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      • 체육교육전공 교육대학원생들이 임용고사 준비 과정에서 경험하는 어려움 탐색

        조인진 경북대학교 교육대학원 2019 국내석사

        RANK : 249695

        본 연구의 목적은 체육교육전공 교육대학원생들이 임용고사를 준비하는 과정에서 경험하는 어려움을 탐색하고자 하며, 이를 통해 체육교육전공 교육대학원생의 삶을 이해하고 진로의 제약 문제들의 대안을 마련하기 위한 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. 연구목적을 달성하기 위해 교육대학원 졸업생 중 임용고사를 준비 중인 준비생 2명, 임용고사를 합격한 교사 2명을 연구 참여자로 선정하였다. 자료는 심층면담을 통해 수집하였으며, 수집 된 자료는 귀납적 범주분석을 통해 요인들을 추출하였다. 연구결과 체육교육전공 교육대학원생들이 임용고사 준비 과정에서 경험하는 어려움은 ‘실기수업 부재’, ‘교육과정 혼재’, ‘심리적 불안감’으로 범주화 되었다. 교육대학원의 교육과정에 실기수업이 부족하여 2차 실기시험을 준비하는데 어려움을 경험하는 것으로 나타났으며, 교사재교육과 교사양성교육의 교육과정 혼재로 인해 교사재교육에 관련된 수업을 듣고 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 이로 인해 인터넷 강의와 사설학원을 통해서 임용고사에 관련된 내용을 보충하고 있었다. 또한 인터넷 강의와 사설학원 등록비와 학부생에 비해 상대적으로 많은 나이로 인해 심리적인 불안감을 격고 있었으며, 이로 인해 임용고사를 준비하는데 어려움을 경험하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구 참여자들의 어려움은 교육대학원생 개인적인 수준에서 해결하기에는 한계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 연구결과를 바탕으로 체육교육전공 교육대학원생이 임용고사를 준비하는데 경험하는 어려움의 해결하기 위한 방안으로 교육대학원 체육교육전공의 교육과정에 실기교육과정 추가와 교사양성과정과 교사재교육의 분리하여 운영 할 것을 제언하였다. The purpose of this study is to explore the difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education in the process to prepare for the teacher recruitment examination and to provide basic data for understanding life of graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education and preparing alternatives career constraint issues through this. In order to accomplish the purpose of the study, 2 students who are preparing for the teacher recruitment examination and 2 teachers who passed the teacher recruitment examination of the graduates of graduate school of education were selected as participants in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and factors were extracted from the collected data through an inductive analysis of categories. In the results of the study, the difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education in the process to prepare for the teacher recruitment examination were categorized as 'absence of practice classes', ‘the mixture of curriculums’, and‘psychological anxiety.’Lack of practice classes in curriculums of graduate school of education has found that the subjects experience difficulties in preparing for the second practical examination. The mixture of teachers' reeducation and education curriculums has found that the participants in the study take classes related to teachers' reeducation and supplement contents related to the teacher recruitment examination through lectures on the internet and private institutes due to this. And the participants in the study suffer psychological anxiety due to tuition fees of lectures on the internet and private institutes and their older age than undergraduates and have found to experience difficulties in preparing for the teacher recruitment examination due to this. These difficulties of the participants in the study have found to have limits to be solved on an individual level of graduate students of graduate school of education. Finally, the study suggested the addition of practice classes to curriculums for majoring in physical education in graduate school of education and separation and operation of teachers' education from their reeducation as plans to solve difficulties experienced by graduate students who major in physical education in graduate school of education while preparing for the teacher recruitment examination based on the results of the study.

      • 2005학년도 대학입시가 제7차 선택중심 교육과정에 미치는 영향 : 일반계 고등학교 일반사회영역을 중심으로

        박재운 경북대학교 교육대학원 2005 국내석사

        RANK : 249679

        In the 7th curriculum, the government adopted the selection -centered curriculum in the 2nd and the 3rd grade of high school not only to meet the local and the school's peculiar characteristics and students' demand for education to the full, but also to expand students' right for option. The bottom line of choosing the curriculum is to operate the curriculum equivalent to students' course, aptitude, demand and scholastic ability. Accordingly, we require systematic education that makes students consider their ability, interest, concern and aptitude, so they can opt for their college and major in close connect in with advanced subjects selected in high school. The point of 7th selection-centered curriculum is to help students choose appropriate subjects based on their quality, course and scholastic aptitude. Unfortunately, under the current situation of focusing on college entrance, it is very difficult to set up curriculum which helps decide scholastic courses and choose the appropriate subjects according to his or her aptitude. Today, we are facing serious educational problems ― that is, schools tend to organize a curriculum composed of subjects which are favorable to the students for the college entrance. Students tend to choose several subjects which are beneficial to themselves for the college scholastic ability test, since the grade they earned in the college scholastic ability test is crucial for choosing college or college coursework. In addition, Standard Point System gives rise to imbalance depending on the degree of how difficult examination subjects are. So, it is urgent to improve education reality in that selection-centered curriculum has been being operated out of balance; It is difficult to achieve the goals of social studies that are intended to build the quality of the democratic citizen because the range of option is so narrow for them to study in high school and they are practically forced to select some of social studies depending on high school curriculum and the number of available teaching staff and consequently, the most of selected subjects have little to do with the major subjects in college. To operate the 7th selection-centered curriculum effectively and efficiently under the current system, which expands students' right for option, we should try to improve the process of curriculum organization and curriculum operation, have to necessarily make devices that lessen the percentage of high school record reflection in the college entrance and boost close connection considerably between high school education and college education. Of course, parents and students who rely on private education should change their mind-set: we should value selection-centered curriculum that emphasize students' expectation, aptitude, ability and courses particularly in the college entrance.

