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      • KCI등재

        The Role of /x, r, l/ in Sound Changes: OE Breaking and other Processes

        Young-Kook Kwon 한국영어학학회 2003 영어학연구 Vol.- No.16

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Kwon, Young-Kook. 2003. The Role of /x, r, l/ in Sound Change: OE Breaking and other Processes. English Language and Linguistics 16, 243-270. This paper investigates diphthong-related sound changes that affected the vowel system in Old and Early Middle English in the framework of Optimality Theory. Old English Breaking, Northumbrian Retraction, Anglian Smoothing and Early Middle English Coalescence are paid special attention. Past studies do not answer why these diphthong-related sound changes tend to recur before /x, r, I/ throughout the history of English. In addition, such studies analyze each change individually but do not provide a unified account that captures structural coherence among these changes. It will be shown that the combination of, on the one hand, an enhanced theory of representations reflecting temporal relations of the segments involved and, on the other hand, the Optimality Theory of grammar makes possible a unified and natural account of these sound changes. More generally, this paper lends support to OT as a framework for explaining sound change and variation.

      • 자발성 뇌교출혈 환자의 예후에 관한 임상 분석

        조재영,석종식,민병국,권정택,최덕영,황성남,김영백,박승원 중앙대학교 의과대학 의과학연구소 2002 中央醫大誌 Vol.27 No.1

        Patients with spontaneous pontine hemorrhage very often develop setvere disturbances of consciousness,pupilary abnormalities, respiratory and motor. They have high mortality rate. Therefore, I analyzed the correlation between the Glasgow outcome scale(GOS)and clincial manifestations or computed tomographic(CT)findings in 48 patients with spontaneous pontine hemorrhage to clarify factors predicting the prognosis. I examined 48 Patients with spontaneous pontine hemorrhage; 33 males and 15 females, age 54.6±8.99(mean±S.D.;range 39 to 68)brought to our hospital between January 1995 and December 1999, retrospectively. Correlations between the clinical manifestations, CT findings and the GOS was assessed with multivariate regression analysis. The results were as follow: 1) Patients with the pontine hemorrhage were of 8.8% in those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The ratio of male and female was 33 to 15. The incidence of age is eqial to 40,50 and 60. Total mortality was 41.6%. 2) The poor prognostic factor were that; Glasgow coma scale(GCS)3∼8, irregular respiration. pupilary abnormality, quadriplegia, Brain CT typeⅠ(massive), hydrocephalus, extrapontine extension, Intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH). These clinical analysis should be useful in determining the level of care and future resuscitative efforts.

      • KCI등재

        증례 : 수술 결함과 연관된 의인성 대퇴 전자 하부 골절 - 2예 보고 -

        정국진 ( Kook Jin Chung ),전준영 ( June Young Jeon ),나현우 ( Hyun Woo Na ),황지효 ( Ji Hyo Hwang ) 대한골절학회 2015 대한골절학회지 Vol.28 No.4

        의인성 골절은 흔하지 않으나 만약 발생한다면 의료 과실이 될 수 있다. 수술 술기의 결함에 의해 발생한 의인성 골절은 대개집도의만 알 수 있어 환자 및 대외적으로 감추어지는 경우가 많다. 응력 집중(stress riser) 골절은 일종의 의인성 골절 (iatrogenic fractuire)로서 Young’s modulus 골절로도 알려져 있다. 대부분의 수술 이후 발생하는 응력 집중 골절은 수술적 결함을 막음으로써 예방이 가능할 수 있으며, 흔한 골절 양상이 아니어서 정확한 유병률은 알려져 있지 않다. 이러한 골절은 대부분에서 경골 및 대퇴골과 같은 체중 부하 골에 발생을 하며 대퇴골의 전자 하부는 우리 몸에서 가장 응력을 많이 받는 부위로서 이러한 응력 집중 골절이 흔히 발생할 수 있는 부위이다. 저자들은 수술적 결함으로 발생한 의인성 응력 집중 골절2예를 경험하였기에 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하고자 한다. Iatrogenic fracture is not popular and might be recognized as a malpractice. Surgical error related to iatrogenic fracture which has occurred after an operation can be detected only by a surgeon. Stress riser fracture is another form of iatrogenic fracture also known as a Young’s modulus fracture. As the majority of surgical related stress riser fractures can be preventive, the accurate prevalence is not known. The majority of fractures occurred in the weight bearing bones such as femur and tibia. The subtrochanter area is the most stress concentrated area in the human body, thus it is a common area for occurrence of stress riser iatrogenic fractures. We experienced 2 cases of stress riser iatrogenic fractures, which are related to technical errors, thus we report cases with literature review.

