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혈중 지질농도는 식이단백질 종류보다는 연령의 영향을 많이 받아, young군보다 old군의 총 콜레스테롤, TG, HDL-콜레스테롤, LDL+VLDL-콜레스테롤 및 AI 모두 높았다. 한편 콩 단백질군에서 HDL-콜레스테롤 수준이 증가하고, LDL+VLDL-콜레스테롤와 AI는 감소하여, 심혈관질환에 대한 콩 단백질의 유익한 효과를 확인할 수 있었다. 식이단백질에 의해 유의한 영향을 받은 혈장 인지질의 지방산조성중 22:0, 18:1ω9, ∑MUFA 조성은 카제인군에서 콩 단백질군 보다 높았으며, 반대로 ∑SFA 조성은 카제인군에서 낮았다. 연령에 의해 혈장 인지질 지방산 조성에 있어 유의한 차이를 보인 지방산 중 22:0, 18:1ω9, 22:1, 18:3ω3 및 22:4ω6는 young군에서 높은 반면에, 22:6ω3, ∑ω3, 18:2ω6, 20:4ω6, ∑ω6 및 ∑PUFA의 조성비율은 old군에서 높게 나타났다. 이와 같이 식이 단백질의 종류보다 연령의 영향력이 더 많이 나타난 것은 혈중 콜레스테롤 수준이 식이 단백질보다는 연령의 영향을 더 크게 받았기 때문으로 생각된다. 혈장 인지질 지방산의 대사지표 중 Δ7-desaturation index(16:0⇒16:1ω7)와 Δ9-desaturation index(18:0⇒18:1ω9)가 식이 단백질의 영향을 받아 카제인군에 비해 콩 단백질군에서 유의하게 낮았다. Δ7- 및 Δ9-desaturation index만이 식이 단백질의 영향을 받은 것은 식이 단백질보다 desaturase 활성에 더 큰 영향력을 미치는 콜레스테롤이 식이에 첨가되었기 때문이라 생각된다. Δ-4 desaturation index (22:4ω6⇒22:5ω6)는 young군에 비해 old군에서 높았으며, elongation index(20:4 ω6⇒22:4ω6)는 old군에서 낮았다. 대부분의 elongation과 desaturation 단계는 연령에 따라 유의한 차이를 보이지 못하였으나, ω3계 지방산의 전체적인 elongation-desaturation 단계를 나타내는 ∑products-fatty acid(ω3)/α-LNA(ω3) 비율이 old군에서 young군보다 유의하게 높아, 연령에 따른 PUFA 대사의 변화가 관찰되었다. 이상에서와 같이, 콩 단백질의 섭취로 흰쥐 혈장 인지질의 ∑MUFA 조성은 낮고 ∑SFA 조성은 높아 다른 지질 강화성분의 섭취와 유사한 결과를 나타내었다. 혈중 콜레스테롤 수준이 높은 old군에서 체내 막조직의 유동성을 유지하기 위해 PUFA의 합성 특히 ω3계 지방산의 elongation-desaturation이 증가하여 총 PUFA 조성이 young군보다 높았다. 연구결과로 이소플라본을 포함한 콩 단백질의 혈중 지질저하 기전에 대해 체계적인 설명은할 수 없지만, 콩 단백질이 혈장 지방산의 조성을 변화시킴으로써 간접적으로 심혈관계 질환에 대해 유익한 효과를 미침을 알 수 있었다. 한편, 이러한 혈관의 건강과 관련된 콩의 유익한 효과는 이소플라본과 같은 콩의 특정 성분의 단독효과라기보다는 콩 단백질과의 복합효과에 의한 것이라는 주장은 매우 설득력 있다고 생각된다. Effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC) containing isoflavone and casein diets on plasma phospholipid (PLs)-fatty acid patterns were investigated in 7- & 40- wk old female rats. Diets containing 16% SPC (soy/young: SY, soy/old: SO) and casein (casein/young: CY, casein/ old: CO) supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol were fed for 4 wks. Fatty acid compositions of plasma PLs were determined by TLC and GLC. Compared to the dietary protein effects, age effects on serum lipids were more profound. The levels of total cholesterol (Chol.), triglyceride, HDL-Chol., (LDL+VLDL)-Chol. and atherogenic index (AI) were higher in older groups (OC & OS) than younger groups (YC & YS). Soy groups had higher HDL-Chol. level and lower (LDL+VLDL)-Chol. and AI, compared with casein groups. The compositions of C22:0, C18:1ω9 and sum of MUFA in plasma PLs were significantly higher in casein group (CY & CO) than soy group (SY & SO), but those of sum of SFA were higher in soy group. The compositions of C22:0, C18:1ω9, C22:1, C18:3ω3 and C22:4ω6 were higher and those of C22:6ω3, sum ofω3, C18:2ω6 C20:4ω6, sum ofω6 and sum of PUFA were lower in plasma PLs of younger rats. The average P/S and ω3/ω6 ratio in older group was higher. The Δ-7 desaturation index (16:0⇒16:1ω7) and Δ-9 desaturation index (18:0⇒18 : 1ω9) were lower in soy group than casein group, while Δ-6 and Δ-5 desaturation index were not affected by dietary protein. The Δ-4 desaturation index (22:4ω6⇒22:5ω6) were higher and, elongation index (20:4ω6⇒22:4ω6) were lower in older group. The ratio of the products of ω3 fatty acid series/precursor of ω3 fatty acid series (C18:3) was significantly higher in older group, which in- dicated that age affected the plasma PUFA metabolism. On the other hand, older rats had higher serum cholesterol level compared with younger rats. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid composition might cause minimal changes in the membrane fluidity induced by the increase serum cholesterol level.