      • 탐구학습을 통한 관용어 의미지도

        이보람 경북대학교 교육대학원 2015 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        관용어는 우리 선조들의 사상과 당대의 문화를 알 수 있는 대표적인 언어 표현이다. 이러한 언어 표현을 학습자에게 교육함으로써 학습자의 국어사용 능력 뿐만 아니라 고등 사고 능력을 신장시킬 수 있으며, 더 나아가 우리 국어 문화를 이해하고 창의 적인 언어 표현 활동을 할 수 있게 된다. 이에 본 연구는 관용어에 대한 각각의 개념을 비교‧분석 하고, 탐구학습과 관용어 의미 지도와의 관계를 살피고, 이를 바탕으로 실제 관용어 교육이 이루어지고 있는 중학교 2학년을 대상으로 하여 그 지도 방안을 모색하는 데 그 목적을 두었다. 교육과정은 현행 교육과정인 2009 개정 교육과정을 중심으로 하였고, 교과서는 중학교 <국어③>, <국어④>를 참고 하였다. 1장에서는 이 연구의 필요성과 목적, 연구의 대상과 범위, 국어학적 관점에 따른 관용어 연구과 국어 교육적 관점에 따른 관용어의 선행 연구를 검토하였다. 2장에서는 이를 바탕으로 관용어가 현행 2009 개정 총론(2011.8.9.) 및 각론(2011.8.9.) 교육과정에서는 어떠한 성취기준으로 설정되어 있는지 살펴 보았다. 그리고 중학교 2학년 검인정 교과서 14종 <국어③>,<국어④> 교과서를 참고로 하여 관용어가 어떠한 학습목표와 학습내용, 학습활동으로 제시 되고 있는지를 살펴보고 이에 따른 문제점을 분석해 보았다. 3장에서는 관용어의 의미 지도 내용과 더불어 학습자의 능동적인 학습 참여를 위한 전략 중심 탐구학습 모형을 소개하면서, 이를 실제 지도방안에 적용시켜 보았다. 앞에서 살펴본 바와 같이 관용어는 여러 가지 국어 교육적 의의에도 불구하고, 실제 교육 현장에서는 적은 비중으로 다루어져 왔다. 개정 교육과정을 거치면서, 학습자의 학습량 경감이 중점이 되다보니, 기존의 7차 교육과정에서는 관용어에 대한 내용을 한 단원으로 설정 되었던 것이 현행 2009개정 교육과정에서는 단원이 아닌, 학습활동의 일부나 혹은 날개 부분에 제시되어 관용어에 대한 내용 제시가 매우 부족하다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 또한, 여전히 관용 표현을 가리키는 용어와 하위 개념이 교과서마다 통일되지 않은 채 사용되고 있었다. 학자들 간의 논의는 다소 차이를 보일 수 있으나, 교육과정과 교과서에서 관용어에 대한 개념 정의와 유형 분류를 제시할 때에는 동일하게 제시 되어야 한다. 관용어는 학습자에게 다양한 예만 제시한다고 해서, 교육적 효과가 나타나는 것은 아니다. 다양한 예를 제시하면 학습자가 풍부한 관용어를 익힐 수는 있지만 유형별로 골고루 배분되지 않는다는 단점이 있다. 때문에 본 연구에서 관용어를 의미적인 유형으로 분류하였고, 이를 학습자에게 제시한다면 학습자의 교육적 이해에 도움을 주리라 생각된다. 뿐만 아니라, 학습 활동 문제를 지식 확인 정도의 문제가 아닌 학습자가 실생활에서 사용해 볼 수 있는 활동을 더욱 반영해야 한다. 이를 통해 학습자는 우리 국어 문화를 이해하고 창의 적인 언어 표현 활동을 할 수 있게 되는 것이다. 이제까지 관용어에 대한 연구는 학문적 연구 뿐만 아니라 국어 교육적 측면에서 많은 학자들의 논의가 이루어져 왔고, 지금 현재에도 많은 논의가 이루어지고 있다. 앞으로도 여러 논의들이 절충되고, 개선되어서 관용어에 대한 연구는 끊임없이 이루어져야 한다. Idioms are considered one of the representative linguistic expressions that describe these thoughts and cultures of our ancestors in the old times. Educating leaners on such linguistic expressions enhances not only the learners Korean-language competencies but also their advanced thinking abilities, and furthermore, the learners will be consequently led to better understanding on our Korean-language culture as well as chances to enjoy some creative linguistic expression activities. In the light of what has been mentioned above, this study first compared and analyzed each concept of the idioms and then, looked into both inquiry learning and how the inquiry learning is related to teaching the learners meanings of the idioms as well. The findings of the investigations so far led the study to finally come up with methods in connection with how to teach the idioms to second graders at middle school who were actually studying the idioms at school. As for the curriculum to be used for this study, the ‘2009 revised curriculum, the curriculum currently in progress, was selected, and regarding the textbooks, the study referred to <Korean ③> and <Korean ④> at middle school. In Chapter 1, the study introduced the necessity, the subject and the scope of this research. It also went over previously-conducted investigations that had discussed the idioms from the aspects of Korean linguistics and Korean education. In Chapter 2, looked at what had been found in Chapter 1 in order to understand what achievement standards the ‘2009 revised curriculum has used to establish the idioms. In addition, of these 14 authorized textbooks of the second graders at middle school, the study randomly collected four textbooks, and as referring to a total of eight textbooks including <Korean ③>s and <Korean ④> the study talked about through what learning goals, learning contents and learning activities, the idioms are being presented and plus, conducted an analysis on any subsequent problems. In Chapter 3, the study investigated not only whats and hows in connection with teaching the learners the meanings of the idioms but also this strategy-based inquiry learning model to promote learners’ active participations in learning. In the end, the study made sure that the model was actually applied to teaching plans. As far as the discussions above assume, despite their various Korean-educational significances, the idioms have been taught only with relatively inconsiderable weight in the real field of education. Not only that, the study learned that every textbooks in the study were still using different terms and subordinate concepts in relation to the idiomatic expressions. It is understandable for scholars to have different ideas or arguments about the idioms and yet, the study suggests that in case of the curriculums and the textbooks, they should deal with all the same definitions of the concepts as well as the same type categorizations. In order to accomplish educational effects, the field of education should do something more than merely introducing numerous examples to the learners. If various examples of the idioms are offered, it will make it more convenient for learners to acquire a good deal of idioms and yet, the learners will hardly learn the idioms from every category. That being so, this study divided the idioms into this type of semantics, and believes that once the field of education succeeds in presenting the idioms from the aspect of semantics, it will help the learners with their educational understanding. Add to that, the study argues that these inquiry learning activities should be no longer obsessed with checking if the learners does have knowledge but try harder to encourage the learners to actually use the idioms in their daily lives. That will eventually convince the learners to be engaged in creative linguistic expression activities as working on advanced understanding on our Korean-language culture. A lot of scholars have been constantly carrying out all these researches on the idioms not only to realize their academic achievements but also to make a contribution to the development of Korean-language education, and even at this very moment, several discussions are being taken place. The study suggests that such discussions should be compromised and improved consistently in the future so that the idioms can be explored and investigated only steadily.

