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      • 번역수업의 교수자 피드백 및 학습자 반응 연구 : 통번역대학원 석사과정을 중심으로

        김선주 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2021 국내박사

        RANK : 249695

        This study aims to gain an integrated perspective on perceptions by learners and instructors toward feedback methods in translation studies training provided at graduate schools of translation and interpreting, and to explore their application in translation training. To realize these goals, the study presents the following research questions. (1) What feedback methods do teachers at graduate schools of translation and interpreting provide during translation classes? (2) What factors have an impact on how instructors provide feedback methods during translation classes at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (3) How do learners react to different methods of feedback provided during translation classes in the BA direction at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (4) How do learners’ personality types affect their acceptance of positive/negative feedback provided by the instructor during translation classes in the BA direction at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (5) What common factors and differences exist between instructors and learners’ perceptions regarding the feedback methods being provided? The participants of this study were 30 instructors of translation courses at Korean graduate schools of translation and interpretation, and 28 first-year students of translation courses in the BA direction at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation (HUFS GSIT). In the area of feedback methods provided by instructors, general tendencies were identified through analysis of written feedback, further supplemented by conducting in-depth interviews. In the area of learner reactions, more of a focus was placed on qualitative research in the area of learner reactions as well, to thoroughly examine a wide range of views on the part of learners. Instructor feedback was analyzed using written feedback data and transcripts of in-depth interviews, and learner reactions were analyzed using questionnaires and transcripts of in-depth interviews. In particular, learner reactions were examined in depth through qualitative analysis of learners’ reactions to the five feedback methods used in the study design, conducted on data accumulated from three semesters extending from the 1st semester of 2018 to the 1st semester of 2019. Towards this, students were provided feedback in the form of direct feedback, process-oriented feedback, mid-term assessment feedback, one-on-one conferences, and positive feedback systematically incorporated into the course and provided over each semester. Learners’ reactions were carefully analyzed using various tools, including two in-depth interviews conducted over the course of the semester, questionnaires, and class journals. In particular, the issue of whether learners showed a difference in their reactions to positive/negative feedback according to their personality types was investigated by classifying the students into four categories based on their responses to MBTI questionnaires, after which the characteristics of each personality type and their reactions to feedback were examined. The analysis results of the study are as follows. First, in the survey of feedback methods provided by instructors of translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, nine out of the 30 study participants mostly provided negative feedback while two instructors mostly provided positive feedback. This feedback took the form of direct feedback in the case of 12 instructors and indirect feedback for three instructors. The remaining 15 instructors were shown to be providing a combination of direct and indirect feedback. Feedback was either provided through computers (17) or in handwriting (11), while two of the instructors surveyed were not providing feedback in any written form. Next, in the survey of oral feedback, 18 out of the 30 instructors in the study replied they did not engage in one-on-one conferences with their students while 12 instructors replied they did. As for the length of feedback provided, 13 of the instructors replied they provided a small amount of feedback, eight a moderate amount, and seven a large amount of feedback, while the two instructors not providing written feedback were excluded. Finally, when asked about any particular forms of feedback they provided, four common characteristics were reported by a number of the instructors, namely, “I try to provide feedback in a positive manner,” “I provide indirect feedback,” “I do not provide written feedback at all or keep it to a minimum,” and “I provide a summary evaluation.” Second, according to the analysis of factors affecting feedback methods provided by instructors of translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, both instructor- and subject-oriented factors were shown to have an impact, with the results indicating that subject-oriented factors have a larger effect on differences in providing feedback than instructor-oriented factors. Instructor-oriented factors identified as affecting feedback methods included the native language of the instructor and teaching experience, while subject-oriented factors which had an impact on feedback methods were text genre, language direction, etc. For instance, many instructors replied they provided direct feedback when the class engaged an informational text from the A to B language, while many instructors provided feedback indirectly when treating an expressional text from the B to A direction. Third, according to the analysis of reactions to instructors’ feedback methods by learners during BA-direction translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, very high levels of preference were discovered for direct feedback, process-oriented feedback, and mid-term assessment feedback. Also, when analyzing the opinions of learners in regard to the five feedback methods designed into the study, the most prevalent opinion by students was that, in the case of direct feedback, alternative solutions should be provided together with the reason why a portion had been marked an error (17 out of 27 students). 14 out of 27 learners (excluding one subject who did not respond) replied that positive feedback was very influential in improving their translation competence, while 12 responded that it had some influence. The remaining respondent did not think it had that much of an impact. Fourth, when analyzing the impact of learner personality factors on their acceptance of positive/negative feedback, a difference was confirmed in reactions to positive/negative feedback by personality type. Of the 28 graduate students majoring in Korean-Japanese translation studies, 14 were classified as having an IF-type personality, showing a preference for correction rather than praise, and wishing for concrete feedback in the case of both praise and correction. On the other hand, EF-type learners showed a preference for praise over correction, and placed importance on evaluation (the evaluator). IT-type learners showed a high level of acceptance when praised on their work, as this promoted trust in the instructor, leading to a preference for interactive forms of feedback, while ET-type learners showed a particularly high preference for praise, somewhat contrary to previous studies on T-type personalities. Fifth, some common factors and differences were discovered between instructors and learners in regard to feedback methods. When comparing and analyzing perceptions by instructors and learners, both shared the perception that positive feedback and mid-term feedback were necessary, but somewhat different perceptions in regard to concrete written feedback and the need for one-on-one conferences. Based on the above analysis results, the following conclusions can be reached. First, learners recognize the benefits of indirect feedback but prefer direct forms of feedback. Second, interactive feedback is necessary between instructors and learners. Third, learners have a high level of acceptance for mid-term assessment feedback and process-oriented feedback. Fourth, learners show different reactions to positive/negative feedback according to their personality type. The study is somewhat limited in terms of the number of participants examined, but is significant in that it takes an integrated perspective to explore instructor and learner perceptions at the master’s level, an area hitherto neglected, thus providing implications for future studies in the areas of feedback studies and translation pedagogy.

