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본 연구의 목적은 체육교육전공 교육대학원생들이 임용고사를 준비하는 과정에서 경험하는 어려움을 탐색하고자 하며, 이를 통해 체육교육전공 교육대학원생의 삶을 이해하고 진로의 제약 문제들의 대안을 마련하기 위한 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. 연구목적을 달성하기 위해 교육대학원 졸업생 중 임용고사를 준비 중인 준비생 2명, 임용고사를 합격한 교사 2명을 연구 참여자로 선정하였다. 자료는 심층면담을 통해 수집하였으며, 수집 된 자료는 귀납적 범주분석을 통해 요인들을 추출하였다. 연구결과 체육교육전공 교육대학원생들이 임용고사 준비 과정에서 경험하는 어려움은 ‘실기수업 부재’, ‘교육과정 혼재’, ‘심리적 불안감’으로 범주화 되었다. 교육대학원의 교육과정에 실기수업이 부족하여 2차 실기시험을 준비하는데 어려움을 경험하는 것으로 나타났으며, 교사재교육과 교사양성교육의 교육과정 혼재로 인해 교사재교육에 관련된 수업을 듣고 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 이로 인해 인터넷 강의와 사설학원을 통해서 임용고사에 관련된 내용을 보충하고 있었다. 또한 인터넷 강의와 사설학원 등록비와 학부생에 비해 상대적으로 많은 나이로 인해 심리적인 불안감을 격고 있었으며, 이로 인해 임용고사를 준비하는데 어려움을 경험하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구 참여자들의 어려움은 교육대학원생 개인적인 수준에서 해결하기에는 한계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 연구결과를 바탕으로 체육교육전공 교육대학원생이 임용고사를 준비하는데 경험하는 어려움의 해결하기 위한 방안으로 교육대학원 체육교육전공의 교육과정에 실기교육과정 추가와 교사양성과정과 교사재교육의 분리하여 운영 할 것을 제언하였다. The purpose of this study is to explore the difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education in the process to prepare for the teacher recruitment examination and to provide basic data for understanding life of graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education and preparing alternatives career constraint issues through this. In order to accomplish the purpose of the study, 2 students who are preparing for the teacher recruitment examination and 2 teachers who passed the teacher recruitment examination of the graduates of graduate school of education were selected as participants in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and factors were extracted from the collected data through an inductive analysis of categories. In the results of the study, the difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education in the process to prepare for the teacher recruitment examination were categorized as 'absence of practice classes', ‘the mixture of curriculums’, and‘psychological anxiety.’Lack of practice classes in curriculums of graduate school of education has found that the subjects experience difficulties in preparing for the second practical examination. The mixture of teachers' reeducation and education curriculums has found that the participants in the study take classes related to teachers' reeducation and supplement contents related to the teacher recruitment examination through lectures on the internet and private institutes due to this. And the participants in the study suffer psychological anxiety due to tuition fees of lectures on the internet and private institutes and their older age than undergraduates and have found to experience difficulties in preparing for the teacher recruitment examination due to this. These difficulties of the participants in the study have found to have limits to be solved on an individual level of graduate students of graduate school of education. Finally, the study suggested the addition of practice classes to curriculums for majoring in physical education in graduate school of education and separation and operation of teachers' education from their reeducation as plans to solve difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education while preparing for the teacher recruitment examination based on the results of the study.