      • 8학년 소화와 순환 단원의 교육과정 일치도 지수 및 내용지형도 분석

        홍화진 경북대학교 교육대학원 2013 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        본 연구에서는 8학년 소화와 순환 단원에서 학교 현장에서 직접 수업을 진행하는 교사의 계획, 실행, 평가 교육과정과 해당 교사의 수업을 이수한 학생의 실행, 평가 교육과정 사이의 일치도 지수와 내형지형도를 분석하였다. 연구 대상은 교사의 경우 광역시와 중소도시 소재 중학교 8학년 교사 총 31명이다. 학생의 경우 광역시와 중소도시 소재 137명의 학생으로 구성되어 총 488명이다. 검사 도구는 교사용 설문지와 학생용 설문지로 구분되어 처치되었고, 추가적으로 교과서의 교육목표 분석과 학교 현장에서 이루어진 평가지 분석 등이 시행되었다. 설문의 항목은 소화 단원의 경우 7개의 주제, 순환의 경우 6개의 주제로 세분화 하여 교육내용을 ‘주제와 인지적 수준’의 2차원으로 나타내도록 하였다. 수합된 자료의 처리는 일치도 지수의 경우 Excel 프로그램의 함수를 이용하여 계산하였고, 내용지형도는 Excel 프로그램의 표면형 차트를 이용하여 도출하였다. 그 결과, 소화 영역에서의 교육과정 일치도 지수를 비교해보면 학생 실행 교육과정과 학생 평가 교육과정과 학생 평가 교육과정(.971), 교사 계획 교육과정과 교사 실행 교육과정(.652), 교사 계획 교육과정과 교사 평가 교육과정(.624), 교사 평가 교육과정과 학생 평가 교육과정(.592), 교사 실행 교육과정과 교사 평가 교육과정(.438), 교사 실행 교육과정과 학생 실행 교육과정(.313) 사이의 일치도 지수의 순서로 점차 낮은 일치도를 보였다. 순환 영역에서의 교육과정 일치도 지수를 비교해보면 학생 실행 교육과정과 학생 평가 교육과정(.983), 교사 계획 교육과정과 교사 실행 교육과정(.829), 교사 평가 교육과정과 학생 평가 교육과정(.604), 교사 계획 교육과정과 교사 평가 교육과정(.524), 교사 실행 교육과정과 교사 평가 교육과정(.5), 교사 실행 교육과정과 학생 실행 교육과정(.411)의 일치도 지수 순서로 점차 낮은 일치도를 나타내는 것을 확인 할 수 있다. 따라서 학교 현장에서 이루어지는 수업에서 교사와 교사 사이의 일치도와 학생과 학생 사이의 일치도 보다 교사와 학생 사이의 일치도가 낮게 나타남을 확인할 수 있었다.

