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The Graduate School of Education is the course for giving the teachers the opportunities of studying, and it has been designed mainly for the teachers who have been teaching exactly at elementary, middle, and high schools as well as for those who have taken main parts in Korean educational field. It is also the institute of cultivating men of intelligence. The purpose of this study is for looking for better and promising ways of developing the curriculum of Korean educational field by analyzing the curriculums of Graduate Course of Education from 1999 to 2000. In order to meet the purpose of this study, the code and concerning materials of education were gathered, and the laws related to the Graduate School were searched for and studied. Besides, there were studies on the following materials: the prospectus, history(chronology), the capacity of each course, of Graduate School, based on the 5 universities located in Seoul. There was also the study on the current curriculum of the courses for majoring in music education by comparing the obligatory courses versus non-obligatory courses. And, as a result, through the method of analyzing the curriculums from 1997 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2000, the development image of the curriculum of the music education is presented. To sum up the result of the study follows like this; First, to focus on the number of universities which established the music courses, the number is 102 out of 160(63.75%), and the number of graduate school which has music education is 37 out of 102(36.27%). Looking from the regional criterion, in case of Kangwon province, there is 3 universities which established graduate school out of 4 universities(75%), which reveals the highest rate among the nationwide. And in Incheon and Kyunggi province, there is 1 out of 15 universities(6.67%), which shows the lowest rate in the whole country. Second, to analyze the music education course in the graduate school of education, based on Kyung Hee University, Seoul National University, Yonsei University, Ewha Women's University, Korea National University of Education, and Hanyang University, from 1997 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2000, the number of course which contains the term 'education' is 3 in case of Kyung Hee University, and grows to 8. And in case of Seoul National University, the number of course was the same as the previous year. In Yonsei University, 4 courses grew up to 6, and 6 grow up to 8 in Ewha Women's University, 6 in Korea National University of Education, 4 in Hanyang University, which was the same. Third, the number of courses of 6 universities from 1997 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2000, 15 subjects grew up to 20 in Kyung Hee University. And the unique difference of the university is that; there established three new courses such as : The Analysis of Elementary School Music Textbook, The Analysis of Middle School Textbook, and the analysis of high school music textbook, which make it possible to link with the actual course of elementary, middle, and high schools. Considering 6 subjects in Seoul National University, which was as same as the previous year, and the unique point is; unlike the other universities, their courses aren't too much on the practical teaching and theory of education like the general M.A and B.A course. In Yonsei University, 24 subjects grew up to 28 in education course, and Musical Acoustics, Directed Research, Kodaly Methods, Sight-Singing, are the unique subjects. However, in case of Ewha Women's University, the subjects decreases from 25 to 20, and practical teaching courses such as playing Piano Pedagogy, Voice Lesson, Composition Lesson, Orchestra Lesson are disappeared. In Korea National University of Education, the subjects grew up from 33 to 62, and the number of non-obligatory subjects is the greatest among 6 universities. And in Hanyang University, there are 16 subjects, which was the same as the previous year, and there are 2 unique subjects : Materials and Structure of Music, Aesthetical and Philosophical Experiences in Music. As a result, the whole curriculum of music major in graduate school of education, as the main institute of taking the important part in educational field, has to establish more special and systematic committee of making practical curriculum, which fit for current music education in Korea. Here the study focuses on the Korea National University of Education, and 5 universities in Seoul area, and the study has to be broaden to various universities all around the country including local universities and their curriculums of music major in graduate school of education.
