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The effect of reducing flood magnitudes, flood stages, and flood damage by upstream reservoir regulation are investigated in this study. The analytical procedures which has been established newly, are treated through this study for 7 index stations and same number of reaches. The method of this study could be expressed briefly as following procedures. Using stage-frequency relations and the potential damage survey data, damage-frequency relations are established, and from this, average annual flood damages computed. By holding out portions of the floods with various amounts of flood control storage in 6 reservoirs in the basin, routing were made to establish modified stage-frequency relations. From damage frequency relation, average annual damages are computed with and without condition of each control volume. The study result are concluded as follows; (1)The relationship of corresponding water level between nearby stations are useful tools to adjust error of the data due to observation error and change of the gaging location. (2)The number of records about 10 years could not be applied for the statistical methods of flood frequency analysis. (3)The regional skew factors are recommended to apply flood frequency study by the log. Pearson TypeⅢ method. (4)The effect of damage reduction are greatly affected in accordance with the routed flood. Therefore application of the Typical Tributary Contribution Flood are reasonable for this type of study. (5)In the North Han, effect of damage reduction due to the location of control point are gradually increased from upstream to downward until the confluence of North and South Han. (6)In the South Han, control effect are increased from Chungju to Yeoju where the maximum effect are analyzed and then decrease gradually until the confluence. (7)Better hydrologic and topographic combinations for the flood control are existed in South Han to compare with North Han in this study results.
This paper is a general perspective on the Fundamental Research on the Theory of Probability/Statistics which will be finished with a series study continued by "The Emergence and Development of Probability/Statistics", and "The Prospective Direction of Fundamental Research of the Theory of Probability/Statistics." In chapter Ⅱ, we intend to consider the historical task of current human culture confronted with transitional stage headed for unprecedented, highly unified global culture pattern of mankind by surveying the characteristics of western civilization based on science and materialism and its dualistic value/belief system as the thought and behavior pattern which have been leading the current society since the modernization of western civilization. Christian value and belief system which is formulated by ceaseless reciprocal action, contradictorily or harmoniously, of the religious tradition of Hebraism and Hellenismic way of thinking based on reason has been extensively influenced upon way of thinking and belief of western European society during the past one thousand years up to the emergence of modern civilization. At this point of view, we intend to trace the origin of dualistic research attitude and methodology of westrn people specified by dichotomic approach such as noumena and phenomena, spirit and matter human and nature. In consequence of this viewpoint, it can be understood that western research methodology based on deductive/inductive thought and logic, and the approach of thought experiment or observational experiment innated in the modern science and technology sysem is the rebirth of Hellenismic tradition. In chapter Ⅲ, we intent to survey general trend and reflexion about the scientific metholology or paradigm of 20th century. In view of this trend, the nature and significance of Probability/Statistics theory as the research methodology is considered. After the emergence of western science since the 17th-18th century, western society has strived for development of research methodology, that is (1) naive inductive/deductive method based on heuristics through the accumulation of experimental facts such as natural history, (2) inductivism and deductivism indulged in rationalism and formal logic in the pursuit of validity evaluation of presupposed theory or hypothesis. But in these days, it is the prevailing view that the established methodology structured so far by rationalism and formal logic alone has come to a stalemate. In the meantime, new pardigm longing for meta-methodology has emerged from new circle of the science-philosophers, who accentuated the necessity of subjectivty and socio-psycho-logical aspects of research group by reflecting the so far sustained research attitude. By connecting this viewpoint of the current science philosophers with the current situation of Probability/Statistics, we intend to suggest new orientation of research area of Probability/Statistics intending for the meta-statistics. Finally, in chapter Ⅳ, at the viewpoint of looking for the meta-methodology or meta-statistics, we intend to consider the difference between western and eastern society from the viewpoint of the frame of conception, thought system, expecially the role and interrelation ship of attitude toward the intuition and reason since the axial age, from which four cultural pattern of world formulated. From this survey, we can extract the cultural dissimilaity of two society, that is, the western style of thought and research attitude addicted to the elemental-reductionism and mechanical-determinism, and the East-Asian inquiring attitude emphasizing the organic view of the world and pattern analogical methodology. And, by studying the circumstances and nature of General System Thory(GST), newly generated since the nineteen-sixties, with a noticeable feature of interdisciplinary approach, we intend to link together these approach with the traditional East-Asian inquiring system mainly connected with the fundamental frame of conceptions as a way of thinking, that is, flexible reticular continuum and various pattern analogical approach seeking for a new approach of Probability/Statistics as a meta-methodology.