      • 外国語教育におけるネイティブ教師の役割に関する研究 : 韓国中学校での日本語教育 : 외국어교육에 있어서 원어민교사의 역할에 관한 연구 : 한국중학교 일본어교육

        Miyuki, Ebina 경북대학교 교육대학원 2019 국내석사

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        韓国中等教育 第二外国語教育においては、1997年度に第7次教育課程が公表されて以来、コミュニケーション能力育成に重点がおかれ、2009改訂教育課程でもコミュニケーション能力に付け加え、市民意識を培うことが重要視された 。また2015改訂教育課程では意思疎通能力、外国文化への理解および尊重、情報検索及び活用能力といった内容が重要視されている 。このような教育課程の目標を達成するために、教育現場では様々な授業形態が実施されており、ネイティブ教師を授業に参加させるティームティーチングもそのひとつである。 韓国では1996年に中等教育英語科でNTの派遣が始まり、以来コミュニケーション能力向上の成果が多く報告されているが、中等教育日本語科においてはNTに関する研究もわずかにとどまっている 。さらには韓国人教師と NTとのティームティーチング授業効果報告も少なく、その中でもNTの授業参加により能力向上が期待できる口頭能力の評価を行っている研究では、独自の評価基準を当てはめたものなど、その評価の客観性があいまいなものが多い。 本研究では特にティームティーチングの後の口頭能力向上の効果測定において、従来の研究で客観性の欠如していた評価の方法とは違い、口頭能力をより客観的に測るためにJFS準拠ロールプレイテストを使用する。具体的方法としては、まずNTである論者が韓国中学校の正規日本語授業 において1年を通してKTとティームティーチング授業を実施し、その授業内容を基礎資料とする。次にアンケートにより中学生の日本語学習状況や生徒の意識を把握し、NTが授業に参加することによって得られる効果やNTに期待される役割などをまとる。さらにティームティーチング授業における口頭能力向上の効果を測るためにJFS準拠ロールプレイテストを使用して評価を行い、評価実施までのプロセスや結果から、NTの役割を検証するための一考察を行いたい。本研究は実践研究でもあるのだが、韓国中等教育機関でNTが参加するティームティーチング授業の実践および評価において、何かしら示唆を与えうる有意義な研究になることを期待する。 본 논문은 한국중등교육 일본어과 팀티칭수업 및 팀티칭수업 후의 말하기 평가를 통한 원어민 교사의 역할을 고찰하는 것을 그 목적으로 하고 있다. 한국 중등교육 외국어교육에서는 제7차 교육과정 이후 2015개정교육과정에 있기까지 의사소통능력신장 중점에 학습목표를 두고 왔다. 이 목표를 달성하기 위한 수업형태로 원어민 교사가 수업에 참여하는 팀티칭수업이 많이 도입해왔다. 그러나 영어교과와 달리 제2외국어 일본어교과에서는 원어민 교사의 고용수가 많지 않아 그에 따른 팀티칭수업 연구도 활성화되고 있지 않는 것이 사실이다. 일본어 팀티칭수업 선행연구의 대부분은 설문조사를 이용한 학생과 교사들의 인식변화를 조사한 보고이다. 그 중에서 특히 원어민 교사가 수업에 참여하는 걸로 능력향상이 기대되는 말하기능력을 측정한 연구는 그 평가기준이 보편적이지도 객관적이지도 않는 것이 많다. 이런 점에서 의사소통능력향상을 목표로 둔 교육과정 아래 실시되고 있는 원어민 참여 팀티칭 수업과 그 수업평가방법에 있어서 다양한 측정방법 연구 필요성이 절실하다. 우선 팀티칭 효과를 측정 연구하기 앞서 원어민 교사와 한국인교사의 팀티칭수업에 대한 내용을 전반적으로 설명하고, 원어민인 저자가 한국중등교육 중학교 정규일본어수업에서 1년간 실시한 팀티칭수업 수업계획 및 실시내용을 기본자료로 활용했다. 다음으로는 원어민교사 미배치중학교와 원어민 배치중학교 학생들을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하여 중학생들이 정규 일본어수업 외에 어떤 일본어수업을 받고 있는지 학습상황파악을 했다. 또한 미배치중학교 학생들에게는 원어민 교사가 있으면 기대하는 점은 무엇인지, 원어민 배치중학교 학생들에게는 팀티칭수업을 받아서 어떤 능력이 향상되었다고 생각하는지 등 을 조사했으며 그 내용을 도대로 원어민교사의 역할을 고찰하였다. 또한 원어민 교사가 수업에 참석 기대되는 의사소통능력향상에 초점을 맞추어 그 능력을 측정하는 평가방법에 있어서 지금까지의 객관성이 부족한 평가방법과 달리 JFS준거 롤플레이테스트를 사용하여 말하기평가를 실시했다. 앞으로 일본어원어민교사가 중등교육현장에서 실시할 팀티칭수업에서 이 연구내용이 참고자료의 하나가 되었으면 한다.