      • 19세기 한·중·일 근대 통번역 교육제도 비교 연구

        유정화 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2011 국내박사

        RANK : 249663

        19세기 대외적 정세 불안을 타개하고자 한·중·일 삼국이 선택한 것은 부국강병책이었다. 부국강병을 이루기 위해서는 한편으로는 서양의 과학과 기술을 받아들여 군사력을 강화시켜야했고, 다른 한편으로는 서양 제국과의 평등한 협상을 위해 외교력을 강화시켜야했다. 특히 외교력 강화를 위해서 가장 먼저 요구되었던 것은 서양 제국들과의 의사소통 능력이었다. 아편전쟁 패배 후 체결된 대부분의 통상조약은 일방적으로 동양에게 불리한 불평등 조약이었기 때문이다. 물리적 힘의 열세로 처음부터 불리한 입장이었다는 점도 있지만 협상 상대국의 언어를 이해하고 그들과의 의사소통이 이뤄지지 않았다는 점도 이 같은 불평등 조약 체결의 원인이었다. 이에 삼국 정부는 통번역 교육제도를 설립하여 적극적인 인재 양성에 나섰다. 19세기 통번역 교육제도의 교육과정을 살펴보면 현대 통번역 교육제도와 유사한 면이 많이 잇다. 비록 전반적인 교육 수준은 높지 않았지만 학교라는 제도에 맞게 학칙을 제정하여 이에 따라 운영이 이루어졌다는 점, 언어별 통번역 교육이 체계적으로 이뤄졌다는 점, 외국인 교원을 보유하고 이들을 교육에 적극 활용했다는 점, 학생들을 수준별로 나누어 교육했다는 점을 유사점으로 꼽을 수 있다. 반면 다른 점은 오늘날 통번역 교육제도에서는 교육만을 전담하는 측면이 강한데 비해 19세기 통번역 교육제도에서는 활발한 번역, 저술, 출판 활동이 뒷받침되었다는 점을 들 수 있다. 또한 외국어가 아닌 일반 교과가 포함되었다는 점도 현대교육제도와는 다른 점이다. 전통적 교육 제도에서는 통치체제 근간이 되는 관리 양성이 주요 목적이었으나 19세기 등장한 한·중·일 통번역 교육제도는 관리 양성은 물론 사회 전반에 걸쳐 새로운 인재를 양성하고 보급하는데 큰 역할을 했다. 특히 외교분야에서 전문 인력을 배출했다는 점은 주목할 만한 점이다. 두번째는 교육 분야에 큰 기여를 했다. 일본의 가이세이조, 중국의 동문관, 한국의 관립외국어학교는 그 자체가 근대학교의 원형인 것은 물론 이들이 번역한 교재와 사전은 언어학을 비롯한 근대 교육에 큰 밑거름이 되었다. 뿐만 아니라 이들 제도는 변화를 거듭해 현대의 대학교로 이어지고 있다. 일본의 가이세이조는 현재의 동경대학, 중국의 동문관은 오늘날 북경대학의 전신이다. 이는 일본의 식민지배로 인해 관립외국어학교를 폐쇄할 수 밖에 없었던 한국과 큰 차이점이라고 할 수 있다. 마지막으로 꼽을 수 있는 점은 언론에 미친 영향이다. 삼국의 통번역 제도는 서양서적을 번역하고 이를 출판하는 것은 물론 신문과 잡지 등을 발행하는 일에도 적극적이었다. 금속 활자판을 도입하여 대량 인쇄를 시작한 점, 이렇게해서 발간된 신문과 잡지가 최초 근대 신문 및 최초 근대 잡지라는 점은 각국 언론사에 큰 의미를 지닌다. 이처럼 19세기 통번역 교육제도는 여러 분야에서 큰 영향을 미쳤고 결과적으로 근대 사회로 나아가는데 큰 기여를 했다. 19세기 통번역 교육제도가 다양한 역할을 할 수 있었던 것은 국가의 적극적인 지원때문이었다. 이는 현재의 대외 상황이 본질적으로 19세기와 달라지지 않았다는 점과 정치, 외교, 교역, 교육 등 사회 제분야에서 여전히 통번역사들이 중요한 역할을 하고 있다는 점에서 시사하는 바가 크다.

