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In this study, a novel rapid and efficient DNA extraction method based on alkaline lysis, which can deal with a large number of filamentous fungal isolates in the same batch, was established. The filamentous fungal genomic DNA required only 20 min to prepare and can be directly used as a template for PCR amplification. The amplified internal transcribed spacer regions were easy to identify by analysis. The extracted DNA also can be used to amplify other protein-coding genes for fungal identification. This method can be used for rapid systematic identification of filamentous fungal isolates.
Enantiopure esomeprazole is an important drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. The asymmetric sulfoxidation of omeprazole thioether was catalyzed by immobilized cells of a mutant of Rhodococcus rhodocrous ATCC 4276 to synthesize esomeprazole. The bioreaction was carried out in a biphasic system (chloroform-water), at a high substrate concentration (200mM), and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal yield of esomeprazole obtained was 94.8% with e.e. (>99%) without the formation of the sulfone form as a byproduct, under the optimal conditions: the concentration of immobilized cells, 283.5 g/L, the incubation temperature, 37.05 oC, and pH of phosphate buffer, 7.35, respectively. A quadratic polynomial model was developed with R2 of 0.9998, which indicates that the model predicts the observed data with very high accuracy. The mutant exhibited a high enantioselective activity and substrate and product tolerance. The small size of immobilized cell beads (0.5-1 mm) creates a large reaction interface. The aerated flask provides enough oxygen for a high concentration of cells. The significant improvement of substrate tolerance may mainly be attributed to employing the chloroform-water biphasic system because organic substrates may be partitioned in the organic phase, eliminating potential damage and inhibition to cells. Based on the above, the asymmetric sulfoxidation catalyzed by immobilized bacterial cells is therefore more promising for efficient synthesis of chiral sulfoxides.
Compared with conventional adsorption-based coloration, the photoreactions of dyes such as photo-copolymerization and photo-crosslinking under UV irradiation can be employed for the coloration of textiles, which can be carried out without salt addition at room temperature. C.I. Reactive Black 5, a homo-bifunctional reactive dye containing two sulfatoethylsulfone groups, is used as a photo-reactive dye for wool fibers. Upon UV irradiation, the photo-reactive dye was grafted onto wool fabrics without photoinitiators. Since the disulfide bonds in the cystine residues of wool can be easily photodecomposed to active thiyl radicals which initiate the polymerization, the dye can be polymerized to an oligomeric dye of a degree of polymerization of 12 or more. The grafted fabrics reached a grafting yield of 2.3% o.w.f. and a color yield (K/S) of 18.2 by the photografting of an aqueous dye concentration of 9% using a UV energy of 25J/㎠. Furthermore, the photochemically dyed wool fabric showed higher colorfastness properties to light, laundering and rubbing comparable to conventional reactive dyeing.
UV-induced surface copolymerization has been widely applied as a simple, useful and versatile approach to improve the surface properties of textiles. C.I. Reactive Black 5 and acrylic acid (AA) were continuously grafted onto cotton by UV irradiation. The photografting may occur by the copolymerization of AA with the vinylsulfone reactive dye which photochemically converted from the bissulfatoethylsulfone reactive group. The graft yield and color yield were influenced by UV energy, the dye and photoinitiator concentrations, a mole ratio of AA to dye, and pH. The coloration of cotton fabrics having a K/S of 7.0 can be obtained under a UV irradiation energy of 15J/cm<SUP>2</SUP> by the photografting of an aqueous alkaline formulation of 6% dye concentration containing 3% photoinitiator concentration on the weight of monomers, and a 3:1 mole ratio addition of AA to the dye. Furthermore, the photochemically dyed cotton fabrics showed comparable washing (staining) and rubbing fastness to conventional reactive dyeing method except shade change in the wash fastness and light fastness.
( Yuanyuan Hao ), ( Janith V. S. Aluthmuhandiram ), ( K. W. Thilini Chethana ), ( Ishara S. Manawasinghe ), ( Xinghong Li ), ( Mei Liu ), ( Kevin D. Hyde ), ( Alan J. L. Phillips ), ( Wei Zhang ) 한국균학회 2020 Mycobiology Vol.48 No.3
Nigrospora is a monophyletic genus belonging to Apiosporaceae. Species in this genus are phytopathogenic, endophytic, and saprobic on different hosts. In this study, leaf specimens with disease symptoms were collected from host plants from the Shandong Peninsula, China. The fungal taxa associated with these leaf spots were studied using morphology and phylogeny based on ITS, TEF1, and TUB2 gene regions. In this article, we report on the genus Nigrospora with N. gorlenkoana, N. oryzae, N. osmanthi, N. rubi, and N. sphaerica identified with 13 novel host associations including crops with economic importance such as bamboo and Chinese rose.