      • Bloom의 新 敎育目標分類學에 基礎한 國語科 敎育課程 成就 基準 分析

        이현숙 경북대학교 교육대학원 2013 국내석사

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        The purpose of this study is to analyze the achievement standards in High School Korean in the 2007 revised Curriculum and in High School Korean I and II in the 2009 revised Curriculum on the basis of Bloom’s new taxonomy of educational objectives, which consists of two dimensions, the ‘dimension of knowledge’ (factual, conceptual, procedural, and meta-cognitive knowledge) and the ‘dimension of cognitive process’(to remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create). This study analyzes the 29 achievement standards in High School Korean in the 2007 revised Curriculum, and the 15 achievement standards in Korean I and the 15 achievement standards in Korean II in the 2009 revised Curriculum, as well as those achievement standards containing two nouns and two verbs respectively. The results of the analysis of the achievement standards in the high school Korean subject based on Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives are as follows. First, ‘apply procedural knowledge’ in Korean for the 10thgrade accounts for the highest proportion of 42.43% in the 2007 Revised Curriculum, and ‘understand conceptual knowledge’ in Korean I and Korean II for the highest proportion of 57.14% and of 52.17% respectively in the 2009 Revised Curriculum. In addition, considering that there are categories in which no achievement standards appear in the dimensions of knowledge and cognitive course, we can tell that the achievement standards in the Korean subject are inclined to some parts of the dimensions of knowledge and cognitive course. In order to help learners acquire various pieces of knowledge and broadly develop a cognitive course, we are required to provide achievement standards reflecting diverse categories. Teachers also by themselves should not apply those achievement standards concentrated on only some categories, but need to make efforts to precisely understand the intentions of the achievement standards and consider learners’ levels to reorganize class goals. Second, contrasted with the 2007 Revised Curriculum, the whole parts of the 2009 Revised Curriculum for high school education are changed into selective subjects. Moreover, Korean II should have hierarchical properties as an associate subject with Korean I. Considering the results of the classification of the achievement standards for Korean I and Korean II, it is difficult to admit that the latter has more profound contents than the former. In order to fully reflect the intentions of revision in a curriculum, its purposes and intentions should be clearly stated, and a review of the statement of the achievement standards is necessary for them. Third, the analysis of the content area of the Korean subject suggests that achievement standards be provided that involve the dimensions of cognitive course including not only ‘understand’ and ‘apply’ but also ‘analyze’, ‘evaluate’ and ‘create’ which demand courses of high-level thinking, in the areas of ‘speech’, ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ which emphasize self-directed problem solving through Korean activities and language in practical verbal situations. The phenomenon of inclination to the category of ‘understand’ is striking in the area of ‘grammar’. Compared with the British Curriculum that does not distinguish ‘grammar’ as a content area but bases it on linguistic functions, the Korean Curriculum distinguishes ‘grammar’ as a content area, and hence tends to emphasize ‘understand’ of ‘conceptual knowledge,’ which constitutes a factor hindering literacy. Given that the area of ‘grammar’ put emphasis on explorative activities in which learners find out rules from linguistic phenomena and on the ability to apply learned knowledge to practices of Korean language use, balanced presentation of the dimensions of cognitive course including ‘apply’, ‘analyze’ and ‘create’ is needed and it is necessary to make novel discussion about the integration of content areas. As the area of ‘literature’ emphasizes total understanding of human life, promotion of literary imagination, active and critical interpretive activities, and activities of creation, its achievement standards need to involve the dimensions of cognitive course including ‘analyze’, ‘evaluate’ and ‘create’. Fourth, in comparison with the 2007 Revised Curriculum, the 2009 version has increased number of achievement standards that require more than one dimensions of knowledge and of cognitive course for each item, and no substantial reduction of educational contents and achievement standards are implemented in consideration of the number of the whole achievement standards. In order to reflect the intention of revision of the 2009 Curriculum, it is necessary to state achievement standards reflecting the minimal essential learning contents by reorganizing the contents of each educational subject. Fifth, the analysis of verbs used for the achievement standards reveals that there are a lot of parts in which the distinction between nouns and verbs is vague. This is because it is natural to replace verbal expressions in Korean for nominal expressions in English. It is thus necessary to precisely identify verbal phrases when one tries to analyze and clarify the achievement standards. Sixth, it is difficult to exactly understand the achievement standards as they contain a high frequency of the occurrences of some verbs and have very vague meanings. The significance and importance of the achievement standards have been greater because unit organization is different among publishing companies and there are textbooks that specify the goals of learning for each unit while there are also others that present the achievement standards as unit goals, as textbooks of Korean have been replaced by licensed ones since the 2007 Revised Curriculum. In the case of the American achievement standards in comparison with its Korean counterparts, the vagueness due to the comprehensiveness of the categorization in a greater framework is resolved with handbooks for curricula. In order to exactly understand the specific meanings of terms, sufficient explanations with respect to the achievement standards should be provided, and it is necessary to more clearly articulate the terms used in the achievement standards for Korean. On the other hand, teachers in actual scenes of class should make efforts to restate the goals of class in consideration of learners’situations on the basis of the achievement standards since the achievement standards have more general and comprehensive nature than the goals of class. The achievement standards should help teachers exactly understand what to teach rather than directly letting them know what to do. Based on the correct recognition of the achievement standards, teachers should set up the goals of class in consideration of learners and actual class situations. The statement of the achievement standards should be clearer for teachers to recognize them precisely, and their vagueness should be made up with handbooks in order to overcome their comprehensiveness.