      • 한국 전쟁기 군 통번역사의 역할과 정체성 연구 : 비판적 담화 분석(CDA) 관점에서

        고선정 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2022 국내박사

        RANK : 249663

        During the Korean War, Korean and American interpreters and translators carried out their duties with a great deal of responsibility for communication. However, their stories have yet to receive attention not only from military historians, but also from the field of translator studies. This study therefore seeks to analyze the roles and identities of military interpreters from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The discursive conceptions about identity are interrelated with the use of language. When identity is seen as a process of construction through social interaction, language plays a vital role in constructing identities. It is for this reason that this study focuses on the linguistic features that reflect identities in discourse, especially through the language mediations of interpreters and translators. The act of interpreting and translating political and ideological terms is likely to have a decisive effect on the construction of collective identities. This study explores the roles of military interpreters, who must take a clear position on the ideological issues arising from conflict situations. There are three research questions related to the roles and identities of military interpreters. (1) Why did Korean society need so many interpreters after being liberated from the Japanese occupation? By understanding the historical context, it is possible to determine the roles of military interpreters, who emerged as a powerful group in Korean society. (2) What were the roles of military interpreters during the Korean war? As the war progressed, the US military suffered from an acute shortage of linguistic mediators. In light of those circumstances, this study aims to explain how they worked as messengers to remove language barriers. (3) How were collective identities constructed in the Panmunjom negotiations mediated by interpreters and translators? This study seeks to determine how military interpreters contributed to the construction of collective identities. Before delving into the analysis, it is first necessary to introduce the theoretical framework of this study, which consists of three factors. First, adopting CDA is useful to analyze discourse in terms of identifying the roles and identities of military interpreters. The analytical methods proposed by van Leeuwen and van Dijk provide insight into the understanding of the roles of language mediators. In addition, their linguistic features in discourse can be linked to the construction of identities from the perspective of CDA. Second, the Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) strategy is used to collect and classify large amounts of data. The initial process in organizing data is to code it such that it can be easily categorized. The QDA method provides methodological ways of trimming down the data collected from news reports, memoirs and the minutes of the Korean armistice talks. Third, corpus data from two crucial minutes of the Korean armistice talks can support the results generated through QDA. By using WordSmith Tools, the corpus can provide data on “interpreters” and “translation” in the form of a concordance and word lists. This study consists of three levels for the purpose of contextual analysis. It starts at the macro-level (i.e., analyzing historical documents), which is useful in understanding the causes of the increasing demands placed on military interpreters. Coding data from news reports can be useful to find out what exactly they did and how they were treated as a valuable human resource. Then, it moves on to the meso-level of analyzing social and situational contexts. This level is twofold. The first layer is to focus on the memoirs of the military interpreters because their experience in the linguistic profession provides clues about their missions and roles as a bridge between the Korean and American militaries. The second layer is to focus on the Korean armistice negotiation. Considering the importance of the armistice talks, the language skills of the interpreters are likely to have affected the outcome of the negotiations. Under these circumstances, the linguistic experts may play a vital role for doing their duties as a soldier. Finally, the micro-level focuses on an analysis of the translated text. By adopting the CDA framework into the text, this study aims to explain the interrelation between language and identity. The approach to social actors, as proposed by van Leeuwen, provides an analytical framework through which to examine social representation. The approach to social cognition proposed by van Dijk gives us insight into understanding the discursive legitimation of exercising power. As a result, this study reaches the following conclusions. First, the analysis of news reports reveals that the group of Korean military interpreters and translators had social influence due to the language ability after the establishment of the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK). The US military government occupied the Korean peninsula after its liberation from Japanese colonial rule. As there is a language barrier between the US army and the Koreans, the USAMGIK was thoroughly reliant on the services of Korean military interpreters in conducting its administrative duties. But the US army faced a lack of qualified interpreters because many Koreans couldn’t speak English. That is why the group of military interpreters and translators treated as valuable human resources. As the U.S. military interpreters influenced the public through this administrative work, they enjoyed a high social status. Second, the analysis of the memoirs of the military interpreters who served in the Korean and US armies provides a lens for understanding their role in the Korean war. They acted as a bridge between the ROK and US forces in the course of conducting their missions. According to the memoirs of the military interpreters, they translated documents for military education while simultaneously making interpretations for American commanders. This also proves their acumen as military interpreters. Third, analyzing the minutes of the Korean armistice talks shows that the military interpreters involved in the talks were mediators, watchers, and editors. The mediator role included not only cultural, but also linguistic mediation to explain the differences between Korean and English. Another role of the military interpreters was to check and correct the interpretations of the enemy interpreters. The military interpreters were not only translating the armistice agreement; they also edited the translated agreement and gave their feedback on the translation. Furthermore, this study analyzed their roles from the perspective from CDA proposed by van Leeuwen. The approach to legitimation of authority can help to illustrate how they conducted their roles by using their authorities such as expert authority, personal authority, and custom authority. Fourth, CDA, as proposed by van Leeuwen and van Dijk, aided this study’s efforts to explain the roles and identities of military interpreters in the Panmunjom negotiations. van Leeuwen explained the way of representing social actors in discourse. This study investigated how the participants of the negotiations could be represented in the translated discourse. During the negotiation, U.N. interpreters intervened to correct interpretation of the Communist interpreter. From the perspective of CDA, this study explained the intervention as the act of constructing collective identities by using the various ways of representing social actors. By analyzing the minutes of the Korean armistice talks, this study revealed that the military interpreters used the act of interpretation and translation to construct collective identities by representing social actors as the polarized groups of “foe or friend”. While the theoretical framework of social actors provides a way of analyzing the collective identities, Sociocognitive approach, as proposed by van Dijk, contributed to the discourse analysis for explaining the interrelation between ideology and translation. van Dijk suggested discursive strategies that legitimate social power and dominance. In case of the talks for the translation of the draft armistice, both U.S. and Communist delegations used a discursive strategy of legitimation and justification to persuade or influence the other party. The analysis of the strategy reveals that the act of translating words could be used for delivering ideological ideas by adopting the strategy of legitimation and justification for their translation. More importantly, the military interpreters in the Korean armistice talks are likely to play a crucial role by suggesting translation of terms. In addition, the collective identities of the interpreters could affect the process of translation to deliver their ideological position.

      • Fictional characterization and reader response : a comparative transitivity analysis of Yi Sang's Nalgae and its translations and a reader-response questionnaire survey

