graphene quantum dots) impregnated electrospun polymer composites for the electro-device developments, which bridges the laboratory set-up to the industry. Different techniques in the base polymers (preprocessing methods) and surface modification methods (post-processing methods) to impregnate GNMs within elec‑ trospun polymer nanofibers are critically discussed. The performance and the usage as the electrochemical biosen‑ sors for the detection of wide range analytes are further elaborated. This overview catches a great interest and inspires various new opportunities across a wide range of disciplines and designs of miniaturized point-of-care devices.
One of the major obstacles to successful chemotherapy is multi-drug resistance (MDR). A multi-drug resistant cancerous cell abnormally overexpresses membrane transporters that pump anticancer drugs out of the cell, resulting in low anticancer drug delivery efficiency. To overcome the limitation, many attempts have been performed to inhibit the abilities of efflux receptors chemically or genetically or to increase the delivery efficiency of anticancer drugs. However, the results have not yet been satisfactory. In this study, we developed nanoparticle-microbubble complexes (DOX-NPs/Ce6-MBs) by conjugating doxorubicin loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (DOX-NPs) onto the surface of Chlorin e6 encapsulated microbubbles (Ce6-MBs) in order to maximize anticancer efficiency by overcoming MDR. Under the ultrasound irradiation, DOX-NPs and Ce6 encapsulating self-assembled liposomes or micelles were effectively delivered into the cells due to the sonoporation effect caused by the microbubble cavitation. At the same time, reactive oxygen (ROS) generated from intracellularly delivered Ce6 by laser irradiation arrested the activity of ABCG2 efflux receptor overexpressed in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR), resulting in increased the chemotherapy efficacy. In addition, the total number of side population cells that exhibit the properties of cancer stem-like cells were also reduced by the combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy. In conclusion, DOX-NPs/Ce6-MBs will provide a platform for simultaneously overcoming MDR and increasing drug delivery and therefore, treatment efficiency, under ultrasound irradiation.
Levada Kateryna,Pshenichnikov Stanislav,Omelyanchik Alexander,Rodionova Valeria,Nikitin Aleksey,Savchenko Alexander,Schetinin Igor,Zhukov Dmitry,Abakumov Maxim,Majouga Alexander,Lunova Mariia,Jirsa Mi 나노기술연구협의회 2020 Nano Convergence Vol.7 No.17
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are frequently used in various biomedical applications, in particular as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents in liver imaging. Indeed, number of IONs have been withdrawn due to their poor clinical performance. Yet comprehensive understanding of their interactions with hepatocytes remains relatively limited. Here we investigated how iron oxide nanocubes (IO-cubes) and clusters of nanocubes (IO-clusters) affect distinct human hepatic cell lines. The viability of HepG2, Huh7 and Alexander cells was concentration-dependently decreased after exposure to either IO-cubes or IO-clusters. We found similar cytotoxicity levels in three cell lines triggered by both nanoparticle formulations. Our data indicate that different expression levels of Bcl-2 predispose cell death signaling mediated by nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles induced rather apoptosis than autophagy in HepG2. Contrary, IO-cubes and IO-clusters trigger distinct cell death signaling events in Alexander and Huh7 cells. Our data clarifies the mechanism by which cubic nanoparticles induce autophagic flux and the mechanism of subsequent toxicity. These findings imply that the cytotoxicity of ION-based contrast agents should be carefully considered, particularly in patients with liver diseases.
Construction of a fast, easy and sensitive neurotransmitters-based sensor could provide a promising way for the diagnosis of neurological diseases, leading to the discovery of more effective treatment methods. The current work is directed to develop for the first time a flexible Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based neurotransmit‑ ters sensor by using the ultrasonic-assisted fabrication of a new set of epoxy resin (EPR) nanocomposites based on graphene nanosheets (GNS) using the casting technique. The perspicuous epoxy resin was reinforced by the variable loading of GNS giving the general formula GNS/EPR 1–5 . The designed products have been fabricated in situ while the perspicuous epoxy resin was formed. The expected nanocomposites have been fabricated using 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% GNS loading was applied for such fabrication process. The chemical, physical and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites were investigated by using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffrac‑ tion, Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential Thermal gravimetry, and field emission scanning electron microscopy methods. The GNS/EPR 1–5 nanocomposites were decorated with a layer of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs/GNS/EPR) to create surface-enhanced Raman scattering hot points. The wettability of the Au NPs/GNS/EPR was investigated in comparison with the different nanocomposites and the bare epoxy. Au NPs/GNS/EPR was used as a SERS-active surface for detecting different concentrations of dopamine with a limit of detection of 3.3 µM. Our sensor showed the capability to detect low concentrations of dopamine either in a buffer system or in human serum as a real sample.