      • STEM 통합적 교육을 적용한 기술교과 수송 기술 영역 지도안 개발

        문미정 경북대학교 교육대학원 2013 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        우리나라는 천연자원이 많지 않는 나라이기에 원천 과학 기술력이 밑바탕이 되어 기술력 확보를 위한 연구 개발 투자가 국가적으로 이루어지고 있다. 최근 기술 교육에 대한 소홀함으로 학부모와 학생들의 기술교과에 대한 무관심 현상이 심화되고 있고 이러한 현상은 중학교 기술 수업 시간의 학력 증진 노력의 부족과 타 과목에 비하여 등한시되는 현상으로 나타나고 있다. 2011년 교육과학기술부 업무보고서에 따르면 도전적, 창의적 기초연구 활성화를 위해 풀뿌리 개인 기초연구 지원이 확대되고 있다. 인간은 기술적 문화 속에 살고 있고, 기술은 인간의 문화 속에 널리 퍼져 있어 첨단과학기술의 발전이 국가경영전략에 큰 영향을 미치는 우리는 지식기반 사회에 놓여 있다. 특히 지식기반 사회에서의 경제는 총 부가가치의 60% 이상이 과학 기술 분야 인력의 생산성 경쟁에 의해 결정된다고 한다(최유현 외, 2008). 이러한 기술 교육은 우리생활에 중요함으로 다가왔고 최근 기술과 함께 다른 과목을 융합하여 새로운 교육 프로그램을 시작하는 STEM 연구들이 넘쳐나고 있다. 과학, 기술, 공학, 수학(STEM) 네 과목에서 학습자에게 맞는 내용을 통합한 수업자료를 개발함에 있어서 학습자들의 수준과 학습자의 만족도 그리고 교사의 교수법까지 고려할 수 있다. 이를 통해 매우 질 높은 통합적 교수-학습이 될 것으로 판단되고, 2009년 성취수준에 맞는 STEM 통합교육을 위한 수업자료 개발이 필요할 것으로 생각된다. 초등 단계에서 형성된 이미지와 인식은 과학, 수학의 학습 태도에 영향을 주고 과학 혹은 공학 계열로의 진로선택에도 영향을 미친다는 연구 결과(이효녕, 박경숙, 2010)를 볼 때, 학교 교육에서 학생들에게 기술 과목에 흥미를 고취시키는 것이 매우 중요한 일이란 것을 알 수 있다. 미국의 기술 교과서 내용은 Jackson's Mill 교육과정이론(Snyder & Hales, 1981)에 따라서 제조기술, 수송기술, 통신기술을 포함하고 있고, Savage와 Sterry(1990)의 이론에 의하여 생명기술 분야를 포함하고 있다. 그리고 미국에서는 기술 과목 수업에서 과학, 사회, 공학, 수학 등과 연계할 수 있도록 통합적 요소가 교과서에 많이 제시되고 있다. 우리나라는 원천 과학 기술력이 밑바탕이 되어 선진국으로 도약할 수 있었고, 과학 기술 분야의 투자는 증가세를 이어왔고 원천 기술력 확보를 위한 R&D 투자 또한 국가적으로 이루어지고 있다. 지식기반 사회의 국가 발전과 녹색성장, 신 성장 동력 등 국가 아젠다 실현을 위한 산∙학∙연 연계가 절실히 필요한 시점에서 이공계 인력의 감소는 국가 전체의 문제로 인식될 수 있다. 이를 극복하기 위하여 ‘우수 이공계 인력 확보 방안 연구’(이병기, 2004), ‘청소년의 이공계 대학 진학률 감소에 따른 대책 방안 연구’(이영무, 2001)등이 이루어지고 있으나 초∙중등 교육에서 이공계에 친밀함을 가질 수 있는 교육 프로그램의 개발은 미흡하다(문대영, 2008). 기술에 대한 중요성을 깨닫고 기술 교육의 질을 높이기 위해서는 먼저 학생들의 인식변화가 중요하다. 이것은 기술 교육의 목표와 함께 역할을 찾아갈 수 있는 밑바탕이 될 것이다. 이러한 인식변화를 위해서 기술 교육은 현실문제를 해결할 수 있는 직접적인 교육과정을 제시하여야 한다. 그러기 위해서 교과서를 중심으로 STEM 통합적 교육 프로그램을 기본적이면서 중심적으로 제시하고 교수-학습 연구도 개선되어야 한다. 이러한 내용을 토대로 본 연구에서는 학생들에게 기술 과목에 대해 흥미를 고취시키기 위해서 중등학생들이 기술과목에 STEM 교육 프로그램으로 접근해서 교과서의 문제를 해결할 수 있도록 하고자 한다. 또한 기술·공학적으로 두드러지는 융합에 대한 2009개정 교과서에 새로이 들어간 교과 내용을 분석하고 설문조사를 토대로 앞으로 나아갈 방향을 제시하고자 한다. The purpose of this study is to verify the effect of STEM education on transportation technology for Science, Technology and Engineering. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: 1) To develop STEM education program in technology education for high school students. 2) To analyze the effect of STEM education on transportation technology for science, technology and engineering. 58 high school students are got extra point of 'technology' when they enter to mister high school STEM education program were surveyed by using a self-reported instrument. The results of this study were as follows: First, STEM program focusing on technology education of high school consists of portfolios for students and a lesson plan for teacher, including evaluation questionnaire. Second, students performed 'making a transport' with a creative design. This study look forward to changing the students' affective characteristics for science, technology and engineering for their interest and understanding about the program after applied to STEM education program. Third, the result of students answering in the test is that STEM education program was instructive and interesting. Most of the leaners will satisfy the program and they will want to learn more through this kind of study. Fourth, they can figure out the STEM subject matter easily through activity in the class. Furthermore, students were interested in cooperative class more than instructor-led class. Based on these conclusions, suggestions of this study are as follows: First, it takes long time and needs cooperation of school field to develop STEM education program harmoniously. Once in a while, it is required to change the curriculum and demonstrate its