        이상빈 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2011 국내박사

        RANK : 249631

        본 연구에서는 원문소설의 인물형상화(characterization)가 번역사의 동사성 선택(transitivity choice)에 의해 변화될 수 있으며, 번역사의 동사성 선택이 번역독자의 인물 수용(受容)에 실질적인 영향을 줄 수 있음을 보여주고자 한다. 이를 위해 필자는 핼리데이(M. A. K. Halliday)의 동사성 모델을 기반으로 이상의 소설 「날개」와 서로 다른 3개의 영역본("Wings")에 나타난 주인공 "나"의 인물형상화를 분석하고, 그 결과를 독자반응 설문조사(reader-response questionnaire survey)로 검증하였다. 먼저 제2장에서는 본 연구의 이론적 배경이 되는 체계기능문법(Systemic Functional Grammar)의 동사성 모델을 소개하고, 이를 활용하여 인물형상화를 분석한 기존의 연구를 2가지 부류로 나누어 살펴본다. 첫 번째 부류에서는 동사성 모델을 통해 소설의 인물형상화를 분석한 연구들을 방법론 중심으로 검토하고, 두 번째 부류에서는 번역의 맥락에서 인물형상화의 변화를 분석한 선행연구들을 조명해 본다. 이어 제3장에서는 본 논문의 연구방법을 소개한다. 본 연구의 본론은 크게 세 부분(4장, 5장, 6장)으로 구성되어 있다. 제4장에서는 한국어 동사성 모델을 이론적으로 논의하고, 제5장에서는 4장에서 논의된 한국어 동사성 모델과 기존의 영어 동사성 모델을 적용하여 이상의 「날개」와 그 영역본에 나타난 주인공 "나"의 인물형상화를 분석한다. 마지막으로 제6장에서는 5장에서 다룬 텍스트 분석의 결과가 실제독자(real readers)에게서도 나타나는지 알아보기 위해 독자반응 설문조사를 실시한다. 따라서 본 논문은 '이론의 정립' – '이론의 적용(텍스트 분석)' – '분석결과의 검증'의 3단계로 구성되어 있으며, 이에 따라 서로 다른 3개의 연구방법을 채택하고 있다. 연구의 본론 부분을 구체적으로 살펴보면, 먼저 제4장에서는 기존의 영어 동사성 모델을 수정•보완한 '한국어 동사성 모델'이 소개된다. 본 모델은 필자가 한국어의 문법적 특성을 고려하여 정리한 것으로, 그 구체적 내용은 5장의 텍스트(이상의 소설 「날개」) 분석에 적용된다. 4장에서의 논의의 핵심은 동사성의 구성 요소인 "프로세스(process)"와 "참여자(participant)"이며, "상황(circumstance)"은 부수적 구성 요소로서만 간략히 언급된다. 한국어 프로세스는 물질적(material), 정신적(mental), 물질-행위적(material-behavioral), 정신-행위적(mental-behavioral), 관계적(relational), 구두적(verbal), 존재적(existential) 프로세스 등 유형별로 상세하게 논의되고 있으며, 대부분의 경우 온라인 한국어 코퍼스("21세기 세종계획") 예문을 활용하여 독자의 이해를 도모하고자 하였다. 4장의 논의를 바탕으로, 제5장에서는 「날개」와 서로 다른 3개의 영역본(TT1, TT2, TT3)에 나타난 주인공 "나"의 인물형상화를 분석한다. 분석대목은 (1) 주인공이 자신의 방에 대해 서술하는 부분, (2) 주인공이 아내의 방에서 불놀이를 하는 부분, (3) 주인공의 첫 외출, (4) 정오의 거리 등 총 4부분이며, 본 논문에서는 이를 각각 "Demonstration 1", "Demonstration 2", "Demonstration 3", "Demonstration 4"로 약칭하고 각 부분에 대해 주인공의 동사성 분석(transitivity analysis)을 실시한다. 다만, Demonstration별로 3개의 영역본을 모두 분석하는 것이 아니라, 번역사의 동사성 선택의 차이가 두드러진 번역문 2개를 고른 후, 이를 원문의 동사성 선택과 비교•분석하였다. 가령, Demonstration 1의 경우, 동사성의 차이가 큰 TT1과 TT3를 선택하고 이 두 번역을 ST와 비교하였다. 마찬가지 방식으로 Demonstration 2의 경우에는 TT2와 TT3를 선택•분석하였고, Demonstration 3에서는 TT1과 TT2를, Demonstration 4에서는 TT2와 TT3를, 선택•분석하였다. 이 때 동사성 분석은 주인공과 관련된 프로세스의 유형, 성격, 기능 등을 중심으로 이루어졌고 이를 통해 얻은 주인공의 인물형상화는 정량적 또는 정성적 방식으로 제시되었다. 제6장에서는 5장에서 실시된 텍스트 분석의 결과가 실제독자의 인물 수용과 비슷한지 확인하기 위해 독자반응 설문조사를 실시한다. 이를 위해 필자는 상호검토(crosscheck)가 가능하도록 서로 다른 3종의 설문지(Questionnaire A, B, C)를 구상하고, [이중언어구사자 집단1]에게 Questionnaire A를, [이중언어구사자 집단2]에게 Questionnaire B를, 그리고 [영어모국어사용자]에게 Questionnaire C를 답변하도록 하였다. 가령, Demonstration 1과 관련하여 [이중언어구사자 집단1]은 ST와 TT1을 읽은 후 두 글에서의 인물형상화를 비교하도록 하였고, [이중언어구사자 집단2]는 ST와 TT3를 읽은 후 [이중언어구사자 집단1]과 동일한 질문에 답변하도록 하였다. 한편, [영어모국어사용자]의 경우에는 TT1과 TT3를 읽고 같은 방법으로 인물형상화를 비교하도록 하였다. 모든 응답자는 각 Demonstration과 관련하여 객관식 1문항, 주관식 1문항을 부여 받아, 총 8개의 질문(Demonstration 4개×2문항)에 답하였다. 설문 결과는 정량적, 정성적으로 분석, 제시되었다. 끝으로, 제7장에서는 본 연구의 내용이 4~6장 중심으로 정리되며, 연구의 의의와 한계, 향후 연구가능 영역 등이 소개된다.

      • 대화분석적 관점에서의 한국 의료통역 연구

        김나제스다 한국외국어대학교 통번역대학원 2015 국내박사

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        A Conversation-Analytic Study of Medical Communication in Korea with Reference to Interactions between Korean Doctors, Interpreters, and Russian Patients Korea’s global healthcare market is expanding every year. As the number of overseas patients using Korean healthcare facilities grows, so does the importance of medical interpretation and related research. This study analyzes the act of medical interpretation carried out by medical interpreters in the process by which the interaction between patients from Russian-speaking nations and physicians unfold in Korea’s healthcare context. In so doing, the study aims to systematically detail this practice. Materials collected from university and specialized hospitals in Korea were narrowed down to 59 medical interpretation cases, which were subjected to conversation analysis (CA). Patients from Russian-speaking countries, as with other overseas patients seeking healthcare in Korea, have medical conditions and diseases different from those of patients who reside in Korea. The commercial profit-making goal of Korea’s healthcare environment influences the behavior of physicians, interpreters, and patients as well as each stage of the interpretation process. Interpreters assume their essential interpretation responsibilities while also serving as representatives or undertaking administrative work as medical coordinators. The conduct of Russian-language medical interpreters is organized in line with the goal of each phase of medical conversation. This is embodied by the ways in which interpreters’ actions are distinctively organized across different stages, through which they demonstrably orient to fulfilling the goal of each stage of medical conversation. For instance, in the opening stage, the medical interpreter recognizes that the communicative initiative rests with the physician while also demonstrating that s/he also has the right to manage the conversation. In the problem presentation stage, s/he assumes the patient's standpoint in conducting the interpretation but also demonstrates that s/he is in a different position (third party) from that of the patient while simultaneously focusing on moving the conversation forward. In the history-taking stage, s/he engages in three undertakings: eliciting information, violating the principle of optimization, and organizing the patient's statement. In the diagnosis stage, s/he uses various means to assume the physician's standpoint to get the patient to accept the diagnosis. In the treatment stage, s/he does his/her utmost in the patient's interest from the physician or patient's standpoint. In the closing stage, s/he also serves as coordinator or representative and his/her conduct varies according to the outcome of the patient visit. In terms of the stance that the participants take toward each other, the findings suggest that physicians who consult and treat overseas patients in Korea’s healthcare environment are well aware of overseas patients’ distinctive traits, needs, and preferences. They see overseas patients as consumers who have come to Korea to purchase medical services and adopt a consumer-oriented perspective to be as accommodating of patient demands as possible. Physicians bestow on interpreters the mandate to conduct medical interviews and allow interpreters to take patients’ medical history on their behalf. Patients from Russian-speaking nations who visit Korean healthcare facilities, on their part, regard interpreters as their spokespeople/representatives. They also anticipate a particular method of treatment and regard the treatment presented by physicians as a proposal they can accept or reject. It is shown that while physicians lead the opening of a medical conversation, its closing is determined by patients. Physician-patient interaction, which is very complex and paradoxical to begin with, is further complicated with interpreter involvement. The involvement also decreases the scope of direct physician-patient interaction. Physicians bestow on medical interpreters the mandate to take patients’ medical history when medical interpreters often lack expert medical knowledge. Physicians equate interpreters with patients while also demonstrating excessive dependence on interpreters. These perceptions and practices not only reduce patients’ communication opportunities or even deprive patients of such opportunities altogether but could also negatively impact patient health and medical services. This study can be a starting point for a wide array of related research, including the analysis of interaction among physicians, interpreters, and patients of other linguistic/cultural spheres. Language-specific studies would be required for generalizations for medical interpreters and patients of other linguistic/cultural spheres. It is hoped that this study will deepen the understanding and social awareness of medical interpretation and the work undertaken by medical interpreters in Korea while serving as the basis of medical interpreter training and education.