본 연구는 국내 교육대학원에 개설되어 있는 환경교육전공의 역사, 목표, 교과과정 등에 대하여 비교?분석함으로써 교육대학원의 역할을 파악하고자 하였다. 연구목적을 달성하기 위하여 다음과 같이 고찰하였다. 첫째, 교육대학원에서의 환경교육전공에 관한 역사적 배경 둘째, 환경교육전공 교과과정에 관한 고찰 셋째, 국외사례연구(호주) 넷째, 문제점 및 개선방향 본 연구의 대상은 환경교육전공이 개설되어 있는 국내의 5개 교육대학원과 호주의 그리피스대학교를 선정하였다. 본 연구를 통하여 다음과 같은 개선방안을 도출하였다. 첫째, 전문성을 지닌 환경교육전공을 갖추기 위해서는, 환경교사로서 지녀야 할 사명감과 도덕심을 기를 수 있도록 교육하는 것이다. 둘째, 예능 및 취미활동 등 인간성 함양과 관련된 교양 교과과정이 반영되어야 한다. 셋째, 기초학문에 대하여 깊고 풍부한 지식을 체계적으로 학습시킬 수 있도록 구성하여 일반대학교의 학부 교과과정과 차별화 하려는 노력이 필요하다. 넷째, 전문적인 교과교육학을 개발하는 일이다. 이것은 환경교육전공의 교과과정을 전문화하려는 노력이다. 다섯째, 국가의 환경정책에 부응하여 교과목을 구성하며, 중?고등학교 교과과정에 밀접한 관계를 설정할 필요가 있다. 여섯째, 교육대학원에 재정과 시설을 충분히 지원하여 보다 발전적인 교육대학원으로서의 역할을 수행할 수 있도록 뒷받침 해주어야 한다. 일곱째, 교육대학원은 상업적이고 경영적인 측면에서 벗어나야 한다. 현행 교육대학원의 환경전공에 관한 심층 연구분석 결과 다음과 같은 문제점을 발견하였다. 첫째, 교과과정의 기준이 모호하다. 둘째, 교과과목의 내용이 전문성을 강조하기보다는 복잡하며 산만하게 열거 되어있다. 셋째, 교육대학원으로서의 특징이 없으며 학부 교과과정과의 차별화가 부족하다. 또한, 호주의 그리피스대학교 대학원 내 환경교육전공 교과과정을 분석해 본 결과, 교과과정이 상당히 체계적이며 개방적으로 이루어져 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 요컨대, 환경교육전공에 관한 교육대학원의 역할을 올바르게 정립하기 위해서는 바람직한 교과과정 편성이 이루어져야 할 것이다. 환경과목의 특성에 맞게 전공과목에 대한 전문적인 지식습득, 사명감, 도덕감을 가질 수 있도록 교과과정이 구성되어야 할 것이다. 이것이 바로 환경교육전공만이 가지는 교육대학원의 역할일 것이다. 끝으로, 환경과목을 가르치는 교사는 환경과목을 가르치는 학교가 없어서 자신들이 가지고 있는 능력을 발휘 할 기회조차 얻지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 지구와 인류의 미래를 생각해볼 때, 환경과목이 더 이상 선택과목이 아닌 전공필수과목으로 지정되어 우리나라 환경교육이 세계 여러 나라보다 발전된 교육적 길잡이가 되었으면 하는 바램이다. The purpose of this study is to understand a role of Graduate School of Education for environment education major through comparison and analysis of historical and curriculums of the environment education major provided is in background a few domestic Graduate Schools of Education. The research approached as follows; first, investigation of the historical background about the environment education major of Graduate School of Education, second, the peer review of the curriculum of environment education major, third, survey of overseas cases (Australia), lastly, the problems and suggestion of the proposed restruture. The presentation of research has been carried out for five domestic Graduate Schools of Education and Girifith university of Australia. As a result of the research, following conclusious more obtained; first, educational spirit and morality for a teacher must be considered in estalish want of the curriculum. second, general culture courses and major subjects must be appropriately combined. third, more systematic curriculum must be established based or distirctive subjects differing from general bachelor courses. fourth, development of particular subjects is essential to up-grade the environment education. fifth, the curriculum had better be subject to the national policy. sixth, financial support and national concern must be followed. finally, Graduate School of Education must escape early from the commerce and management.
1. Purpose of Study. While maintaining its continuity and harmony as a whole, the modern socity is rapidly changing into a highly specialized and a more sophisticated place. To cope with such changes in our environment, most professional oriented fields, both technical and administrative, began to feel a desperate need for the highly educated and qualified people, and this in consequence fueled the need for the professional education. However, increasing tendency towards mass-oriented curriculums adopted by most undergraduate schools today led such professional education programs to be taken up at the higher level in graduate schools. In Korea, massive economic growth since 1960 called for the people of variety of professionalism with proper educational background and this naturally encouraged the establishment of various Professional Graduate Schools. This was also an attempt at the government level to upgrade the roles of universities more suitable to the environment of rapidly developing industrial society of ours. Since the establishment of the first professional graduate schooled in Korea in 1959 there has been a fast growth in this area of professional education and today the total number of professional graduate schools in Korea reached 126. Such rapid growth in this area is considered one of the phenomena of the modern societies. To date, however, a large portion of special and unique attributions possessed by these professional graduate schools and their position in the educational circles have been hidden under the shade of traditional non-professional graduate schools, and hence their unique roles and functions have not been best utilized. In this respect, the roles and functions of the professional graduate schools should be more clearly identified and defined. Also, to cultivate professional people and to enhance their capability in various fields, Further Education programs should be encouraged. Furthermore, it is absolutely essential to upgrade the level of professional graduate schools to live up to the concept of Lifelong Education and to cope with the environment of mass information and knowledge. 2. Contents of Study. This study is based on both literature and field researches, and the contents are as follows; First, historical background and present status of graduate schools of education in Korea. Second, roles and functions of graduate schools of education in Korea. Third, professional graduate schools for the lifelong education. Fourth, Status of Graduate Schools of Education in Korea. Finally, based on the researches above, this study tried to address the should be roles of Graduate Schools of Education and their expectations from the viewpoint of lifelong education. 