flexibility. By applying the Educational Curriculum Revision of 2009, it can be practicable to use a concentration course of study system or creative experience program. Because of that, it can be possible to develop STEM education program in connection with the course work of units. Second, a lot of experimental groups and control groups are necessary to generalize the result of the experiment. Curriculum developer and school field have to communicate closely with each other. Third, the purpose of STEM education is to enhance the efficiency of mathematics, science, technology and engineering field. However, the effect in this study focuses on the affective area. Therefore, it should be investigated about its influences of STEM education in cognitive domain of mathematics, science, technology and engineering. Furthermore, the follow up experimental research should proceed to verify the educational efficiency in the area.

      • 음악과 중등교원 임용고사 경향 분석 : 임용고사 출제 기준과 사범대학 교육과정의 연계성 중심으로

        박찬미 경북대학교 교육대학원 2013 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        The most important things for selecting qualifying teachers are as following; establishing definite standards, setting questions for the teacher certification examination observing the standards, and establishing institutes for training qualifying teachers. These three factors cannot be independent as they should be closely related to each other, and this study was progressed based on this fact. This study analyzed the questions for the teacher certification examinations taken from 2010 to 2013, and set two directions: Firstly, do criteria for setting exam questions and question percentage coincide? Secondly, do curriculum of teacher's college and the contents of the teacher certification examination coincide? For the first study, questions written for the tests from 2010 to 2013 were analyzed and compared to the question percentage: percentage of subject matter education and subject contents, percentage of particular subjects within subject contents, and percentage of Korean traditional music and Western music. Question criteria of the teacher certification examination were set based on the result of the joint research focused on Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation. As a result, percentage of subject matter education was different from that of subject contents. Also, percentage of Western music was six times higher than Korean traditional music. Even though there are standards for setting exam questions, these standards were not obeyed. This phenomenon suggests that question contents depend on examiners, and that it is accepted publicly as a trend. For the second study, curriculums of 10 teacher's colleges, which offer Music Education, were analyzed. As a result, there was one college that does not open a class necessary for the teacher certification examination. Teacher's college has a purpose of training qualifying teachers, and this purpose corresponds with the purpose of the exam. Therefore, curriculum of teacher's college should be united with the exam subjects. On the other hand, even though all the subjects for the exam were included in the curriculum, some of the classes seemed to need betterment. For example, it was possible for students to take all classes of one subject in one semester. However, these subjects are the ones that require a long-term study, such as Harmonics and Counterpoint. Therefore, curriculum seemed to need a systematic and phased management through all college years. In conclusion, for producing qualifying teachers, examiners should obey the question standards, and institutes should reorganize their curriculum to make it conformed to the teacher certification examination.