Afferent loop syndrome is an uncommon complication of a gastrectomy and Billroth Ⅱ reconstruction. It may cause symtoms at any time from the first postoperative day to many years after the gastrectomy. Afferent loop syndrome is characterized by abdominal pain, vomiting and elevation of serum amylase. Thus, it is difficult to differentiate afferent loop syndrome from other cause of acute pancreatitis. However, the history of gastrectomy can be an important clue for diagnosing afferent loop syndrome. We experienced one case of chronic afferent loop syndrome with acute pancreatitis. After appropriate management, the abdominal pain disappeared and serum amylase level decreased. We report this case with a review of relevant literatures.
The objectives of this study are to explain the use of media materials in school health education with other related factors in elementary, middle, and high schools in Korea. The data were collected by questionnaires from June to September in 1988. The number of subjects were 294 school nurses. The PC-SAS program was used for statistical analysis such as percent distribution, chi-squared test, spearman correlation test, and logistic regression. The use of media materials in health education has become extremely common. Unfortunately, much of the early materials were of poor production quality, reflected low levels of interest, and generally did little to enhance health education programming. A recent trend in media materials is a move away from the fact filled production to a more affective, process-oriented approach. There is an obvious need for health educators to use high-quality, polished productions in order to counteract the same levels of quality used by commercial agencies that often promote "unhealthy" lifestyles. Health educators need to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of media. Selecting media materials should be based on more than cost, availability, and personal preference. Selection should be based on the goal of achieving behavioral objectives formulated before the review process begins. The decision to use no media materials rather than something of dubious quality will usually be the right decision. Poor-quality, outdated, or boring materials will usually have a detrimental effect on the presentation. Media materials should be viewed as vehicles to enhance learning, not products that will stand in isolation. Process of materials is an essential part of the educational process. The major results were as follows:1. The elementary schools used the materials more frequently. But the production rate of media materials was not enough. The budget was too small for a wide use of media materials in school health education. These findings suggest that all schools have to increase the budget of health education programs. 2. Computers offer an incredibly diverse set of possibilities for use in health education, ranging from complicated statistical analysis to elementary-school-level health education games. But the use rate of this material was not high. The development of related software is essential. 3. In this study, the most effective materials were films in elementary school and videotapes in middle and high school. Film tends to be a more emotive medium than videotape. The difficulties of media selection involved the small amount of extant educational materials. Media selection is a multifaceted process and should be based on a combination of sound principles. 4. The review of material use following student levels showed that the more the contents were various, the more the use rate was high. 5. Health education videotapes and overhead projectors proved the most plentiful and widest media tools. The information depicted was more likely to be current. As a means to display both text and graphic information, this instructional medium has proven to be both effective and enduring. 6. An analysis of how effective the quality of school nurse and school use of media materials shows a result that is not complete)p=0.1113). But, the budget of health education is a significant variable. The increase of the budget therefore is essential to effective use of media materials. From these results it is recommended that various media materials be developed and be wide used.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonmalignancy and is a major cause of worldwide cancer mortality.The proto-oncogene c-myb plays an important role in regulationof cell growth and differentiation, and it is expressed at highlevels in hematopoietic cells and many other types of cancers.However, the function of c-myb is not well known in OSCC.The present study aimed to reveal the function of c-myb and totest the alternation of cell growth and signaling by c-myb inOSCC. In this study, c-myb and dominant-negatibe myb(DN-myb) were expressed in an adenovirus-mediated gene deliverysystem to KB cells. The over-expressed c-myb broughtincreased cellular proliferation compared with control cells.However, DN-myb infected KB cells showed significantreduction of cell growth and enhanced induction of apoptosis toactivate PARP and caspase 9. c-myb induced increase of IGF-I,-II and IGF-IR expressions while DN-myb down-regulatedthese expression. Activation of ERK and Akt/PKB pathwaywas shown only in c-myb transduced cells. These findingssuggest that the role of c-myb in cell growth of oral cancer cellsis partially mediated through the modulation of IGFs, ERK andAkt/PKB. From this results, DN-myb is strongly recommendedas a curable gene for the treatment of c-myb dependentmalignancies such as OSCC.