      • KCI등재

        급성신부전을 동반한 알콜성 횡문근융해증 2례

        김영민,오동렬,이원재,김형국,황두영,이환,최경호,정시경,김세경,김영옥 大韓應急醫學會 1998 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.9 No.4

        Rhabdomyolysis is a biochemical and clinical syndrome caused by lysis of skeletal muscle cell and release of muscle cell contents into the circulation. In addition to traumatic cause, various nontraumatic causes have been reported. Rhabdomyolysis has frequently been associated with seamy aspects of life and society: alcoholic abuse, drug addiction, sadistic drill exercise, war events and attempted suicide. The abuse of alcohol causes many hazards in many organs. One of these is acute alcoholic myopathy that may present as a fulminent syndrome of muscle pain and tenderness associated with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Because the prognosis of adequately treated rhabdomyolysis is excellent, early recognition and prompt management are essential in emergency situation. We experienced two typical cases of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure and report these cases with literature review.

      • 종교와 선교, 그리고 문화

        권영국 국제기독교언어문화연구원 1999 기독교언어문화논집 Vol.3 No.-

        Dr. Young Kook Kwon. 1999. Religion, Christian Mission, and Culture- Collected Papers on Christian Language Culture. Religion exists in the midst of human life. It is not something that is unrelated to man's practical life context and seeks something beyond. Human religions should not be taken a part alone from reality of human life to be understood correctly of their meanings and functions in human society. Human being is a culture bound existence. Culture is a way of living of human being that guides and determines human life. Within a particular life situation each society has developed its own way of living that fits best to their living context. Culture includes whole aspect of human life and provides various means of life. Not only the visible material culture but also the invisible social and ideal culture is included in the concept of culture that signifies the ways of living Because of this reason, gospel mission can not neglect the culture of the very society to which the church carries the gospel. Gospel is carried not into a cultural vaccum but into a particular life structure that has been built, used and modified for a long period of history by the people of particular culture. It has to be pointed out clearly that man's external ways of living and internal value, social structure, ethics, worldview, religious tendency, etc. are all geared by their own culture. Eventhough we are not to assume blindly the culture-determinism, its overwhelming influence in human life can never be over emphasized particularly in the area gospel mission. (Paster of An-sung the First Church)