3. Methods of Study. In order to fulfil the purpose of this study, the following methods were utilized; 3.1. Literature Study Historical background, present status, and the roles and functions of the graduate schools of education in Korea were carefully looked in as part and then tried to relate its theoretical background to the concept of Lifelong Education. 3.2. Field Study This study tried to address, from the viewpoint of Lifelong Education, the roles and future directions for the graduate schools of education in Korea by providing acceptable reasons for such educational institutions to exist. To conduct a comparison study, data was collected from the students of graduate schools of education by sex, age, occupation, title, and undergraduate majors. Nine graduate schools of education were selected for this purpose, among which seven were located in Seoul area including two female schools, and one each from KyungIn and ChunBook areas. 4. Study Results. The results of the study indicated that professional graduate schools in Korea, through their roles and functions, are concentrating their effort in cultivating highly qualified people. It also appeared that the education is attained in a continuous manner through the life regardless of sex, age, occupation and title. It was furthermore learned that most students in graduate schools of education participate in education with wills to improve their ability and talents to become a better educational administrator. In overall, the following conclusions were drawn from this study; Literature Study: First, the purpose and functions of the graduate schools of education should be spot-lighted for a new recognition and understanding in this area. Also, directions set by administrators, professors and students associated with professional graduate schools should be more clearly identified and defined. Second, efforts must be made to cultivate and distribute highly qualified professional people to cope with the rapidly developing modern society we are experiencing today. Third, as service-institutions to the society, professional graduate schools should become responsible for the Re-education of the professional people out in the field and for providing easily accessible opportunities for these people to coninue with their education. Fourth, for the normalization and more active roles by the professional graduate schools, new policies should be established to accomodate education programs that are more systematic and synthetic. Field Studies: First, when male/female student composition ratios of the graduate schools of education were compared to that of other professional graduate schools, the number of female students in graduate schools of education was 20.09% higher than that of professional graduate schools. In terms of teachers ratio, however, female teachers enthusiasm for learning seemed low. Therefore, a careful attention should be paid to the teaching profession that has a tendency of moving towards a womandominated profession. Second, 50% of the students in graduate schools of education falls under the age group of 21 to 30 while 50% of the students majoring in educational administration falls under 41 to 50 age group. Therefore, more suitable curriculums should be adopted. Third, in terms of occupation title distribution, the number of students preparing to become future educational administrators was smaller than expected. Taking this point into consideration, quality enhancement of “Inservice Education” should be sought. Fourth, undergraduate majors of the students majoring in educational administration at graduate schools of education were very diverse (56 kinds) and thus the choice of electives and compulsory subjects should be carefully built into the curriculums. Fifth, contribution made by graduate schools of education to the Inservice Education appears to be relatively high. It seemed imminent, however, to improve the contents and the methods of education for better quality in education. This is imminent because such quality improvement can be achieved only after the establishment of cooperative relationship among the related trainig institutions in the educational circles.