      • 한국 형사재판 법정통역사의 역할 인식에 관한 연구 : 중국어 통역 담화분석 및 통역사 면접조사를 중심으로

        이유진 한국외국어대학교 통번역대학원 2015 국내박사

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        A study on the perceptions of court interpreters’ roles in criminal trials in Korea: Based on discourse analyses of Chinese interpretation and interviews of Chinese interpreters Since 2008, Korean scholars of interpretation and translation have suggested that interpretation in legal contexts should become a specialized profession. Pointing to cases in advanced countries, they call for a certification system for court interpreters, as well as better rates and specialized training courses. However, the court interpretation system has not improved over the past seven years. This study began with a question in mind: how do court interpreters working in the Korean and Chinese languages perceive their role, given that there was insufficient institutional support for this profession for a long time? The purpose of this study is to examine, in a concrete way, the difficulties that arise in the course of providing interpretation for Chinese speakers in legal contexts in Korea and to determine the implicit norms that Korean-Chinese court interpreters are following. By doing so, it becomes possible to determine how the relevant institutions are influencing court interpreters' beliefs and the choices they make. Ultimately, the study will also explore how court interpreters come to view their role when they have insufficient institutional support, and the resulting implications for the field of court interpretation. This is a qualitative study that uses ethnographic research methods, while relying on prior research in the field of institutional translation and the metaphorical roles of court interpreters as its theoretical background. It uses discourse analysis and interview-based research to analyze the data in a qualitative manner. Through discourse analysis and interview-based research, the study came to the following conclusions. First, regarding difficulties facing court interpreters, interpreters are often expected to interpret witness testimony without understanding important context such as the circumstances of a case. Although this is an inherent problem in the field of court interpretation, it is intensified when court interpreters are not given basic background information such as the details of arraignments and other matters subject to examination. The study also addressed Chinese speech characteristics, including dialect, as well as the fact that levels of speech differ widely between minority-language speakers with lower levels of education and Koreans with legal backgrounds who are involved in trial proceedings. Furthermore, the study identified additional reasons that interpreters were dissatisfied with their work; these included irregular schedules, inconsistent rates and inadequate remuneration. The psychological burden of working in such a taxing field also cannot be overlooked. Secondly, regarding norms in court interpretation, there is insufficient consensus between interpreters and professionals with law-related backgrounds who participate directly in trial proceedings. As a result, time pressure and institutional expectations sometimes force interpreters to prioritize time-efficiency over other considerations and prevent them from abiding by their code of ethics. Lastly, using discourse analysis and interview-based research, the study looked at the effects of the court interpreters' view on their work and the factors involved in shaping that view. A court interpreter's primary role is that of a facilitator for the institution, one who follows the judge's instructions. However, under the current circumstances in which interpreters have weak standing in the court proceedings interpreters must give priority to time-efficiency, part of the expectancy norm, rather than the code of ethics. This could increase barriers to fair court proceedings, as the interpreter's role shifts to that of institutional agent. As the discourse analysis shows, interpreters play a mediating role, enabling communication between people who speak different languages and belong to different cultures. This role can be both positive and negative; However, when the mediating role becomes paramount, an excessive workload may be forced on court interpreters and the focus of their work can shift toward representing the interests of defendants. Furthermore, interviewees mentioned the stress caused by demands for literal translation by people with legal backgrounds, who often expect the interpreter to function as a "conduit" or a translation machine. Ideally, court interpreters should faithfully convey the full message behind the original words, but it is important to know that even the most highly skilled interpreter can fail to do so as a result of difficulties inherent in the field of court interpretation. Therefore, the judiciary will need to understand those problems and devise measures to ensure fairness in trials that involve foreigners. Above all, if employment conditions for court interpreters do not improve, it is likely that interpreters will tend to play a more active "assistant" role, thus becoming partial to their institutions or to the judiciary to obtain greater recognition, instead of maintaining impartiality. This situation gives interpreters an incentive to prioritize smooth proceedings over accuracy. Also, the lack of standardized norms and complementary training courses for court interpreters is a significant barrier that prevents them from building greater expertise. When the field of court interpretation is not a specialized profession, as is the case under the current system, asymmetries in power are heightened and so are barriers to fair court proceedings. In this regard, court interpreters should keep in mind their roles as facilitators for their institutions and as public experts with a duty to deliver accurate and neutral interpretations under the direction of the court. At the same time, the court needs a clearer understanding of court interpreters' role in court proceedings, and there is a need at the government level for institutional measures to ensure expertise and impartiality on the part of court interpreters.