      • 기능성 소화불량증환자에서 Winstal® 투여에 관한 임상경험

        이창형,김영탁,금민수,권중구,안병철,윤영미,권영오,김성국,최용환,정준모 慶北大學校 醫科大學 1994 慶北醫大誌 Vol.35 No.3

        목적 : 기능성 소화불량증은 소화, 흡수등 장관의 기능적인 이상과 관련되어 있을 것으로 생각되며 복합소화효소제(Winstal®)를 투여하여 그 임상효과를 평가하고자 본 연구를 실시하였다. 대상 및 방법 : 1994년 3월 부터 6월까지 경북대학교병원 내과를 방문한 기능성 소화불량증을 호소하는 환자 20명을 대상으로 Winstal®을 1회 1정씩, 1일 3회 식후 30분내에 경구로 2주간 투여하였다. 결과 : 소화불량증의 증상은 복부불쾌감, 복부팽만감, 식욕부진 및 오심, 복부동통, 공기연하증, 고창 및 구토순이었으며, 증상의 개선은 복부불쾌감이 76.4%(13/17)로 가장 높았으며, 그 다음으로 복부팽만감 및 공기연하증이 66.5%(10/15, 6/9)이었고, 오심 61.5%(8/13), 식욕부진 53.8%(7/13), 복부동통 41.6%(5/12), 고창 37.5%(3/8)이었다. 각 환자별 종합적인 증상의 개선도는 현저한 개선이 2예(10%), 중등도 개선이 3예(15%), 약간개선이 11예(55%), 불변이 4예(20%)이었으며 종합적인 유효율은 80%(16/20)이었다. 부작용은 한 예에서도 관찰되지 않았다. 결론 : 본 제제는 기능성 소화불량증 환자의 증상개선에 추천할 만한 유효한 약제로 생각된다. Dyspepsia is a common symptom in gastroenterologic practice and trigger for numerous consultations with physician. The treatment of chronic functional dyspesia is unsatisfactory. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the digestive compound (Winstal®) on 20 functional dyspepsia patients. On open trial, all patients were given 6 tablets daily for 2 weeks and we evaluated the efficacy of this preparation according to the degree of the improvement. The improvement of symptoms was 76.4%(13/17) in abdominal discomfort, 66.5%(10/15, 6/9) in abdominal distension and aerophagia, 61.5%(8/13) in nausea, 53.8%(7/13) in abdominal pain, and 37.5% (5/12) in flatulence, respectively. Overall effectiveness of subjective symptoms was 80% (16/20) and there were no untoward effects of the preparations during this study. As a result, We think that this preparation is an effective one to relieve symptoms of functional dyspepsia.

      • 신생아에 심한 심부전증을 일으킨 선천성 뇌동정맥 기형: 풍선 색전 요법을 시도한 1례

        박인숙,김영휘,홍창의,조영국,서대철,박영일 울산대학교 의과대학 1993 울산의대학술지 Vol.2 No.2

        Cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a rare cause of congestive heart failure in neonates and is known to carry a very poor prognosis even wish prompt recognition and aggressive treatment. We recently encountered a 2-day-old male neonate with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformation who presented with intractable heart failure. Despite aggressive medical treatment and partial embolization with detachable balloon, baby died of severe hearts failure. Since there is no report of percutaneous balloon embolization in a neonate with this lesion in Korean literature, we wish to present our experience in one such neonate. Also we believe this is the first report of color Doppler findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation in Korean literature.

      • 흡연자와 비흡연자의 타액에서 코티닌 정량 및 ETS 노출량 평가

        임흥빈,강영국,손형옥,이영구,문자영,이동욱 충북대학교 엽연초연구소 2001 煙草硏究 Vol.18 No.-

        This study was conducted to measure and compare the salivary cotinine concentration between smokers and nonsmokers, and to investigate the effect on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke(ETS) with housewives, living on an apartment of Korea. Saliva samples were taken from all volunteers and salivary cotinine was analyzed by a developed radioimmunoassay(RIA) method. The median salivary cotinine levels were 52.8±12.6 ng/ml and 44.6± 9.7 ng/ml in male smokers and in female ones, respectively, and they were 4.3±2.1 ng/ml and 2.9±3.1 ng/ml in male nonsmokers and in female ones, respectively. In addition, average salivary cotinine levels were 3.8±2.7 ng/ml in housewives from smoking homes and 2.4±2.4ng/ml in ones from nonsmoking homes. Results obtained from the analysis of salivary cotinine demonstrate that smokers had a significantly higher concentration of salivary cotinine than nonsmoker. But, there was no significant difference in the salivary cotinine concentration for housewives living in apartment between with smoking husband and with nonsmoking husband.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        정신분열병에 대한 리스페리돈의 효과 및 안정성

        이민수,김용구,김영훈,연병길,오병훈,윤도준,윤진상,이철,정희연,강병조,김광수,김동언,김명정,김상훈,김희철,나철,노승호,민경준,박기창,박두병,백기청,백인호,손봉기,손진욱,양병환,양창국,우행원,이정호,이종범,이홍식,임기영,전태연,정영조,정영철,정인과,정인원,지익성,채정호,한상익,한선호,한진희,서광윤 大韓神經精神醫學會 1998 신경정신의학 Vol.37 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.

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