In Korea, the government has introduced and operated the Nutrition Teachers System in order to correct the nutritional imbalance due to the recently growing number of students who skip breakfast and have an unbalanced diet and to provide systematic nutrition education to help them with health care and proper eating habits. One can obtain a nutrition teacher certificate by taking the teacher training courses as food and nutrition majors since 2004 or advancing to a graduate school of education as four-year college graduates with a bachelor degree and a dietician certificate but with no credits from the teacher training courses. The graduate schools of education across the nation have opened and run the nutrition education major since 2005. This study set out to investigate what kind of curriculums were organized and run by graduate schools of education to produce future nutrition teachers, to diagnose the current state and problems of their nutrition education curriculums, and to suggest some plans to supplement them. After intensively analyzing the syllabuses of 20 of the graduate schools of education with the nutrition education major, the curriculums were examined which had been actually organized and operated since the establishment of the nutrition education major. Data were gathered by consulting the homepages of the graduate schools of education, the administration staff, and the personnel from the major office. The curriculums were divided into common and uncommon subjects and then compared with each other. The research findings were as follows: First, the reality was that the nutrition education majors of the graduate schools of education failed to develop and operate differentiated education or specialized programs from the undergraduate curriculums of the food and nutrition major and ran the similar curriculums to the undergraduate ones. Not only should the existing curriculums be organized and operated efficiently, but more efforts should be made to develop new ones so that the graduate schools of education can organize the in-depth courses for what's covered in college or the curriculums that were not covered in college and accordingly be the source of quality future teachers and continuing education instead of that of repetitive undergraduate study. Second, the problem with the organization of the curriculums was a heavy focus on the subjects included in the teacher appointment exam in their operation. The students placed more priority on acquiring the qualification at the graduate school than on equipping themselves with the required capabilities, which resulted in the dominance of the exam subjects in the curriculums. The graduate schools of education need to organize and run practice-based curriculums so that the students can practice what they learn on the field. And third, a review of the subjects reveals that the kinds of subjects from subject matter education are in absolute shortage. Covering the aspects of educational methods to supplement the contents in providing nutrition education as a teacher, the field of subject matter education is as much important as the contents of subjects. The curriculums should be organized and operated in the way of considerably supplementing the aspects of subject matter education so that the students can be prepared to provide the nutrition education that fits the situation of Korea after graduation. Finally, the limited number of subjects in the organization of the curriculums also presents a problem. The major subjects are operated in the combined courses among the students each semester. There are few cases in which courses are reserved only for the students of a semester. Although the selective subjects of the major are diverse, the number of those subjects that are actually provided is limited, which means the students should take all the subjects, which are established one-sidedly, in order to obtain the credits needed to graduate. Even though there are many different subjects established for a semester, the school regulations restrict the credits that a student can fulfill for a semester. After all, the graduate schools of education are run on the system for the students to take the credits to obtain a teacher certificate. In future, they should run a rational student-oriented curriculum. 영양교사 제도는 최근 증가하고 있는 아침결식, 편식 등으로 인한 영양 불균형을 시정하고, 학생의 건강관리와 올바른 식습관 형성을 위한 체계적인 영양교육 실시를 위하여 시행하고 있다. 영양교사 자격을 취득하기 위해서는 2004년 식품영양학과 입학생부터 교직 이수를 한 학생들과 교직 비이수자들은 영양사 자격증을 소지한 4년제 학사학위 소지자가 교육대학원에 진학하는 방법이 있다. 이에 따라 전국에 교육대학원에서는 2005년부터 영양교육 전공을 신설하여 운영하고 있다. 본 연구는 교육대학원을 중심으로 영양교사로서의 자질을 갖추기 위해 각 교육대학원들은 어떠한 교과과정을 편성?운영하는지 조사하여, 교육대학원 영양교육전공의 교과과정의 현황과 문제점을 진단해보고, 보안점을 제시하고자 하였다. 영양교육전공을 설치한 대학 중 20개 학교를 대상으로 교육대학원 요람을 우선 중점 분석한 후, 영양교육전공이 처음 생겼을 때부터 연구가 진행되는 현재까지 실제로 편성, 운영한 교과과정에 대해 조사하였다. 조사는 각 교육대학원 홈페이지와 각 교육대학원 행정실 실무담당자 또는 전공사무실에 문의를 통하여 이루어졌다. 교과과정은 공통교과와 비공통교과로 분류하여 비교하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 교육대학원 영양교육전공 교과과정이 식품영양학과 학부의 전공 교과과정과 차별화된 교육이나 특성화된 프로그램을 개발, 운영하지 못하고 학부와 비슷한 교육과정을 운영하고 있는 것이 현실이다. 학부에서 배운 내용의 심화 과정 또는 학부에서 다루지 않았던 교과과정의 편성으로 학부과정의 반복이 아닌 교원 양성 및 계속교육의 장으로서의 교육대학원이 되기 위해 기존의 교과과정의 효율적인 편성, 운영 뿐만 아니라 새로운 교육과정의 개발에도 힘써야 한다. 둘째, 교과과정 편성의 문제점은 교원임용 시험과목을 위주로 운영하고 있다는 것이다. 영양교사가 되기 위한 실력을 갖추기 보다는 교육대학원을 통한 자격을 갖추는 것을 우선으로 생각하여 교원임용 시험과목이 교과과정의 대부분을 차지하고 있는 실정이다. 영양교사로서 현장에 투입되었을 때 실무를 수행할 수 있도록 실무 위주의 특정 교과과정이 편성, 운영되어야 한다. 셋째, 교과목 내역을 보았을 때 교과교육학 분야의 교과목 종류가 절대적으로 부족하다. 교과내용적인 측면도 중요하지만, 교사로서 영양교육을 하는데 있어서 내용적인 측면을 보완하기 위한 교육 방법적인 측면의 교과목인 교과교육학 분야도 중요하다. 교과교육학적 측면을 많이 보완해서 우리 나라 실정에 맞는 영양교육을 할 수 있는 준비된 영양교사가 될 수 있도록 교과과정을 편성, 운영해야 한다. 마지막으로 교과과정 편성에 있어서 한정된 교과목수를 문제점으로 제시하겠다. 전공과목의 운영은 학기별 학생만을 대상으로 배당하는 경우가 거의 없고 대체로 각 학기 학생들을 합반해서 운영하는 실정이다. 전공선택과목은 다양하지만 학기마다 실제로 개설되는 과목은 한정되어 있어서 선택의 여지없이 졸업이수학점을 채우기 위해 일방적으로 개설되는 과목을 모두 들어야한다. 또는 한 학기에 여러 과목이 개설되어 있어도 한 학 기당 취득학점을 제한하는 학칙상의 조건으로 인해 결국은 교사 자격증 취득을 위한 학점 채우기 식의 운영이 이루어지고 있다. 학습자 중심의 합리적인 교과과정 운영이 바람직하다고 하겠다.