      • 번역상황의 번역교육 적용에 관한 실행연구 : 통번역대학원 번역수업을 중심으로

        김진숙 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2011 국내박사

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        Drawing on Vienne (2000, p. 92), the present study defines translation competence as the ability to analyze various translation situations and determine strategies for subject-matter research relevant to each translation situation. This research applies a situational translator education model to the postgraduate translation classroom, which assumes that the translation task given in class is a translation actually commissioned in the field, thus, motivating student translators to consider any factors relevant to the translation situation in question as if they were working as professionals. By applying the situational translator education model, the present dissertation aims to evaluate the levels of student translators' translation competence and investigate the progress and improvements they make in their translation competence in the duration of a semester. For this, translation is understood not as a tool for learning a foreign language but as a tool for actual interpersonal communication; translation competence is interpreted as a professional translator's competence; and the act of translation is assumed to have multiple parties involved. Translation and interpreting (T&I) education in Korea began with the foundation of the Graduate School of Interpretation & Translation (GSIT) at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (HUFS) and has continuously extended its territories to find itself being taught even at the undergraduate level. With ever more students learning translation, having an accurate and firm understanding of the characteristics and talents students possess has become an essential element in any attempt for success in translator education. To achieve the above research objectives, I designed a situational translator education model and applied it to my translation class at the GSIT, HUFS. Each session (12 in total) conducted under this model comprises of a translation task, a lecture (in-class discussion), and an online examination. In detail, I gave out a translation task with predetermined task objectives; and student translators i) identified what they assumed was the most likely translation situation for the task at hand, ii) conducted research for subject-matter information, iii) produced their target texts, iv) summarized any translation problems they encountered as well as solutions they used to overcome them, and v) finally submitted the above altogether. In the classroom, student translators and I engaged in an in-depth discussion on the most likely and typical translation situation that the translation task would have been assigned in a professional field as well as other relevant translation situations. And an online examination via electronic mail was given at the end of each session. Through the above series of tasks carried out under the situational translator education model, I analyzed the translation briefs, translation problems, solutions, and target texts student translators submitted so as to identify their levels of translation competence and examine the progress and improvements they make as each session proceeded. Against this backdrop, the present action research first identifies problems in current practices in translator education drawing on my personal experience, and then describes how I designed, carried out, and analyzed the results of the study. Overall, this dissertation begins with a description of problems identified in current translator education practices, offers a literature review, and then elaborates on action research design, data analyses, and finally ends with its concluding remarks. Each chapter proceeds as follows: Chapter 2 presents the theoretical background of this research. It first describes the translation process from a functional translation theoretical standpoint and points out the need to define translation competence differently depending on the recipients and the objectives of education. And lastly, the chapter illustrates on the translation conventions used for text selection and target-text evaluation. Chapter 3 provides the details of the participants, timeline, translation tasks and other elements of this action research. Chapter 4 describes how I applied the situational translator education model to the postgraduate classroom, what the translation competence levels of student translators were before its application, and how much progress they made in their translation competence with each session conducted under the model. To examine how student translators improved, I performed a series of analyses, both intra-texual (e.g. target-text analyses) and extra-textual (e.g. translation briefs, translation problems). Chapter 5, the final chapter, offers a comprehensive summary of this study, describes its significance, and lays out a blueprint for future research.

      • 번역가의 언어배경에 따른 번역방법의 차이 검증 연구 : 한중문학번역의 감정표현을 중심으로

        이현주 한국외국어대학교 통번역대학원 2016 국내박사

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        A Study on the Differences in Translation Methods Affected by Translators' Linguistic Background : Focused on emotional expressions in Korean into Chinese literature translation The purpose of this paper is to inductively classify and present translation methods in Korean into Chinese literature translation, focusing on the translation of emotional expressions. Furthermore, the dissertation statistically verifies the difference in translation strategies between three translator groups of different linguistic background. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted to study the distinctiveness of the translation strategies. First, for qualitative analysis, a small-scale corpus of 1,692,963 words was built from a total of nine Korean novels. Among the words, a total number of 1.047 expressions of joy, anger and sadness were extracted and grouped into physical metonymy and conceptual metaphor category. By comparing the target and source text, a total of seven translation strategies were found: literal translation, substitution, Chinese four-character form/structure, generalization, explicitation, simile and omission. Among the strategies, literal translation (39.2%) and substitution (31.4%) accounted for more than half of the total translation strategy, followed by Chinese four-character form/structure (21.5%) and generalization (7%). Explicitation, simile and omission showed low frequency level. Second, based on the categorized translation strategies, chi-square test was conducted in order to verify the statistical difference of translation methods between the translation groups. As a result, differences in translation methods were found between the three groups, joint-group of Korean and Chinese translators, the Hans and the Chaos, thus adopting the research hypothesis. In addition, the paper also examined the influence of new variables, ‘expression type’ and ‘metaphor type’, to translation methods using multiple cross-tabulation table. The result was statistically significant. Based on the statistical results, the paper describes the differences between the translation groups. The results are summarized as follows: First, substitution was the most frequently used translation strategy in the joint-translator group. This seems to be a result of having the advantage of using two mother tongues in translation process. In other words, substitution strategy, which elaborates the meaning of the word based on the analysis of the source text by a Korean native Korean translator and the comprehension of the target text by a Chinese native Chinese translator, is the most preferred translation strategy among joint-translator groups. Second, Hans preferred Chinese four-character form/structure translation strategy. Chinese four-character form/structure is a word made up of four Chinese characters, as four-character Chinese idioms, is deeply related to the culture and history of China. Accordingly, Chinese four-character form/structure seems to be the most efficient translation strategy for the Hans, who use Chinese as their mother tongue. Third, the study finds out that the Chaos preferred literal translation, especially in translating conceptual metaphors. Chaos acquire Chinese and Korean from their early ages and are understood as perfect bilinguals. Bilinguals experience language interference while selecting a word. Such interference also occurs in the process of translation, resulting in having a preference in literal translation strategy. The paper does not discuss the effectiveness of translation strategies of the three translator groups as the aim of this study is not on evaluating or comparing the quality of translation. However, this dissertation is expected to serve as a stepping stone in laying the ground for further research in presenting the most effective translation strategy in Korean literature translation, improving the quality of Korean into Chinese literature translation. 번역가의 언어배경에 따른 번역방법의 차이 검증 연구 : 한중문학번역의 감정표현을 중심으로 본 연구의 목적은 한국문학작품을 중국어로 번역할 때, 작품 속에서 나타나는 감정표현을 중심으로 그 번역양상을 살펴보고 어떠한 번역방법들이 사용되었는지 귀납적으로 분류하고 제시하는 데 있다. 아울러 번역가의 언어배경이 달라질 때, 각각의 번역가가 취하는 번역방법에 차이가 있는지 통계방법을 통해 검증하고, 차이가 있다면 과연 어떤 차이가 나타나는지, 그 특징이 무엇인지 고찰하는 데 있다. 이를 위하여 정성분석과 정량분석을 함께 실시하였다. 첫째, 정성분석을 실시하기 위하여 한국문학작품 9권을 대상으로 하여 총 1,692,963자에 달하는 소규모의 코퍼스를 구축하였다. 이 가운데, 기쁨, 분노, 슬픔의 표현을 총 1,047개 추출하여 ST와 TT를 대조하여 번역방법을 분류하였고, 그 결과, 직역, 대체, 사자구, 일반화, 외연화, 직유, 생략 등 총 7개의 방법이 나타났다. 이 가운데, 직역(39.2%)과 대체(31.4%)의 방법이 전체 표현의 절반 이상을 차지하여 가장 많이 사용되었다. 이 밖에 사자구가 21.5%, 일반화가 7.0%를 차지하였다. 이를 제외한 외연화, 직유, 생략의 방법이 나타나는 빈도는 극히 적은 수로 나타났다. 둘째, 분류한 번역방법을 바탕으로 하여 번역가 그룹간 번역방법의 차이를 통계적으로 검증하기 위하여 카이제곱(X^2) 검정을 실시하였다. 그 결과 한국인과 중국인의 공동 번역가, 한족 번역가, 조선족 번역가 세 그룹간 취하는 번역방법에는 차이가 있다는 연구가설을 채택하였다. 이 밖에, ‘감정유형’과 ‘은유타입’이라는 새로운 변수가 개입되었을 때 번역방법 선택에 영향을 받는지 살펴보았다. 이를 위해서는 다중교차분석표를 활용하였고 모두 통계적으로 유의미한 결과를 얻었다. 통계검증 결과를 토대로 하여 번역가 그룹간의 특징을 고찰하였다. 그 결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 첫째, 공동 번역가 그룹은 대체의 방법을 많이 사용하였다. 이는 번역가 각자의 모국어의 장점이 잘 발휘되어 나타난 결과로 보인다. 즉, 한국어를 모국어로 하는 한국인 번역가의 ST에 대한 해석과 중국어를 모국어로 하는 중국인 번역가의 TT에 대한 이해를 바탕으로 하여 그 의미 풀이에 중점을 둔 대체의 방법이 많이 사용된 것으로 해석된다. 둘째, 한족 번역가 그룹은 사자구의 방법을 많이 사용하였다. 사자구는 사자성어와 같이 네 글자로 구성된 어구로서, 중국의 역사는 물로 사회문화적인 배경과 깊은 연관성을 지닌다. 이에 따라 사자구를 활용한 번역은 중국어를 모국어로 하는 번역가가 가장 효율적으로 활용할 수 있는 방법으로 보인다. 셋째, 조선족 번역가 그룹은 특히 개념적 은유 표현에서 직역의 방법을 많이 사용하였다. 조선족 번역가는 어려서부터 중국어와 한국어를 함께 습득한 이중언어 구사자로 볼 수 있다. 이중언어 구사자는 두 개 언어가 한 층위 내에 존재하기 때문에 어휘를 선택할 때 언어간섭이 발생한다. 이러한 언어간섭이 번역의 과정에서도 반영되어 직역의 방법을 더 많이 사용한 것으로 보인다. 본 연구의 목적이 번역가 그룹의 번역방법에 달라짐에 따라 그 번역품질이 어떻게 달라지는지는 평가하지 데 있지 않으므로 어느 번역가 그룹의 번역방법이 효과적인지에 대해서는 논의하지 않았다. 하지만 향후 본 연구의 결과를 바탕으로 하여 연구를 지속한다면 한국문학을 번역할 때 가장 효과적인 최선의 번역방법이 무엇인지 제시하여 한국문학의 중국어 번역의 품질을 한층 제고 시키는 데 역할을 할 것으로 기대된다.