This study aimed to investigate the awareness, level of nutritional knowledge, and practice of low-carbon dietary life among university students in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk region and to provide foundational data for education and promotion of low-carbon dietary life in the future. A survey was conducted from November 19 to November 21, 2022, targeting 283 university students enrolled in three universities located in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk region. The results of the analysis on the awareness, perception, nutritional knowledge, importance, and practice of low-carbon dietary life among university students in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk region are as follows. 1. The majority of students (82.0%) had never taken a nutrition course. Regarding their residential status, the highest proportion lived in their own homes (38.5%), followed by those living alone (32.9%) and in dormitories (27.9%). Analysis of the distribution of obesity based on body mass index (BMI) showed that the majority of students (60.4%) were in the normal weight range, and the proportion of overweight and obese males was higher than that of females (P < 0.001). 2. Regarding the awareness of low-carbon dietary life among university students, most students (44.5%) reported "I have heard of it but don't know much about it." The awareness of low-carbon dietary life was higher among female students (74.3%) compared to male students (45.2%) (P < 0.001). The most common source of information about low-carbon dietary life was mass media (41.0%), and 44.2% of students expressed their willingness to participate in future education on low-carbon dietary life. 3. The average score for the perception of low-carbon dietary life was 4 out of 5, with female students (4.09) scoring higher than male students (3.73) (P < 0.001). The item with the highest score in perception was in the consumption domain: "Separating and recycling waste is one of the environmental conservation practices we can do" (4.62), while the lowest score was in the production domain: "We should reduce meat consumption for environmental conservation" (3.19). 4. The vegetarian group were more likely than the non-vegetarian group to agree with the statement “Consuming alternative meat and vegetarian diets helps with environmental conservation" (79.0% vs. 55.7%, P < 0.001). The vegetarian group was also more likely than the non-vegetarian group to agree with the statement "We should reduce meat consumption for environmental conservation" (58.0% vs. 35.6%, P < 0.001). 5. The group with alternative meat experience was more likely than the group without such experience to agree with the statement "Consuming alternative meat and vegetarian diets helps with environmental conservation" (74.9% vs. 53.5%, P < 0.001). 6. The average score for nutritional knowledge about low-carbon dietary life was 6.16 out of 12, with female students (6.46) scoring higher than male students (5.30) (P < 0.001). The nutritional knowledge item with the highest score was in the consumption domain: "Leachate from food waste contaminates soil," while the lowest score was in the production domain: "The waterwheel mark indicates environmentally friendly or low-carbon food." 7. The vegetarian group had higher scores of nutritional knowledge than the non-vegetarian group (6.69 vs. 5.89, P < 0.01), and the group with alternative meat experience had higher scores than the group without alternative meat experience (6.61 vs. 5.72, P < 0.001). 