본 연구의 목적은 학교에서의 한정된 교실 수업으로부터 벗어나 새로운 교육목표를 갖고, 암기위주의 교실수업과 달리 여러 동ㆍ식물 표본 등의 전시물과 과학교과 내용과 관련된 교육 프로그램을 이용하여 직접 체험할 수 있는 새로운 교육방법으로 자연사박물관을 활용함에 있어서 자연사박물관 교육 프로그램과 초등과학교과 내용이 어느 정도 연관성을 보이는지에 대해서 분석해 보았다. 국내 주요 자연사박물관인 경희대학교 자연사박물관 교육 프로그램과 초등과학교과 내용 중 생물영역을 연구대상으로 선정하였다. 본 연구의 분석 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 경희대학교 자연사박물관의 교육 프로그램은 어린이 박물관 교실, 환경교실과 생태탐방, 교내ㆍ학교 수업연계, 전시해설 등이 실시되고 있는데, 그 중 초등학교 교육과정과 관련 있는 교육 프로그램은 어린이 박물관 교실, 환경교실과 생태탐방이 있다. 조사 기간 동안 다양한 교육 프로그램 주제들 중 동물의 특징ㆍ생김새 등을 알아보는 동물단원이 가장 높은 비율을 보였고, 환경과 생물, 쾌적한 환경 등을 알아보는 환경 단원은 낮은 비율을 반영하고 있다. 이는 자연사박물관의 교육 프로그램 특성상 기존의 연구를 토대로 관찰이 용이하고, 전시물의 활용 등이 쉬운 동물 단원에 비해 입체적 공간에서 장시간에 걸쳐 관찰해야 하는 번거로움이 있는 환경에 관한 비중이 작은 것을 보여준다. 둘째, 초등학교 과학 교육과정 중 생물 교육과정 내용에 대한 분석은 단원을 식물, 동물, 환경, 기타 분야로 분류하였다. 학년에 맞게 학습주제, 학습목표, 학습자료로 나누어 세부 분석을 하였으며, 초등학교 3학년에서 6학년까지 식물단원은 6개, 동물단원은 3개, 환경단원은 2개, 기타단원은 4개 단원으로 식물과 관련된 단원이 가장 많은 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 자연사박물관 교육 프로그램과 초등과학교과 내용의 연관성 분석에 대한 결과로는 총15개의 생물영역 단원 중 13개의 단원이 교육 프로그램과 연관이 되어 있어 상호간의 높은 연관성을 보였다. 학년별로는 3학년 과학교과가 가장 많은 연관성을 보였으며, 분야별로는 식물과 동물이 환경분야에 비해 많은 연관성을 보였다. 세부범주로는 각 기관의 구조와 기능이 다양성과 생활사에 비해 월등하게 많은 연관성을 보였다. 초등과학교과 내용이 자연사박물관 교육 프로그램과 높은 연관성을 보임으로써 자연사박물관의 교육적인 의미를 최대한 활용하여 생물교과의 중요성이 더욱 강조되는 가운데 생물교육에 대한 많은 정보와 체험학습을 학생들에게 전달ㆍ교육하는데 기여한다는 본고의 취지를 구체화 하였다. 저학년뿐만 아니라 고학년 학생들까지 고려한 수준별 교육프로그램 개발과 최근 더욱 강조되고 있는 환경분야까지 포함하는 다양한 교육 프로그램 보완이 되면 자연사박물관은 학교에서는 찾기 어려운 수업 자료의 부족을 해결할 수 있는 하나의 대안으로 자리매김할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study is to step out from the limited classroom lesson of school, to have a new academic goal, and unlike classroom lesson that is memorization oriented, when utilizing Natural History Museum with an experience oriented lesson using education program related to exhibits like various animals and plants specimens and science textbook contents, the degree of association between the education program offered by Natural History Museum and the elementary school science textbook contents is analyzed. The education program of Natural History Museum of Kyung Hee University, a major Natural History Museum in Korea and the biology part from the elementary school textbook contents were selected as the research object. The summary of the analyzed result of this research is as follows. First, the children's museum class, environmental class, ecology trip, linkup lessons with the school, and exhibition explanation are offered as the education programs of the Natural History Museum of Kyung Hee University, and the education programs related to the elementary school curriculum are the children's museum class, environmental class, and ecology trip. During the investigation process, the chapter of studying animals' characteristics and features showed the highest rate among diverse education programs, and the environmental chapter of studying the environment and organisms, pleasant environments reflected a low rate. It is the nature of the education programs of Natural History Museum that making an observation on the basis of previous researches and utilization of exhibition are easy for the animal chapter, when the interest on the environment which requires a long observation in a three-dimensional space is smaller due to the inconvenience. Second, in the elementary science curriculum, chapters on biology are categorized into plants, animals, environments, and the rest. The chapters are divided into a study topic, a study objective, and study data according to each grade and are analyzed in details. There are 6 chapters of plants, 3 chapters for animals, 2 chapters for environments, and 4 chapters for others from grade 3 to grade 6, and thus there are the most chapters related to plants. Third, as a result of the association analysis between elementary school science textbook contents and the education program of Natural History Museum, 13 chapters out of 15 chapters in relation to biology are associated with the education program showing a high mutual association. By grades, the third grade textbook shows the greatest association, and by fields, the plants and animals show a relatively greater association than the environment. As for detailed categories, structures and functions of each organization show a more superior association than the diversity and life history. With the elementary science textbook shows a high association with the education program of Natural History Museum, utilizing the educational meaning of the museum to the fullest and the purpose of this study of delivering and educating more information and experience oriented study about biology education is actualized while the importance of biology textbook is more emphasized. When the education programs considering the levels of higher grades are developed additionally and a more diverse education program including the environmental field is supplemented, then Natural History Museum will serve as an alternative for solving the shortage of lecture materials hard to find in school.