      • 통합적 감상활동을 중심으로 한 미술관 어린이 교육프로그램 연구 : 대구미술관을 중심으로 : Focusing on Daegu Art Museum

        김아람 경북대학교 교육대학원 2015 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        Based on the case research on the education program planned and performed by this researcher on Daegu Art Museum in 2014, this study is aimed at proposing a plan for integrated art appreciation activities associated with expressions. These days, as more easier access to cultural facilities has been made and people's cultural expectations and desires have become larger, diverse generations of people have come to art museum. Whereas some people have appreciation with their independent attitudes by setting the direction of individual interest, many others have difficulty with appreciation because they don't know what to do. In particular, most students visit art museum against their will so that they fail to concentrate artworks and thus don't remember what to look at. Therefore, it is necessary to suggest a proper art appreciation way and improve their appreciation abilities to help them take interesting appreciation activities. Art museum education is a sort of appreciation education based on real works, and has informal and noninstitutional characteristics. To appreciate artworks is to make analysis and evaluation by looking at artworks visually and thereby understand the intention of artists. The appreciation education program of the art museum in this thesis represents appreciation education in integration of expression activities and appreciation activities in which learning objectives and subjects were already planned. To achieve the purpose of this study, this researcher first investigated the development of children's art appreciation abilities, the changes in appreciation contents and methods, and the process and methods of appreciation instruction; secondly, analyzed the step-wise approach of an integrated appreciation education program on the basis of the education program associated with the exhibits of Daegu Art Museum performed in 2013 and 2014, and looked into the effect and instruction direction of the integrated appreciation activities. To support the above description, this study theoretically first explored the development of elementary students' appreciation abilities and the appreciation instruction methods; secondly, conducted a case analysis on the approach of the education program associated with the exhibits of Daegu Art Museum. According to the analysis, the appreciation education of an art museum needs to provide appreciation activities which can trigger students' curiosity and interest and thereby improve their intelligent and aesthetic appreciation abilities. In addition, in consideration of children's development stages, it is necessary to make an approach to integrated with not only art, but other areas including Korean language, social studies and science. The appreciation education integrated with the expressions of an art museum should be conductive to suggesting a plan of overcoming the problems of appreciation education that school art subject has, and should be aimed at raising their cultural and artistic knowledge which can ultimately be used to find and apply aesthetic factors in life. In terms of research limitation, this study didn't take into account the association with the appreciation instruction in school, but made an approach from the standpoint of persons in charge of education in art museums.

      • 한국 근대시기(1985-1945)의 도화교과서 연구

        김아름 경북대학교 교육대학원 2015 국내석사

        RANK : 249663

        (Abstract) In this paper it explains that in order to have a constructive future for the modern art education, understanding & recognizing the historical facts is important. Therefore, this study intends to cover how the art education should move forward by reviewing Korea’s art education, also taking a look how the modern art education had been developed and how it had been changed. The scope of this study ranges from 1985 in which modern education had been started till 1945 in which was the point right before the liberation. First, this study had covered how the Korean modern education had been developed, and covered what were the general education’s specialty and the modern arts’ regulation. Second, this study had analyzed the modern art times’ text book contents & its specialty by reviewing each period of times’ issued art text books. Third, through the art text books the modern art education’s characteristics were analyzed. In order to acknowledge the modern art education’s flow and to move forward in a constructive way, the art education history flow needs to be understood appropriately. This paper had studied how the modern art education had been effected by going through the education policy & art text book, in which the modern art education laid a foundation for the contemporary art education. As Korea’s modern art education had been rapidly developed without having enough preparation & ideological base, the education had been developing ostensibly & perfunctorily. However, Korea’s art education policy had been introduced later than the western world, due to the Japanese colonization, it can be criticized that Korea’s art education had been focused on the copy base function. However, through this research it could be learned that there are positive aspects that the contemporary art education is recognizing the importance of having a creative base education, and a variety of art fields such as design, pottery, and sentimentality education. By each time frame(era) & educational law, Korea’s modern art education had been going through transition by experiencing problems & limitations. This paper had considered the historical period situation in which considered the Japanese colonization period, based on these consideration we had tried to minimize the errors and make objective analysis. Study on Korea’s art education needs to be made continuously. Moreover, a new art education development should be established objectively after considering the art education history.

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