8. Analysis of the importance and practice scores on low-carbon dietary life showed that the importance score (3.83) was higher than the practice score (3.26) (P < 0.001). The item with the highest importance score was in the consumption domain: "Separate and recycle bottles and cans when disposing of trash" (4.40), while the lowest score was in the distribution domain: "Purchase food from local markets, agricultural markets, and other direct transaction venues" (3.37). The item with the highest practice score was also in the consumption domain: "Separate and recycle bottles and cans when disposing of trash" (4.30), while the lowest score was in the distribution domain: "Consider eco-certification or low-carbon certification marks when purchasing food" (3.37). The importance score was higher than the practice score in all items (P < 0.001). 9. The practice scores of the groups with vegetarian and alternative meat experiences (3.94 and 3.91, respectively) were higher than those of the groups without such experiences (3.77 and 3.75, respectively) (P < 0.001), and the importance scores of the groups with vegetarian and alternative meat experiences (3.39 and 3.37, respectively) were also higher than those of the groups without such experiences (3.77 and 3.16, respectively) (P < 0.001). 10. The total score nutrition quotient for adults of the entire university student population was 49.64 out of 100, corresponding to the "medium" grade level. Higher nutritional index grades were associated with higher levels of perception (P < 0.01), nutritional knowledge (P < 0.05), importance (P < 0.001), and practice (P < 0.001) of low-carbon dietary life. Considering the low awareness of low-carbon dietary life despite the relatively high willingness of university students to participate in low-carbon diet education, it is necessary to develop nutrition education materials related to low-carbon diet education that meet students' educational needs. Moreover, the groups with vegetarian and alternative meat consumption showed higher levels of awareness, nutritional knowledge, and practice of low-carbon dietary life compared to those without such experience, indicating a higher interest in low-carbon dietary life. The overall average score for the practice of low-carbon dietary life was lower than the importance score, indicating a high level of awareness of the importance of low-carbon dietary life; it was observed that the practice of low-carbon dietary life was not being consistently implemented. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the educational content that promotes the practice of low-carbon dietary life when developing low-carbon diet education programs. The significantly low score for the item "The watermill mark indicates environmentally friendly or low-carbon food" in the nutritional knowledge section related to the production domain of low-carbon dietary life demonstrates that the content regarding the low-carbon certification mark system should be addressed specifically in the development of nutrition education materials. The findings suggest that the development and promotion of education programs on low-carbon dietary life should be prioritized, and specific strategies to facilitate the practice of low-carbon dietary life should be explored to encourage university students to easily adopt low-carbon dietary life. 