      • 한ㆍ중남미 의약보건 협력 양상과 한-서 통역학습요소에 관한 연구 : 태평양 동맹국 사례를 중심으로

        한성숙 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2019 국내박사

        RANK : 249631

        The propose of this research are first to examine the aspect of Korea-Latin American cooperation and second to offer interpretation learning elements interpreters should learn to efficiently interpret Korean Spanish in pharmaceutical and public health area. This study does an experiment in which interpretation learners are led to learn interpretation learning elements an d will examine how the learning of those elements affect real interpretation. This study expects that interpretation learning elements will be used in interpretation education to cultivate professional interpreters. In recent years, Korean-Spanish interpretation demand in the pharmaceutical and public health area for those from Latin america has continuously increased. But, the number of interpereters in this area has not increased sufficiently to cover the demand. In 2009, the Korean government chose medical business as one of the New Growth Engine Industries, and revised the medical law, leading to increased interests in medical interpretation. In addition, in 2016, the government newly adopted the Medical Interpretation Capacity Test. But, mainly due to the small market of medical interpretation between Korean and Spanish, there have not been sufficient researches in this area. So, this research started with the view that it would be meaningful to do research on interpretation between Korean and Spanish on the pharmaceutical and public health area considering the increasing demand of cooperation in the area between Korea and Latin America. Accordingly, this research intends to study Korean-Spanish interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area focusing specifically on the countries belonging to the Pacific Alliance (Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Columbia), a Latin American trade bloc. To fulfill the research aims, this research first classified various kinds of cooperation between Korea and the Pacific alliance countries into six domains and examined the aspects of this cooperation. By analyzing the aspect of cooperation between Korea and four countries of Pacific Alliance, the findings of this study will serve as basic sources for professional interpreters between Korean and Spanish. Meanwhile, to figure out what interpretation learning elements are important in real interpretation, this research did the surveys. First, it was conducted to professional interpreters majoring pharmaceutical and public health in all languages including Spanish(1). Second, in-depth interview was conducted to a single Korean-Spanish interpreter with abundant experiences in the pharmaceutical and public health area. Through such surveys, this research tried to examine seven interpretation learning elements, and summarized each element with examples through interpretation materials in the Korean-Spanish pharmaceutical and public health. Subsequently, this research did the second survey(2) to Korean-Spanish interpreters with abundant experiences in the pharmaceutical and public health area, and examined the followings: the rank order in importance of those interpretation learning elements, difficulty of texts, sufficiency of interpretation records, the time when records are delivered to interpreter, importance of English, and use of PPT, etc. Then, those interpretation learning elements suggested through the research were applied to experiment participants to examine how those elements affect interpretation results. Experiment participants were the students in the Korean-Spanish Department of the Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation, the only one in Korea. And, between the first and second interpretation experiments, this research did education on seven interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area to participants, and examined the effect of the education through quantitative and qualitative analyses, and compared the results also with the results of the survey(2) to professional interpreters. As described above, this research suggested interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area which contain a wide range of difficult to help Korean-Spanish interpreters to do the job effectively. Given that researches in the pharmaceutical and public health area not only for Spanish but also for other language are very rare, it is hoped that this research will stimulate the development of this kind of research. And, it is expected that this research will contribute to cultivation of professional Korean-Spanish interpreters and their capacity as interpreters. Then, given the small number of patients using Spanish in Korean hospitals, and slow development of related researches, this research will serve to development and expansion of researches on Korean-Spanish interpretation not only in the medical area, but in the pharmaceutical and public health area, which will narrow the gap between this kind of research on Spanish and corresponding researches on other languages.