In recent years, rubber toughened plastics have drawn enormous attention because of their practical importance. Experimental study had been carried out on the morphological and mechanical aspects of PS/EPR blends employing SBR as a compatibilizer. Blended specimens were prepared through melt blending process using two-roll mill followed by compression molding step. The mechanical behavior of the blends was investigated in terms of tensile and impact strength, using Instron tensile tester at 18℃and impact tester at 0℃, respectively. Micro-structure of fratured surface of the impact specimens was observed utilizing a scanning electron microscope(SEM). It was found that the addition of the rubber increased the impact strength while it showed an adversary effect on the tensile strength of the specimens. It was also found that the average particle size of the rubber domain decreased with decreasing Mooney viscosity. PS/EPR/SBR blends showed very high dispersion of EPR phase in PS matrix compared to that of PS/EPR blends. The fine dispersion of the impact modifiers is a basic regulating factor of impact energy dissipation in the form of shear yielding and crazing.
The purpose of parallel processing system is to improve the processing time. The interconnection network is an integral part of parallel processing system. Therefore in recent years, the multistage interconnection networks have been the object of intense research. In this paper, properties and architecture of parallel processing system and operation mode, control strategy, switching method and topology of multistage interconnection network have been investigated. To simulation of the performance of circuit swiching multistage interconnection network, rerouting model for ADM (Augmented Data Manipulator) networks and countout(i) model for generalized cube networks have been proposed and used. Results of performance evaluation prove that the rerouting model for ADM network and the countout(i) model for generalized cube network are better than that of drop and hold models.
In the steel structures which are used in recent years, especially in manufacturing bridges, solid propellant rocket casing and thin walled pressure vessels, aerospace ship, atomic power plants, the tendency of using steel plates are increasing and the use of such materials are expected to be more popular in the future to save the expense. Therefore, it is regarded that much researchs are needed in the design and the safety evaluation of the structures employing steel plates under plane stress conditions. In this research, the author attempted to examine the relation between n in the strain hardening exponent and plastic zone size, fatigue behavior of steel plates by applying prestrain.
The three dimensional plastic flow of material during profiled ring rolling process was described and analysed by the upper bound elemental technique. The roll torque for L-sectioned rings were calculated with respect to the feed rate of pressure roll. The calculated results showed good agreement in trends with the experimental results of other's published paper.
Calcium-alginate에 포괄법으로 고정화한 yeast whole-cell invertase의 고정화 및 작용상을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 고정화는 fiber 보다 bead 형태로 하는 것이 효과적이었으며, 고정화효소의 작용 및 안정 pH 범위는 native invertase 보다 alkali 쪽으로 이동하였고 열에 대한 안정성은 더욱 커져서 60℃에서 2시간 처리하여도 활성이 70%이상 잔존하였으며 activation energy는 4.7kcal/mole이었다. 또 40℃에서 20회 반복 사용했을 때의 잔존 활성도는 60% 정도였으며 1.6×18cm 크기의 column을 사용한 packed-bed reactor에서의 maximal productivity는 250mL/hr의 flow rate에서 3.6mM sucrose hydrolyzed/hr이었다. Yeast whole-cell invertase immobilized on calcium-alginate gel by entrapment was used in this study. Among various entrapped material shape, the bead of 1.5mm diameter was most effective for sucrose hydrolysis at 40℃. The entrapped preparations showed high stability to heat treatment and repeated operations. Activation energy of the entrapped invertase was 4.7kcal/mole. And the maximal productivity in packed-bed reactor (1.6×18cm) obtained was 3.6mM sucrose hydrolyzed/hr at the flow rate of 250mL/hr.
The composite tooth profile which has involute tooth profile at the pitch point and circular tooth profile at the dedendum and addendum is designed to improve the power transfer efficiency and the contact condition than the involute tooth profile with easy machining. The results of this study are as follows. a. For the same case of whole depth of tooth, the thickness of dedendum of composite tooth profile gear is increased 10.9% than the case of involute gear. b. The radius of circular arc of composite tooth profile gear is desirable between 1.278 m and 1.478m(m=module). c. The variation of cutter pressure angle of composite tooth profile gear has no remarkable effect to the thickness of dedendum.
The quality of drinking water must be suitable for drinking purposes under all circumstances. Since 1970's, in course of industrialization, most of water basins are locally polluted by heavy metals, residual pesticides and other organic chemicals as well as microbial agents. The nature of the water source dictate the need for drinking water standards to control the chemical, microbiological and aesthetic variables. This study has evaluated the present drinking water standards mainly compared to the Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality prepared by WHO as well as those of some advanced countries in light of raw water quality and treatment facilities, and made an attempt to provide the competent authorities with an insight into and an understanding of how drinking water standards have to be developed and to ensure public health.
Combustion analyzer and intake manifold pressure pick-up system is developed using personal computer, A/D converter, interfacing signal transducer and data processing computer programs. The experimental tests are performed for both 4 cycle 4 cylinder gasoline and diesel engines, and all the pressure data(P) in the cylinder and intake manifold are obtained at each crank angle(?). The informations which are necessary for the combustion analysis, are obtained through the processing of the pressure data using thermodynamic relation. These are p-? curve, ??? curve, heat release rate curve, the mass rate burned to crank angle curve, polytropic index curve, intake manifold pressure to crank angle curve, pressure-volume curve, mean effective pressure and pumping loss etc. With the aid of this developed system, engine data pick-up and processing becomes easier with resonable superiority.