본 연구는 대구·경북지역 대학생들의 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인식도, 영양지식 수준 및 실천도를 조사하여 향후 저탄소 식생활에 관한 교육과 홍보를 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 대구·경북지역에 소재한 3개 대학교에 재학 중인 대학생 283명을 대상으로 2022년 11월 19일부터 11월 21일까지 설문조사를 실시하였다. 대구·경북지역 대학생들의 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인지도, 인식도, 영양지식, 중요도 및 실천도 등을 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 대학생들의 영양 강좌 수강 여부를 조사한 결과 영양 강좌를 수강한 적이 없는 학생(82.0%)이 가장 많았다. 주거 형태는 자택(38.5%)이 가장 많았고, 자취(32.9%), 기숙사(27.9%) 순으로 나타났다. 체질량지수로 비만분포를 분석한 결과, 전체적으로 정상군(60.4%)이 가장 많은 것으로 나타났으며, 남자는 과체중과 비만의 비율이 여자에 비하여 높은 것으로 나타났다(P < 0.001). 2. 대학생들의 저탄소 식생활에 대한 인지도를 조사한 결과‘들어본 적이 있으나 잘 모른다’(44.5%)가 가장 많이 나타났다. 저탄소 식생활에 대한 인지도는 여학생이(74.3%), 남학생(45.2%)보다 높은 것으로 나타났다(P <0.001). 저탄소 식생활에 대하여 알게 된 경로는 대중매체가(41.0%) 가장 많았으며 향후 교육참여 의사가 있는 학생은 44.2%였다. 3. 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인식도 점수는 5점 만점에 전체 평균 4점이었으며 여학생이 4.09점으로 남학생 3.73점보다 높았다(P <0.001). 인식도가 가장 높은 문항은 소비 영역의‘쓰레기 분리수거는 우리가 할 수 있는 환경 보전 실천 행동 중 하나이다’(4.62점)이었으며 가장 낮은 문항은 생산 영역의‘환경 보존을 위해 육류 소비를 줄여야 한다’(3.19점)로 나타났다. 4. 채식 경험에 따라 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인식도를 비교한 결과‘대체육과 채식 식단을 섭취하는 것은 환경 보존에 도움이 된다’ 문항에 채식경험군의 동의율이(79.0%), 미경험군의 동의율(55.7%)보다 높았다(P <0.001).‘환경 보존을 위해 육류 소비를 줄여야 한다’는 문항에서도 채식경험군의 동의율이(58.0%), 미경험군의 동의율(35.6%)보다 높았다(P <0.001). 5. 대체육 경험에 따라 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인식도를 비교한 결과‘대체육과 채식 식단을 섭취하는 것은 환경 보존에 도움이 된다’ 문항에 대체육경험군의 동의율이(74.9%), 미경험군의 동의율(53.5%)보다 높았다(P <0.001). 6. 저탄소 식생활에 관한 영양지식 점수는 12점 만점에 전체 평균 6.16점이었으며 여학생(6.46점)이 남학생(5.30점)보다 높았다(P <0.001). 영양지식 점수가 가장 높은 문항은 소비 영역의‘‘음식물쓰레기의 침출수는 토양을 오염시킨다’이었으며 가장 낮은 문항은 생산 영역의‘물레방아 마크는 친환경 식품이나 저탄소 식품을 표시하는 마크이다’로 나타났다. 7. 저탄소 식생활에 관한 영양지식 점수를 채식 및 대체육 경험에 따라 비교해본 결과 채식경험군(6.69점)이 채식미경험군(5.89점)보다 높았으며(P <0.01) 대체육경험군(6.61점), 대체육미경험군이 (5.72점)보다 높았다(P <0.001). 8. 저탄소 식생활에 관한 중요도와 수행도 점수를 분석한 결과 중요도(3.83점)가 수행도(3.26점) 점수보다 높게 나타났다(P <0.001). 중요도가 가장 높은 문항은소비 영역의‘쓰레기를 버릴 때 병과 캔을 분리수거 한다’(4.40점), 가장 낮은 문항은 유통 영역의‘동네 시장, 농수산물 시장 등 직거래 장터에서 식품을 구매한다’(3.37점)이었다. 수행도가 가장 높은 문항은 소비 영역의‘쓰레기를 버릴 때 병과 캔을 분리수거 한다’(4.30점), 가장 낮은 문항은 유통 영역의‘친환경 인증마크나 저탄소 인증마크를 고려하여 식품을 구매한다’(3.37점)이었다. 중요도와 수행도를 분석한 결과, 모든 문항에서 중요도가 수행도보다 높게 나타났다(P <0.001). 9. 저탄소 식생활에 관한 중요도 및 수행도 점수를 채식 및 대체육 경험에 따라 비교해본 결과 수행도 점수는 채식 및 대체육 경험군(3.94점, 3.91점)이 미경험군(3.77점, 3.75점)보다 높았으며(P<0.001) 중요도 점수 또한 채식 및 대체육 경험군(3.39점, 3.37점)이 미경험군(3.77점, 3.16점) 보다 높았다(P<0.001). 10. 대학생 전체의 성인 영양지수 총점은 100점 만점에 49.64점으로 ‘중’등급 수준에 해당하는 것으로 나타났다. 성인 영양지수 등급에 따른 저탄소 식생활에 관한 인식도, 영양지식, 중요도, 수행도 분석 결과 모든 항목에서 영양지수가 높은 등급일수록 인식도(P<0.01), 영양지식(P<0.05), 중요도(P<0.001), 수행도(P<0.001)가 높게 나타났다. 대학생들의 저탄소 식생활교육에 대한 참여 의사가 비교적 높은 것에 비하여 저탄소 식생활의 인지도가 낮은 결과를 봤을 때, 학생들의 교육적 요구에 부응하는 저탄소 식생활교육 관련 영양교육 자료가 개발되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. 또한, 채식 및 대체육을 경험한 집단이 경험하지 않은 집단보다 저탄소 식생활에 대한 인식도, 영양지식 및 실천도가 높은 경향을 보여 저탄소 식생활에 관심도가 높은 집단일수록 채식의 실천과 대체육 섭취 경험이 높은 것으로 판단된다. 저탄소 식생활의 수행도 전체 평균점수가 중요도 점수보다 낮게 나타나 저탄소 식생활에 대한 중요성 인지 수준은 높으나 저탄소 식생활의 실천이 이어지지 않음을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 저탄소 식생활교육 프로그램 개발 시 저탄소 식생활 수행을 유도할 수 있는 교육내용을 강화해야 할 필요성이 있는 것으로 사료된다. 저탄소 식생활의 영양지식 문항 중 생산 영역의‘물레방아 마크는 친환경 식품이나 저탄소 식품을 표시하는 마크이다’가 다른 문항 보다 현저히 낮은 점수를 보였으므로 영양교육 내용 개발 시 저탄소 인증마크 표시 제도에 관한 내용이 구체적으로 다루어져야 할 것으로 보인다. 이상의 연구 결과 저탄소 식생활에 관한 교육 프로그램의 개발과 홍보가 우선적으로 이루어져야 할 것이며 대학생들이 저탄소 식생활을 손쉽게 실천할 수 있는 구체적인 방안을 모색하여 저탄소 식생활의 실천을 유도할 수 있는 교육이 필요할 것으로 보인다.