Objectives : This study is to compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of various pharmacologic therapies with of without endoscopic procedure in the Forrest II ulcer. Methods : Between May 2001 and June 2002, total of 58 Forrest II bleeding activity patients (37 cases of NBVV, 6 adherent blood clots, 9 flat red spot, and 6 flat black spot) with gastric ulcer(32 cases) and duodenal ulcer(26 cases) were analyzed. UGI endoscopy was performed within 12 hours of the first bleeding episodes, and underwent repetitive endoscopy after 48h. All the patients were randomly assigned to receive somatostatin(group I), PPI(omeparzole : group II), only H2 blocker (famotidine, group III), or endoscopic injection therapy followed by famotidine (group IV). We compared with rebleeding rates, changes of ulcer size, and modified estimated costs for 3 day-hospital in four groups respectively. Results : 1) Twelve patients experienced rebleeding(20.7%). 2) The rates of rebleeding were 16.6% (2/12) in group I, 28.6%(4/14) in group II, 5.9%(1/17) in group III, 26.7% in group IV. There was no significant difference in rebleeding rate among the groups, but there was low rebleeding tendency in group III, compared with group II(p=0.087).3)Type of stigmata including non-bleeding visible vessels and adherent clots were associated with an increased rate of recurrent bleeding(p=0.01).4) When modified estimated costs were calculated, group III could be treated at the lowest cost(p<0.05). Conclusion : In Forrest II bleeding ulcer, medical therapy, especially famotidine could be suggested prudently as a proper treatment modality for this lesion, considering the cost-effecti-veness. 목적: 위십이지장의 궤양성 출혈은 대부분 특별한 치료없이 보존적인 치료만으로 지혈된다. 그러나 활동성 출혈이 있는 Forrest II 궤양의 경우는 흔히 내시경적인 치료를 하게 되는데 최근 여러 연구에서 약물치료와 비교 연구가 있었으나 다양한 약물들과 내시경 치료의 효과 및 비용-효용성의 비교는 이루어지지 않았다. 방법: 2001년 5월부터 2002년 6월가지 Forrest II 궤양출혈 환자 68명을 전향적으로 포함시켰고 이중 위암으로 진단된 경우와 내시경의 추적 검사를 거부한 경우 또는 다른 중증의 내과적 질환이 동반된 경우를 제외시켜 58명의 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 대상 환자 58명은 위궤양이 32명이고 십이지장 궤양이 26명으로 비출혈성노출 혈관 37명, 신선 부착 혈괴 6명, 적색반 9명, 그리고 흑색반 6명이었다. 초기 상부 위장관 내시경은 내원 후 12시간 이내에 이루어졌고 추적 검사는 48시간 이후에 시행되었다. 치료는 네 개의 군으로 나누어 무작위로 소마토스타틴 투여군(1군), 프로톤펌프 억제제 투여군 (2군), H₂수용체 차단제 투여군(3군), 그리고 내시경적 지혈제 주사군(4군)으로 치료하였고 각 군의 재출혈 여부, 혈압, 수혈, 궤양의 크기, 급성 출혈 흔적 등을 비교 관찰하였고 입원 3일간의 입원치료비용을 계산하였다. 결과: 1) 재출혈은 12명(20.7%) 에서 발생하였다. 2) 각군에서의 재출혈은 제1군이 16.6%(2/12), 제2군에서 28.6%(4/14), 제3군이 5.9%(1/17), 제4군이 26.7%(4/15)로 각 군의 재출혈 빈도는 차이가 없었으나 제3군에서 제2군에 비해 재출혈이 낮은 경향을 보였다.(p=0.087).3) 재출혈에 영향을 미치는 인자는 노출 현환과 신선 혈괴였다(p=0.01). 4)평균 입원치료 비용은 제3군이 가장 적어 높은 치료 비용-효과를 보였다.(p<0.05).