현대 사회는 과학적 기술이나 교육에 대한 인식, 수준의 차이가 국가 경쟁력을 끌어올리는데 직접적인 영향을 미치며 국력과 직결 된다고 할 수 있다. 이러한 배경으로 교육과학기술부(2011)는 새로운 과학교육 정책으로 창의적 융합 인재 양성을 목적으로 과학(Science), 기술(Technology), 공학(Engineering), 예술(Art) 그리고 수학(Math)의 첫 글자를 딴 융합인재교육 (STEAM) 활성화 방안을 발표하였다. 이는 어렵고 딱딱한 방식의 학습이라 생각되는 과학, 수학 등 과 같은 비예술교과에 예술(Art)을 추가하여 쉽고 재미있게 학습 할 수 있는 것에 정책의 목표를 두고 있다. 이와 같은 정책의 흐름에서 볼 때, 교육에서 예술(Art)의 중요성은 다양한 과목과 분야에서 강조되고 있다. 최근 예술은 여러 교과와 활동에서 다양하게 융합 되고 있으며 그 범위가 넓어지며 기존의 전통적 교육 환경인 학교를 벗어나 다양한 교육기관에서 진행 되어지는 추세이다. 그 중 박물관은 다른 교육기관과 차별화 되는 특징인 실물을 접할 수 있다는 점과 오감을 이용한‘Hand-On' 기법을 교육에 활용하여 학습자가 직접 보고 체험하고 제작해보는 활동을 통하여 교실 수업이 가지는 한계점을 보안한다. 또한 각 기관의 소장품과 전시내용을 중심으로 자신이 속한 공동체의 문화적 가치를 이해 할 수 있고, 문화예술적 소양을 기를 수 있다는 점에서 박물관은 예술이 포함된 융합교육의 교육적 효과가 발현되는 최적의 장소라 할 수 있다. 본 연구는 정부의 STEAM 교육 정책 목표인 과학, 기술 등 어려운 학습 방식의 과목에 예술(Art)을 추가하여 쉽고 재미있는 학습을 통해 학습의 이해력, 해결력을 증진시키는 교육적 목표에서 더 나아가 예술의 추가를 통하여 예술 활동이 STEAM 교육에서 학습효과 증진 위한 보조적인 역할이 아닌 교육적 효과에서도 예술적 학습 효과로 즉, 미적경험(Art)으로 발현 될 수 있음을 확인하고자, 경희대학교 자연사박물관에서 진행되는 초등과학 교과 중심의 교육프로그램에 미술활동(Art)이 융합된 STEAM 교육사례를 개발, 적용 하였다. 연구는 2012년 1월 10일부터 2월 3일 까지 유치부, 초등 1-3학년을 대상으로 하여 총 160명의 학생이 참여하고 총 14회 진행되었다. 적용 후, 학습자에게 나타나는 미적경험 함양에 대한 측면을 분석하기 위하여 미적경험의 교육적 효과성 평가를 위한 루브릭(설연경, 2012)을 분석의 도구로 활용하였다. 그 결과, 학습자는 생물의 다양성에 대한 이해도, 문제 해결력 증진 뿐 만 아니라, Dewey(1980)의‘미적경험’세가지 측면(지적․정서적․실천적)에 대한 미적경험 함양이 교육적 효과로 발현 될 수 있음이 확인 되었다. 본 연구를 기반으로 하여 박물관을 포함한 여러 교육기관에서 다양한 연령과 계층을 대상으로 한, 각 관의 특색에 맞는 융합교육 사례가 개발되어야 할 것이다. 또한 이용자들이 박물관이라는 교육기관을 통하여 다양한 프로그램을 영위 할 수 있도록 전시, 교육, 오락, 여가 등의 체험의 장을 제공 하여 궁극적으로 삶의 질을 향상시키는 사회적 역할에 충실 할 것을 기대해 본다. In modern society, science technology or perception on education and its standards may aid in boosting national competitiveness, and have direct connections with national power. Basing on this idea, the Korean Ministry of Education and Science Technology in 2011 announced a plan that would focus in educating and training amalgamated individuals by vitalizing STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math). The idea is to apply ‘A (art)’ to the often regarded difficult, non-flexible subjects such as science or math, thus enabling the learners to be more attracted to them. Such policy changes indicate that art in education has become crucial, and is not limited to the sciences. Recently, art is being integrated into many different curriculum and activities, expanding its range from traditional classrooms and to various educational institutions. Museums, in particular, differentiate itself from the fact that the learners are able to actually experience, as well as use their five sense through ‘hands-on’ experience, and therefore supplement the limitations that classroom teachings may have. Moreover, learning in museum would allow every learner to understand the cultural values of one’s community, and thus cultivate one’s own cultural and artistic knowledge through hands-on experiences with the exhibited materials; therefore placing itself at the top as the venue where integrated education with art can manifest at its best. This study is intended to confirm the effects of addition of art in STEAM system, namely, the manifestation of artistic experience, in that art doesn’t just serve as a supplement to enhance understanding or problem solving skills, the quintessential intention of the government’s STEAM policy. Case study for this paper was developed and carried out at the Museum of Natural History at Kyung Hee University, by incorporating STEAM into their elementary school education program. The trial was carried out for less than a month, from January 10th, 2012, to February 3rd, with 160 children of the kindergarten department, and first to third elementary schoolers as its subject. The trial was carried out 14 times over the course of the three-week period. After inception, Rubric (Seol, 2012) was used to analyze the obtained data, to assess the effects of the artistic experience integration to education. As a result, not only the subjects’ abilities in understanding the varieties of organisms, as well as problem solving improved, but also it was possible to confirm the three aspects (intellectual, emotional, and practical) of what Dewey (1980) noted in his Art as Experience manifested. Basing on this study, I expect more examples of integrated education that is appropriate to respective organizations and ages be developed. Additionally, it is expected for museums to continue to be a place of experience by providing appropriate exhibitions, education, entertainment, and leisure, ultimately enhancing the standards of life, its quintessential duty.