In the 7th curriculum, the government adopted the selection -centered curriculum in the 2nd and the 3rd grade of high school not only to meet the local and the school's peculiar characteristics and students' demand for education to the full, but also to expand students' right for option. The bottom line of choosing the curriculum is to operate the curriculum equivalent to students' course, aptitude, demand and scholastic ability. Accordingly, we require systematic education that makes students consider their ability, interest, concern and aptitude, so they can opt for their college and major in close connect in with advanced subjects selected in high school. The point of 7th selection-centered curriculum is to help students choose appropriate subjects based on their quality, course and scholastic aptitude. Unfortunately, under the current situation of focusing on college entrance, it is very difficult to set up curriculum which helps decide scholastic courses and choose the appropriate subjects according to his or her aptitude. Today, we are facing serious educational problems ― that is, schools tend to organize a curriculum composed of subjects which are favorable to the students for the college entrance. Students tend to choose several subjects which are beneficial to themselves for the college scholastic ability test, since the grade they earned in the college scholastic ability test is crucial for choosing college or college coursework. In addition, Standard Point System gives rise to imbalance depending on the degree of how difficult examination subjects are. So, it is urgent to improve education reality in that selection-centered curriculum has been being operated out of balance; It is difficult to achieve the goals of social studies that are intended to build the quality of the democratic citizen because the range of option is so narrow for them to study in high school and they are practically forced to select some of social studies depending on high school curriculum and the number of available teaching staff and consequently, the most of selected subjects have little to do with the major subjects in college. To operate the 7th selection-centered curriculum effectively and efficiently under the current system, which expands students' right for option, we should try to improve the process of curriculum organization and curriculum operation, have to necessarily make devices that lessen the percentage of high school record reflection in the college entrance and boost close connection considerably between high school education and college education. Of course, parents and students who rely on private education should change their mind-set: we should value selection-centered curriculum that emphasize students' expectation, aptitude, ability and courses particularly in the college entrance.
교과서는 전국의 모든 학생들을 가르친다는 전제로 만들어진 보편적인 교재이고, 그 내용과 조직에 대한 보편성과 사회적 합의가 일정한 검증 절차를 통해 공적으로 인정된 학습 도구 이다. 훌륭한 교과서가 훌륭한 교육의 기반이라는 사실과 더불어 교과서가 국가적,사회적으로 매우 중요한 기능을 가지고 있다고 가정한다면, 교과서의 내용분석을 하는 것은 큰의미가 있다고 할 수 있다. 그래서 이번 논문연구에서는 학생들에게 기술과목에 대해 흥미를 고취시키기 위해서 중등학생들이 기술과목 중 어느 영역에 관심이 많은지, 얻고자 하는바는 무엇인지에 대해 알아보고자 한다. 이러한 내용을 토대로 본 연구결과에서는 2013년도 부터는 전 학년이 2009개정 교육과정을 적용하였다. 이로 인하여 학년군이 만들어지고 블록타임 수업이 가능하게 되었다. 이는 기술 과목을 전 학년에 골고루 나누어서 수업을 진행 할 수도 있지만 특정 학기에 몰아서 수업을 진행할 수도 있다는 것이다. 이러한 상황에서 지금의 교과서는 단순 영역으로 나누어져 있어 각 학교의 교육과정에 따라 학생들의 흥미나 발달 수준과는 관계없이 내용 요소 중심으로 수업이 전개되어 학생들의 흥미를 떨어뜨릴 가능성이 크다. 이를 개선하기 위해 기술교과서는 각 기술영역을 독립시켜 편성하기보다 기술 영역간의 융합을 통하여 나선형 교육과정으로 운영할 수 있도록 후속 연구가 진행되어야 한다. Textbooks are universal books made required to teach every student of the nation, and the universality and social consensus of it's contents and structure has been recognized as a learning tool through certain validation procedures. In addition to the truth that fine textbooks create fine education, if we assume that textbooks possess very important functionalities nationaly and socially, analyzing the contents of textbooks will hold a lot of meaning.Therefore through this research, I hope to learn what kind of areas in technology middle school students are interested in and what they hope to learn in technology to inspire and interest students in the subject technology. Based upon these contents and the results of reasearch show that from 2013 all grades used the curriculum of 2009. Because of this, grade groups were created and block time classes became available. This means that techonolgy can be taught diversly divided in all grades, however it also means that it can proceed all classes in a particualr semester. In these circumstances the currenttextbooks have a high possibility of dropping students interest because they are divided into simple sections and follow each schools curriculum making the classes develop around content information that do not relate with the student's interest or threshold. In order to improve these features, follow up reasearch should progress that make textbooks focus on converging domains of technology that operate in a spiral curriculum instead of seperating each domain of the technology textbook.