The honey bee is a social insect that is famous for queen-worker differentiation. Numerous studies indicate that queen larvae (QL) and worker larvae (WL) have different expressed genes and proteins. DNA methylation has been found to play an important role in regulating gene expression. To further explore the roles of the methylated genes in queen-worker differentiation, we analyzed DNA methylome profiles of 4-day-old QL and WL (Apis mellifera). The results demonstrated that therewere 7.2 gigabases of sequence data fromsix methylated DNA immunoprecipitation libraries, and provided a genome-wide DNA methylation map as well as a gene expression map for 4-day-old QL andWL. The genome coverage of every samplewas 4.79. According to CpG representation, all promoters in the A. mellifera genome were classified into high CpG promoters, intermediate CpG promoters and low CpG promoters. The methylated cytosines of larvae were enriched in introns, followed by coding sequence regions, 2 K downstream of genes, 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs), 2 K upstream of genes, and 3′ UTRs. Compared with 4-day-oldWL, a number of genes in QL were down-methylated that were involved in biological regulation, immune system and metabolic regulation. In addition, these DMGs were involved in many signal pathways of caste differentiation such as Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Notch, Insulin andWnt signaling pathways.
A Mannich base biosorbent (AML) was prepared by grafting alkaline lignin (AL) with methylamine and formaldehyde. The effects of dosages, reaction time, pH and temperature of reaction on the nitrogen content of AML were investigated. A maximum nitrogen content of the Mannich base could reach to 8.32%. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), element analysis, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Kinetic adsorption suggested AML possessed fast adsorption for Pb2+ and followed a second-order model. Adsorption equilibrium results indicated AML had a maximum uptake of 60.5 mg/g for Pb2+ which was 4.2-fold higher than AL. The AML has good potential for cleanup of wastewater.
A selective and sensitive ‘‘naked-eye'' rhodamine-based ‘‘turn-on'' chemosensor for detection of Hg2+ ion over other metal ions such as Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cs+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, K+, Ag+, Hg2+, Co2+, and Pb2+ in aqueous solution was prepared. Meanwhile, a new method for the synthesis of rhodamine amide directly from rhodamine hydrazide in the presence of NaH was reported for the first time. It was observed that once Hg2+ ion was added to the sensor 4, a 91.4-fold enhancement of the absorption at 570 nm was observed. Its selectivity toward Hg2+ ion was very high, and little interference was detected for other commonly coexistent metal ions. The fluorescent intensity was almost a constant minimal value when pH = 5–8 in aqueous solution. It demonstrated that Hg2+ could be detected at least down to 3 108 M. Moreover, the Hg2+-promoted selective desulfurization reaction was further confirmed by MS spectra. The present probe could be used to determine Hg2+ ion concentrations in aqueous environments.
The stolon is the main asexual reproductive organ of Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker. It has a special morphology and can develop into a new bulb for propagation. In the current greenhouse experiment, the dynamic changes in carbohydrates and related enzymes, protein and endogenous hormones during T. edulis stolon development were investigated. The results showed that soluble sugar levels were basically declining, whereas starch and protein content rose continuously during stolon development. The adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity peaked in the initial swelling stage and stayed a relative high level in the middle swelling stage; sucrose synthase (SS), soluble starch synthase (SSS) and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activities followed the same law that showed rising trends during stolon development. SS activity was significantly inversely related to sucrose content but had significantly positive relations with starch content, SSS and GBSS activities. Gibberellin (GA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) peaked in the initial swelling stage and maintained high levels in the middle swelling stage; they then decreased significantly in the later swelling stage. A substantial increase was observed in abscisic acid (ABA) content until the middle swelling stage, followed by a significant reduction in the later swelling stage. The ratios of ABA to IAA, GA and ZR reached their lowest levels in the initial swelling stage. In conclusion, T. edulis stolon development is a process of new bulb morphogenesis along with the starch accumulation catalyzed by AGPase, SSS and GBSS, using the product of sucrose cleavage caused by SS. Initial low ABA content and low ratios of ABA to IAA, GA and ZR, together with the GA, IAA and ZR of high-content, soluble sugars worked more efficiently to induce new bulb formation.
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant because of its extensive use in plastics and its persistence. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it is suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment in people. However, evidence of the effects of maternal DEHP exposure on cerebellar development in offspring is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate maternal exposure to DEHP and its effect on apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and related mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were administrated DEHP (0, 30, 300 and 750 mg/kg/d) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PN) 21. Primary CGCs were also exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the main metabolite of DEHP, for 24 h with concentrations of 0, 25, 100 and 250 μM. The CGCs of male offspring from 300 and 750 mg/kg/d DEHP exposure groups showed significantly increased apoptosis. In addition, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was inhibited in the male offspring of the 300 and 750 mg/ kg/d DEHP exposure groups. However, effects on female pups were not obvious. Apoptosis was also elevated and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was inhibited after primary CGCs were exposed to MEHP. Furthermore, apoptosis was reduced after treatment with the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, and increased after treatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results suggested that maternal DEHP exposure induced apoptosis in the CGCs of male pups via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and the apoptosis could be rescued by IGF1 and aggravated by LY294002.