본고는 한국어 교재에서 나타난 단위명사의 빈도수와 제시 양상을 살펴보고 교육 현황을 분석하였다. 외국어로서의 한국어 교육에서 단위명사의 제시는 대개 초급 과정에서 이루어지고 있다는 것은 짐작할 수 있지만, 어떠한 단위명사가 제시되는지, 또는 어떤 환경에서 제시되는 지 알아보기 위해 여섯 대학의 한국어 교재 총 45권을 분석하였다. 먼저 단위명사에 대한 선행연구를 살펴보면 크게 단위명사에 대한 연구와 단위명사 교육에 대한 연구로 나뉘는데, 단위명사에 대한 연구는 다시 개념에 관한 논의, 분류체계에 관한 연구, 결합형태를 연구한 논문들, 두 언어 이상의 단위명사를 비교⋅대조한 분석 등으로 나눌 수 있다. 단위명사에 대한 연구는 학자들마다 주관이 달랐기에 그 명칭이 셈단위, 셈가름말, 단위어, 분류사, 단위성 의존명사 등 통일성 있게 정립되지 않았고 분류체계 또한 형태와 의미차이, 독립성의 유무, 고유어와 한자어 구분 등 다양했다. 대체로 단위명사를 대상 명사의 수량을 셀 수 있게 해주는 것, 단위의 대상이 되는 명사의 의미적 특성을 밝혀주는 것으로 정의하고 있다. 또한 단위명사의 기능을 수량을 표시해주고, 수사나 수관형사의 수식을 받고, 의존적 성향을 지니며, 대상 명사의 의미자질을 세분화해주는 것으로 정의했다. 한국어 교재의 단위명사 분석을 위해 대상이 된 교재는 건국대학교, 경희대학교, 서울대학교, 성균관대학교, 연세대학교, 이화여자대학교 이상 여섯 대학의 한국어 교재들인데, 이들 교재 뒷부분의 색인에 나와 있는 어휘와 새로 나온 단어를 학습하는 부분에 나와 있는 어휘를 대상으로 하였다. 분석 결과 건국대학교에서는 52개의 단위명사를 제시했고, 경희대학교에서는 45개, 서울대학교에서는 66개, 성균관대학교에서는 13개, 연세대학교에서는 40개, 이화여자대학교에서는 40개의 단위명사를 제시했다. 제시된 단위명사가 교재별로 다양했고, 하나의 단위명사가 대학마다 다른 학습단계에서 제시되는 경우도 있었다. 여섯 대학의 교재에서 총 114개의 단위명사가 제시되었는데, 이 중 53개의 단위명사가 한 번만 제시되었고, 여섯 대학의 교재에서 모두 제시된 단위명사는 3개였다. 국립국어원에서 제시한 한국어 학습용 어휘 중 단위명사 목록은 초급에서 40개, 중급에서 37개, 고급에서 48개로 총 125개인데, 이는 단계 간에 중복되지 않은 개수이다. 여섯 대학의 한국어 교재에 나타난 단위명사 목록을 단계별로 분류하면 초급 69개, 중급 47개, 고급 17개인데, 각 교재의 학습단계에서 나타난 어휘를 제시한 것이기 때문에 중복되는 어휘도 포함되어 있다. 국립국어원의 어휘 목록과 한국어 교재의 목록을 비교하면 일치하는 목록보다 일치하지 않은 목록이 더 많았는데, 두 목록에 모두 제시된 단위명사는 초급단계에서 가장 많았으며, 고급단계로 갈수록 불일치 목록이 많았다. 교재에서 제시된 단위명사 교육은 연습활동이 단순하거나 비슷한 예시문을 보였다. 단위명사 교육도 한 어휘만을 단독으로 교육하기 보다는 수사나 동사 등 다른 품사와의 연결을 통해 다양하게 활용할 수 있는 학습법이 필요하므로, 암기나 쓰기활동 등 단순한 활동을 넘어서 보다 능동적이고 체계적인 교수법이 필요하다. 마지막으로 본 연구에서는 결합형태, 의미기능, 과제활동을 중심으로 하는 학습법을 제안했다. 결합형태에 따른 교육 방법으로는 덩어리 형태의 교육, 어원을 활용한 교육, 관용적 표현의 교육, 띄어쓰기 교육을 제시했다. 그리고 의미기능에 다른 교육 방법으로 의미자질에 따른 교육, 의미장에 따른 교육을 제시했다. 마지막으로 과제활동에 따른 교육 방법으로 결합형태 바꾸기, 읽기 텍스트 활용, 역할극 놀이, 카드 사용을 제안했다. This Study aims at surveying the frequency and the pattern of measurement nouns which appeared in the Korean textbooks and analyzed the educational status in korea. Everybody knows that the Teaching Korean as a foreign language belong to the elementary course. But they makes a rough guess how do we learn Korean. So, I did look into 45 books of Korean textbooks which six domestic university use for teaching foreigner. And I examined instructions on appropriate measurement nouns in accordance with situation. The Study of measurement nouns was different to each scholars, So name was not established in unity, classification system was also diverse. Generally scholars defined measurement nouns to be able to count the number of nouns, and to reveal the semantic properties of the noun. Scholars have defined the function of the noun to shows the quantity, have qualify numeral, subdivide the meaning of the target. Analysis textbooks are 6 books, Konkuk University, Kyung Hee University, Seoul National University, Sungkyunkwan University, Yonsei University, Ewha Women's University. Targeting vocabulary is index and new vocabulary that is the part of learning vocabulary. As a result of the analysis, the Konkuk University presented the 52 measurement nouns, Kyung Hee University presented the 45 measurement nouns, Seoul National University presented the 66 measurement nouns, Sungkyunkwan University presented the 13 measurement nouns, Yonsei University presented the 40 measurement nouns, Ewha Women's University presented the 40 measurement nouns. Presentation about measurement nouns was different materials for each textbooks. Also One measurement noun was presented different course of each textbooks. Six university textbooks were presented 114 measurement nouns. 53 measurement nouns were presented only once, measurement nouns of presented in Materials six university textbooks were 3. List of measurement nouns that presented in National Institute of the Korean Language is total 125, 40 for elementary course, 37 in the middle course, 48 in the high grade course. And list of measurement nouns that presented six university textbooks is 69 for elementary course, 47 in the middle course, 17 in the high grade course. Comparing the list of National Institute of the Korean Language and six textbooks, not match from the list many more than match from the list. The measurement nouns presented in both lists are the most words in the elementary course, become advanced stage is increased not match from the list. measurement nouns education that presented in the textbooks are showed simplify activities. measurement nouns education are necessary that learning method utilized in various ways through the connection with the other parts of speech. And Beyond the simple activities such as writing activities and memorization, it is necessary that active and systematic learning method. Finally, in this study proposed a learning method with combined form, semantic function, task activity. The teaching methods by combining form, presented education form of a lump, application of the etymology, education of idiomatic expressions, education of Segmentation. And the teaching methods by semantic function, presented education according to meaning features, education of semantic field. Finally the teaching methods by task activity, presented change of bound form, the use of reading text, role play games, card games.