The purpose of this study was to find out educational value of social dialect and reconstruct educational contents. This study consists of following contents: chapter2 presents why social dialect has educational value. First, social dialect is the contents improving educational value of grammar. grammar have been criticized by many education expert. because grammar seems unpractical. "why teach the grammar in korean class?" and "what value is there" is the issue for many years. However, social dialect can be the answer of that question. Second, social dialect is the contents corresponded with Competency-Based Education. Now, Global Education trend is Competency-Based Education. Korea also seeks to Competency-Based Education. 2015 Revised Curriculum suggest that General Competencies and Special Competencies in subject. Because Social dialect is the contents that it is matched with all competencies, it is very valuable educational content. Chapter3 suggests the direction of education for social dialect. First, achievement standard system which is reconstructed is suggested. achievement standard system is the key point of public education. So, in order to reconstruct education contents, we have to amend the achievement standard. therefor, this study analysis current achievement standard, and suggests new achievement standard system for social dialect education. Second, this study creates two units of textbook based on new achievement standard. Third, this study make teaching-learning program for social dialect.
In this study, the final purpose is to foster the inner character of the learner, using the <CheongunSillog> and <ManshinjuBonggongsinlog> to draw educational topics, and to present ways for personality education in which learners can reflect on themselves and further develop a sense of community through a collaborative writing model. The novels <CheongunSillog> and <ManshinjuBonggongsinlog> feature a person who personifies the mind and body of the learners and unfold the story. That's why learners are going to have the opportunity to learn about not only the value of the work but also chance to reflect on their own minds and bodies through the main characters. Also, themes "personality", such as "the importance of training one's heart" and "discrimination within the community" in the work have important character educational implications for learners who try to establish ego-identity by themselves and learn about the ethical and social values of the community. In this study, I applied a model of collaborative writing focused on learners' activities to maximize the character educational significance of the work. The existing models of various cooperative writing were modified to facilitate creative activities based on interaction with peers and feedback during the whole process of writing. After the activity, I analyzed the internal changes of learners based on works created by learners and reviews like comments and evaluations. In Chapter II, I analyzed the characteristics that the 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative' have, the oppositional relationship and conflicts between the characters, and the themes that were dealt with in the work. In Chapter III, the focus was on the relationship between 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative' and personality education which was analyzed in Chapter II. To do this, I analyzed the value of the Creativity and Personality revealed in curriculum of Korean language in 2015 and applied them to the 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative' in order to derive themes of personality from the work. In Chapter IV, I figured out the concept of collaborative writing models and analyzed the relevance and significance of cooperative writing in character education. In addition, I organized a specific activity model of 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative' for character education based on the collaborative writing model. In the case of the cooperative composition model, there was a drawback that the systemization of the model had not yet been established. To compensate for this, I created a model so that interaction and feedback can take place in the whole process of writing,'Preparation - Plan - Create - Organize - Presentation - Finalize', and I developed the model by applying the stage of personality. In the chapter V, I talked about the actual course of the 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative' for character education. Based on exploration of the work, I figured out the process of how to apply what they've explored to their own life by doing various writing. Finally, Chapter VI analyzed how the classroom activities affected individual learners' internal changes based on their evaluations and comments. Thus, it was presented with the character-educational utility of the 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative'. Based on the analysis of the works of the 'MIND-BODY Personification Narrative', I analyzed the elements of character that are currently pursued in the 2015 revision of the Korean language and education process of education. Those elements were applied to the work to derive the character theme and by practicing a composition using the pattern of personification and personality themes presented in the work. I also provided the learners with an opportunity to reflect on their mind and body. As a result of the activities, the works of <CheongunSilog> and <ManshinjuBonggongsinlog> suggest opportunities for positive change and assurance of what they are going to do in the future by recognizing the importance of their minds and bodies and reflecting on their previous actions. Based on this, the work concluded that these two works are meaningful as the means of education for personality.