      • K-POP 가창 가사의 한일・일한 번역 전략 연구 : 음절수, 압운, 의미를 중심으로

        박세이 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2022 국내박사

        RANK : 249631

        This study aims to draw strategies to overcome the constraints and linguistic differences posed by singable translations of songs, and to identify commonalities and differences in the use of strategies depending on the directionality of translation by examining the types of translation strategies deployed in K-pop song lyrics. To achieve these goals, this dissertation presents the following research questions. (1) In cases where the syllable count is not identical between ST and TT, what strategies are used to achieve a singable TT? (2) What strategies are used to render rhymes from ST into TT? (3) What strategies are used to convey meaning from ST to TT? (4) Drawing upon the analyses of the translation strategies of syllable count, rhymes and meaning stated above, what commonalities and differences are found between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation? The present study analyzed K-pop songs released in Japan and Korea from the late 1990s through the year 2020 by Korean artists who debuted and achieved success in the Japanese market. A total of 190 translated songs were examined; 129 Korean-Japanese songs and 61 Japanese-Korean songs. The analytical framework this dissertation adopts is Franzon’s three layers of singability (2008) which suggests that a prosodic match, a poetic match and a semantic-reflexive match are the strategic choices available in song translation. Each of the three layers consists of elements that appear in the text lyrics. Among them, the scope of this paper’s analysis is limited to syllable count for a prosodic match, rhymes for a poetic match and depiction, i.e. the meaning of the lyrics, for a semantic-reflexive match. With respect to syllable count, the thesis examined what strategies were applied when there was a lack of correspondence in syllable count between ST and TT. With respect to rhymes, the strategies used to render rhymes from ST into TT were examined in each section of a song. With respect to meaning, the strategies used to convey meaning from ST to TT were investigated in each line and section of a song. Drawing from the analysis results, the following conclusions were reached. Firstly, in cases where there was a different syllable count between ST and TT, translators achieved singability by employing 1) the strategy of matching the syllable count on a phonological level and 2) the strategy of matching the syllable count on a musical level. The strategy of matching the syllable count on a phonological level was categorized into reduction of TT syllable count, use of English-Japanese mixed syllables in Korean-Japanese translation, and use of English-Korean mixed syllables in Japanese-Korean translation. Reduction of TT syllable count was further sub-categorized into diphthongization, deletion of a trailing identical vowel, deletion of the neutral vowel ‘ウ(/u/)’, and vowel devoicing. The strategy of matching the syllable count on a musical level was classified into altering ST rhythm and maintaining ST notes. Altering ST rhythm was further sub-divided into dividing notes, combining notes, adding notes and deleting notes, while maintaining ST notes comprised inserting syllables and stretching syllables - adjustments were made following the notes of the source music. Secondly, in delivering rhymes from ST to TT, preservation, elimination, addition and modification strategies were found. The amount of rhyme, which is related to the effects of rhyme, increased, was maintained or decreased in TT. A notable finding was that an attempt was made to facilitate rhymes through phonological restructuring. That is, slight adjustments to the pronunciation of certain words occurred for the sake of singability. Thirdly, in terms of conveying semantic meaning, strategies of meaning preservation and meaning deviation were observed. Meaning preservation refers to a high degree of semantic transfer, which is sub-categorized into complete preservation and partial deviation. The former is a strategy that reflects total ST meaning with significant details in TT, while the latter is one that adopts ST meaning deviation to a minimal degree in TT. Partial deviation includes such sub-strategies as addition, modification, omission, specification and generalization of ST meaning. The practice of meaning deviation is defined as the creation of replacement texts. This strategy is divided into complete deviation, characterized by a totally rewritten set of lyrics, and partial preservation, which allows slight reference to the source-text meaning. Another finding, based upon the operational definitions applied to classify the songs studied in this research, showed that the K-pop song translations featured all three phenomena: translations, adaptations and replacement texts. Lastly, the common characteristics of translation strategy shared between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation are as follows: In relation to the number of syllables, altering ST rhythm ranked the highest, and use of mixed syllables, the lowest. In terms of rhymes, the order appeared as: retention > elimination > addition > modification. As for the change in the amount of rhyme, the order appeared as: decrease > increase > no change. Regarding meaning, use of meaning preservation (i.e. complete preservation and partial deviation combined) ranked slightly higher than use of meaning deviation (i.e. complete deviation and partial preservation combined). The most commonly used strategy was partial deviation which involves adjustments (namely addition, modification, omission, specification, and generalization) to a degree in a bid to retain the central meaning of the original lines. There were also numerous cases when English words in ST were transferred to TT without translation. Furthermore, with the use of the operational definitions established in this research, a song adaptation, in which 20% to 80% (i.e. 20% or above, below 80%) of ST meaning is transferred, was found to be the most prevalent. The differences in translation strategy between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation are as follows: In terms of syllable count, a reduction in TT syllable count was observed with high occurrences in Korean-Japanese translation, whereas the same strategy was used only in very few cases in Japanese-Korean translation. Rhyme addition was twice as high in Japanese-Korean translation compared to Korean-Japanese translation, and the amount of rhyme increased more significantly in Japanese-Korean translation than in the translation in the opposite direction. With regard to meaning, meaning deviation was found with higher rates in Korean-Japanese translation. In some cases, Korean lyrics in ST were left untranslated in TT in Korean-Japanese translation, but no attempt was found to retain the Japanese lyrics in TT in Japanese-Korean translation. In addition, high rates of omission and generalization but low rates of addition and specification were found in Korean-Japanese translation. On the other hand, high rates of addition and low rates of omission and generalization were revealed in Japanese-Korean translation. It was also found out that while replaced songs were greater in number in Korean-Japanese translation than in Japanese-Korean translation, translated songs prevailed in Japanese-Korean translation, based on the operational definitions. The implications of the study are as follows. First, patterns of K-pop singable translation were identified in terms of syllable count, rhymes and meaning through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Second, this study also sheds light on the aspects of K-pop singable translation not only from a perspective of semantic value, but also from one of musical features, i.e. syllable count and rhymes. Third, in comparison with the outcomes of the previous research literature focusing on operas and musicals, this study provides insight into distinct differences presented by K-pop singable translation stemming from its genre characteristics. Finally, operationally defining the three different variations proposed by previous studies - translations, adaptation and replacement texts – categorized by a degree of semantic fidelity, this paper looked into the translation trends between Korean-Japanese translation and Japanese-Korean translation. However, this study is not without limitations; extended in-depth research was not conducted to investigate the correlations among syllable count, rhymes and meaning by linking the components, and circumstantial factors that could affect translation strategy and the impact of fandom on singable translation were not fully taken into account.

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