As the world is turning to new millenium, the whole society in all aspects of politics, society, economy and culture is standing in a great turning point. And blessing of civilization advancing at the beginning new millenium demands transformation. Education is not exception in this trend, therefore, musical education which is a part of education, should realize this trend and take its place in the midst of various change. At this point, we need to research and examine Graduate School of Education in which talented people who would take crucial role in education in due time are trained. Graduate School of Education is an educational institution taking an important role in leading the education of a country has a strong influence on the development of a nation. In this thesis, I would study and and analyze 1997-1998 curriculum of musics education in Graduate School of Educations suggest a better model of developed curriculum. In the part of introduction, I suggested the necessity, goal, method, contents, scope and limitation of study. In main part, focusing on 5 universities located in Seoul, I examined the history and current status of Korean Graduate School of Educations, and objective, purpose, goal of Graduate School of Educations. And I pointed out problems after I compared and analyzed curriculums of musics education major divided into necessary course, non-necessary course, and composite analysis. Finally, I suggested a right direction for musics education curriculum to take. For a conclusion, summery of study and my opinion about the necessity or followed study are described. The professional graduate school first established in Korea is Graduate School of Public Administration and Graduate School of Healthcare, of Seoul National University. After these are established, establishment of professional graduate school has been increased. Regulation of graduate school of education act says that the purpose of graduate school is to pursue the purpose of college education minutely and foster teaching ability and uniqueness. Considering it, we define the function of graduate school as follows; First, graduate school should has a system to have catalyzer effects functioning to integrate the society and culture of Korea. Secondly, as a center to develop policy, strategy, and technology for the development of society and economy, take a leading role in organizing knowledge-based industry. Thirdly, in the intrinsic aspect of education, take a central part in improving education and research of a higher education. Graduate School of Education is, considering situation in Korea, designed to provide opportunities for teachers to academic study. The school terms consists of 5 semesters of at least 2 years and 6 months. Required credits are 20 - 30. Out of required credits, 6-8 credits must be the subject of education. Other credits are acquired from required and optional subject for the major. There are total 71 universities have Graduate School of Education and 34 universities, 47.8%, have department of musics education among them. The result of 1997-1998 curriculum analysis of Graduate School of Educations focusing on Kyung Hee University, Seoul National University, Yon Sei University, Ew Ha Women's University, Han Yang University though Graduate School of Education is training for teachers, 4 Graduate School of Educations, except for Seoul National University, mainly aimed to teach practical skills and theory like other graduate schools or undergraduate schools. Therefore, more practical curriculum which confirms to the objectives of Graduate School of Education is needed. As for Korean traditional music, not only experts, but also people of other field are more concerned about traditional culture. The argument for the emphasis of teaching traditional music is increasing. High school education is not exception in this argument. Though traditional music is important enough for 'Commentary on middle school music and curriculum according to the 7th curriculum revision.' to have a section titled emphasis on traditional music, in Graduate School of Education which trains secondary school teacher applicants, Korean traditional music class is open just for a time in every Graduate School of Educations. Therefore, more traditional music class should be open. When we examine entire curriculum, Graduate School of Education's curriculum of music education major is different from that of elementary and secondary school, though Graduate School of Education's curriculum should be related to secondary school curriculum, because future teachers are trained in Graduate School of Education. Therefore, we have to make a more professional and systematic committed for curriculum study and formulate a more practical curriculum. Because the research is conducted focused on 5 universities in Seoul in this dissertation, we need to generalize this study after we analyze curriculums of more various universities including local universities. Besides, comparative analyses of curriculum of Graduate School of Education's music education major with curriculum of elementary and secondary school, with graduate school, and with same course of foreign universities are needed. Through these analyses, we may obtain important results necessary to make a desirable curriculum.
The mathematical capability is critical especially for the science and engineering major students to be successful in their academic life in a university. However, there has been recently marked decline in the mathematical ability of the students majoring in the science and engineering in a university. In order to propose the methods to improve their ability in a college level of mathematics, we have investigated and analyzed the mathematical ability of the freshmen in calculus classes whose major are the science and engineering in Kyung Hee University, corresponding to the university entrance examination and curriculums of the middle and high school. Calculus is one of required classes for the freshmen in the science and engineering major and also one of the most important classes in mathematics. Therefore, we hope that these assessment in their mathematical ability focused on calculus can suggest a helpful insight for the improvement of general mathematical ability in the science and engineering majors.