평가는 교육목표를 달성하는데 매우 중요하다. 평가는 교육을 통해 이루고자 하는 목표를 효과적으로 달성하기 위한 도구로 사용되어야 한다. 그러나 선행 연구결과 과학문항은 지식영역을 물어보는 문항이 중학교에서 76%, 고등학교는 74%로 구성되어 있어(오현석, 이기영, 2006) 그간 과학교육이 지식을 쌓는 수준에 그쳤을 것이라 예상할 수 있다. 본 연구는 9개의 고등학교에서 실시한 중간고사와 기말고사의 문제지를 구해서 그 중에 물리 I 1단원 ‘시공간과 우주’ 에 해당하는 문항들이 기본 개념과 창의적 문제 해결 능력을 기르는데 적합하게 구성되었는지, 또한 성취목표별로 균형적으로 개발되었는지 살펴보았다. 이를 위해 문항을 물리 I 대단원의 13개의 성취목표에 대해서 Bloom의 인지적 목표 분류와 2009 개정 교육과정의 탐구영역 목표를 통해 문항을 분류하였다. 그 결과 학교와 교육과정평가원 출제 문항 모두 성취목표와 수준에 있어서 균형적이지 않게 문항이 출제되었음이 나타났다. 특정 성취목표에 다수의 문항이 쏠려 있었고, 문항 전체적으로 고등정신 기능을 요구하는 문항의 숫자는 적었다. 그러나 학교 출제 문항과 교육과정평가원 출제 문항간의 출제율이 높은 성취목표의 순서에서는 유사성이 나타났다. 또한 학교와 교육과정평가원 출제 문항에서 탐구 목표를 담은 문항의 숫자의 비율이 동일하게 낮게 나왔으며 대부분 자료해석능력을 묻는 문항이 출제 되었다. 학교에서 출제된 지필평가 문항과 교육과정평가원에서 출제된 평가 문항은 학생들의 다양한 수준의 인지 수준과 탐구 수준을 평가하는데 적합하지 않은 것으로 판단된다. 또한 교육과정평가원에서 개발한 성취목표들을 학교와 교육과정평가원에서 출제한 지필고사 문항이 균형있게 평가하지 않았다는 것이 드러났다. 학교 출제 문항에서 나타난 이러한 결과는 물리 교사들이 교수해야 할 개념과 관련 평가문항에 대한 이해도와 익숙함의 차이라고 본다. 이를 해결하기 위해 교사들을 대상으로 교과내용에 대한 연수나 평가 문항 개발에 대한 지원이 필요하다. 그러나 학교와 교육과정평가원 출제한 지필고사 모두 선다형 방식의 평가를 사용하고 있다. 과학과 평가에서 주로 사용되는 선다형 형태의 평가방식이 계속 사용된다면 위에서 지적된 문제들의 근본적인 해결이 어렵다고 본다. 결국 학생들이 과학수업을 통해 창의적 문제 해결 능력을 갖추기 위해서는 평가 형태가 바뀌어야 할 것이다. Assessment is very important tool to achieve the educational objectives. By previous studies, the ratio of questions for knowledge and comprehension level was 76% in middle school, and 74% in high school. It means that science education in school would have been limited to reach high order thinking skills, such as application, synthesis and evaluation. This study took exam questions of midterm and final exams from 9 high schools and aimed to analyze the balance on Bloom's taxonomy, performance objective and science research objective. The results showed that the exam questions were presented in an unbalanced manner in the areas of achievement and taxonomy. Several questions were focused on specific achievement objectives, and a little ratio of questions are required a high order thinking level. However, most questions are related on low order thinking level such as knowledge and comprehension. Moreover, a ratio of question related on science research objective is low. Therefore, exam questions of the first chapter of Physics Ⅰ are not sufficient to measure students’ high order thinking level and research skills. These results showed that the difficulties and familiarity of the contents make teachers hard to understand, teach and create exam questions. To solve this problem, it needs to support in developing training and exam questions for teachers. However, if in school multiple-choice type questions will have used, it is difficult to solve the fundamental problem. The form of assessment of science will have to be changed in order for students to be a creative people.