한국은 도시에 집중된 인구로 인해 발생한 대량의 생활폐기물을 처리하기 위해 대규모 주거단지 내에 자동집하시설을 기반으로 한 자원회수시설을 적용 확대하고 있다. 이에 본 연구는 새로운 폐기물 시설이 지속가능한 환경 인프라로써 국내에 정착 가능성을 측정하고자 한다. 객관적으로 유효한 분석 결과를 위해 국내의 은평 뉴타운과 성공적인 사례로 알려져 있는 하마비 허스타드를 비교한다. 구체적인 비교의 틀로서 지속가능성을 평가하는 캠벨의 ‘계획가의 삼각형’ 이론을 차용한다. 삼각형을 구성하는 세 가지 요소인 환경, 사회, 경제적 기준으로 개발실행 결과 보고서와 전문가 인터뷰를 참고하여 연구한다. 결론적으로 비교연구를 통해 첫째, 환경부문에서는 자원회수시설의 다양성 추구를 통해 폐기물 절감과 에너지 창출의 이중혜택을 극대화할 수 있다. 둘째, 경제부문에서 젒분한 재원조달을 위해 다양한 재정지원 프로그램의 중요성을 알 수 있다. 셋째, 사회부문은 예산집행과 혜택분배 등 경제부분과 상젒되어 갈등 발생의 가능성이 있다. 따라서 관련 이익관계들의 교류를 적극적으로 장려하고 투명한 예산집행이 원활하고 지속가능한 폐기물 시설 개발을 위한 개선방안이 될 수 있다는 것을 사례비교를 통해 유추할 수 있다. In Korea, application of resource recovery facilities utilizing automatic collection system is expanding to address the concentrated occurrences of household wastes in apartments. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a new waste system adopted into the cities of Korea as sustainable eco-infrastructure. In order to analyze the objective results, a domestic case of Eun-Pyoung New Town and a successful case of Hammarby Sjostad were compared. For analytical framework, we followed ‘Planner’s Triangle’ presented by Campbell to evaluate the sustainability of this system. The ‘triangle’ consists of three components: environmental, societal and economic criteria. We reviewed development result reports and expert interviews based on the three criteria. The results were as follows. First, environmentally, the diverse resource recovery facilities maximize dual benefits of reducing wastes and producing energy. Second, economically, the importance of various financial assistance programs becomes apparent. Third, societally, conflicts may result from contradicting interests such as budget execution and profit distribution. These results implied that communication among interests and transparency of budget execution are key for improvement methods to be sustainable waste system.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is known to have a poor prognosis and major cause of morbidity and motality in patients with hematologic disease. Without adequate therapy, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis will almost always progress to fatal pneumonia. Early administration of antifungal agents in patient with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is most important. And surgical resection of aspergillous-infected tissue may be useful in patients with lesions that are contiguous with great vessel and lesions causing hemoptysis. We reported a rare case of surgical resection as curative treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis patient in 58-year-old man who had the history of acute myeloid leukemia.
Objective : This study was designed to analyze the of correlation between narrowing disc space of lumbar X-ray and HIVD of L-spine CT in lumbosacral strain patients. Methods : 63 cases of lumbosacral strain patients who visited Bul-kyooh Oriental Hospital from june 13, 2000 to August 9, 2001 were selected. We performed the radiography by lumbar X-ray and L-spine CT for all cases. Results : 28 of 63 cases revealed narrowing disc space in Lumbar X-ray and these 28 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT at all. 35 of 63 cases revealed normal in Lumbar X-ray and 13 of these 35 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT. Conclusions : We found that narrowing disc space in lumbar X-ray has significant relvance to HIVD in L-spine CT(P-value = 0.001). For accurate diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral strain patients. combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination and radiography of X-ray and HIVD is needed
Fungal peritonitis is one of the leading causes of patients dropout from continuous ambluatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) therapy. Although the most causative agents of peritonits associated with CAPD are bacteria, fungi are implicated in up to 10% of cases. The most common organism of fungal peritonitis is Candida specises, but Trichosporon beigelii was reported as a rare causative agent of fungal peritonitis. We experienced a case of CAPD peritonitis by Trichosporon beigelii, which was treated with CAPD catheter removal, and antifungal agents with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Thus, we report our experience of CAPD peritonitis caused by Trichosporon beigelli and review of the literature. (Korean J Nephrol 2004;23(3):518-522)