Based on the case research on the education program planned and performed by this researcher on Daegu Art Museum in 2014, this study is aimed at proposing a plan for integrated art appreciation activities associated with expressions. These days, as more easier access to cultural facilities has been made and people's cultural expectations and desires have become larger, diverse generations of people have come to art museum. Whereas some people have appreciation with their independent attitudes by setting the direction of individual interest, many others have difficulty with appreciation because they don't know what to do. In particular, most students visit art museum against their will so that they fail to concentrate artworks and thus don't remember what to look at. Therefore, it is necessary to suggest a proper art appreciation way and improve their appreciation abilities to help them take interesting appreciation activities. Art museum education is a sort of appreciation education based on real works, and has informal and noninstitutional characteristics. To appreciate artworks is to make analysis and evaluation by looking at artworks visually and thereby understand the intention of artists. The appreciation education program of the art museum in this thesis represents appreciation education in integration of expression activities and appreciation activities in which learning objectives and subjects were already planned. To achieve the purpose of this study, this researcher first investigated the development of children's art appreciation abilities, the changes in appreciation contents and methods, and the process and methods of appreciation instruction; secondly, analyzed the step-wise approach of an integrated appreciation education program on the basis of the education program associated with the exhibits of Daegu Art Museum performed in 2013 and 2014, and looked into the effect and instruction direction of the integrated appreciation activities. To support the above description, this study theoretically first explored the development of elementary students' appreciation abilities and the appreciation instruction methods; secondly, conducted a case analysis on the approach of the education program associated with the exhibits of Daegu Art Museum. According to the analysis, the appreciation education of an art museum needs to provide appreciation activities which can trigger students' curiosity and interest and thereby improve their intelligent and aesthetic appreciation abilities. In addition, in consideration of children's development stages, it is necessary to make an approach to integrated with not only art, but other areas including Korean language, social studies and science. The appreciation education integrated with the expressions of an art museum should be conductive to suggesting a plan of overcoming the problems of appreciation education that school art subject has, and should be aimed at raising their cultural and artistic knowledge which can ultimately be used to find and apply aesthetic factors in life. In terms of research limitation, this study didn't take into account the association with the appreciation instruction in school, but made an approach from the standpoint of persons in charge of education in art museums.
Everything is rapidly changing in the contemporary society. Art and education are not exceptions. Due to the rapid growth and development of information and telecommunication technologies, the knowledge information society is evolving dramatically in all the fields of human life including visual media, science, education, art, medical science, industry, etc. It is needed for us to adjust ourselves to this knowledge information society. Therefore, it is required for us to grow capabilities to make the most use of information and telecommunication technologies and get accustomed to environments where we could use and face various media. Education in preparation for these new changes and environments of our society is strongly needed. Visual and perceptive experiences in the juvenile period become the basis for shaping concepts and affect recognitive functions to a great extent. Using characters in ICT education for youth is more effective in delivering their meanings to middle and high school students.
The purpose of this study is to increase and stimulate school-linked educational programs in art museum through a survey of students needs. Today's art education contributes to aesthetic experience and fosters creative talents. In addition to art education conducted in school, various programs are planned and implemented for students in connection with the school in art museum. Constructivism education in art museums is self-directed and inquiry-learning through actual exhibits. And it is possible to overcome the limitations of public education and have creative ideas because it uses emotional education that is not easily handled in school education. Therefore, art museums and schools should have complementary relationships and help students learn. For this reason, it is also necessary to investigate the demand for art museum education programs, and it is important to find the contact point between the education that learners want and the education that is theoretically necessary. Therefore, in this study, a survey was conducted on middle school students who were actually subject to education, and a study was conducted on whether the current school-linked art museum education program for middle school students meets the needs of students. By program type, it was classified into a total of three programs: theory-oriented, appreciation-oriented, and experience-oriented. The researcher analyzed the art museum program and classified it into a total of four categories: career, exhibition-linked, art knowledge, and online programs. Based on the above contents and analyzed school-linked programs that ran from 2017 to 2021 at 5 national and public museums, a questionnaire was designed to identify the preference of each type. There are 13 questions that can identify preference, and each question has a characteristic of each type and content. The survey was conducted on the first and second graders of middle school, and was analyzed on the basis of 330 copies of data. The results derived based on the data analysis are as follows. First, in content-specific programs, students prefer online programs the most and career programs the second most. Due to online programs having high preferences, it seems necessary to develop improved online programs so that students can experience online education. Additionally, career programs are highly prefer by students and are planned in art museums. So it would be good to continue to operate programs. Second, in programs by type, students prefer experience and appreciation programs the most, and currently, experience and appreciation programs were being conducted the most in art museums. Therefore, if the art museum also plans at the current program rate, it will be able to meet the needs of students. Third, there was a difference in preference between pre-educated and non-pre-educated students. Pre-educated students showed high preference for art museum programs, but only 76 of 330 students. So increase linked education programs between art museums and schools, students' preferences will increase further. As a result, it can be speculated that if students get art museum education, their interest will naturally increase and the number of students who can be interested. Therefore, it is necessary to promote educational programs in various ways in art museums. And it would be a good idea for schools to organize curricula with art museums so that students can get a high quality education.