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          밀어(Rhinogobius brunneus)의 산란행동 및 초기생활사

          문운기,나영언,안광국 한국육수학회 2005 생태와 환경 Vol.38 No.1

          본 연구는 밀어 (Rhinogobius brunneus)의 산란행동 및 초기생활사를 밝히기 위하여 4가지 수온조건 하에서 실험을 수행되었다. 본 실험을 위해 밀어는 금강 지류중의 하나인 갑천에서 성숙된 수컷과 암컷을 채집하였으며, 일정기간의 순치과정을 거친 후에 실험을 실시하였다. 본 실험 결과에 따르면, 성숙된 성어들의 구애행동 및 산란행동의 유형은 다음과 같이 요약된다. 밀어의 성숙된 수컷은 산란에 앞서 세력권을 형성한 후 자신의 세력권 안에 산란을 위한 둥지를 형성한 후, 성숙된 암컷을 유인 하여 둥지에 하부에 타원형 난을 단층으로 붙이는 부착 난 종으로 파악되었다. 수정된 알들은 수컷에 의해 보호 받는 종(Parental care species)임 이 관찰되었으며, 수정난의 평균 장경은 1.5±0.1 ㎜,단경은 0.7±0.1 ㎜였다. 실험실내 4개의 수온처리군에 따르면, 고온처리군 보다는 저온 처리군에서 부화가지 더 긴 시간이 소요되었으며, 높은 수온일수록 부화까지 소요되는 시간이 단축되는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 18℃의 낮은 실험수온에서 부화된 자어는 약 3.6 ㎜의 전장을, 25℃ 이상의 높은 실험수온에서 부화된 자어는 3.1~3.2 ㎜의 전장을 보였다. 또한, 처리군에서 수온이 높을수록 빠른 성장을 보여 부화까지 소요되는 시간이 단축되는 결과를 보였으나, 부화 시 자어의 크기는 높은 수온 상태에서 보다는 낮은 수온상태에 서 부화된 개체가 큰 것으로 나타났다. 본 밀어에 대한 발생생태학적 기초연구는 수질오염 및 서식지 파괴에 의해 어종의 다양성이 빠르게 감소하는 상황에서 어류 개체군 보호 및 생태계보호에 기초자료를 제공할 것으로 사료된다. The objective of the study was to elucidate early life history of Rhinogobius brunneus, based on laboratory observations and field works, along with its courtship and spawning behaviors. The male and female fish matured were sampled for the lab experiments from Gap- Stream, which is one of the tributaries of Geum-River, Korea. The spawning behaviors and courtship of matured adults had a typical pattern; matured males of Rhinogobius brunneus built up spawning nests and had their own territory before the spawning, and the behavior then triggered the egg spawning of female with active courtship. The females attached elliptic egg mass as a single layer, on the stones below the spawning nest. After the spawning, the egg mass was guarded by males only until the hatching. The size of egg fertilized, measured by microscope was about 1.5±0.1 ㎜ in length and 0.7±0.1 ㎜ in the egg' s width. According to the lab experiments conducted under four temperature regime, the lapsed time for the hatching was shortened as temperatures increased in the treatments. On the contrary to the hatching time, the average length of newly hatched larvae showed a reverse relation with water temperature. The larvae, considered a final stage of the early life history was about 3.6 ㎜ in total length for water temperature of 18℃, whereas they were between 3.1 ㎜ and 3.2 ㎜ for over 25℃. This indicates that higher water temperature may decrease the growth rate in the early life history. These results may provide valuable information for the population conservation and ecosystem protection under accelerated water pollution and habitat degradations in Korea.

        • Development and evaluation of a film-forming system hybridized with econazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for enhanced antifungal activity against dermatophytes

          Na, Young-Guk,Huh, Hyun Wook,Kim, Min-Ki,Byeon, Jin-Ju,Han, Min-Gu,Lee, Hong-Ki,Cho, Cheong-Weon Elsevier 2020 Acta Biomaterialia: structure-property-function re Vol.101 No.-

          <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Treatment of skin infection by dermatophytes is still limited, and the application of conventional topical formulations (ointments, creams, etc.) cause patient discomfort due to repeated administration and low efficacy. This study describes the film-forming system (FFS) hybridized with econazole (ECO)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for enhanced antifungal activity against dermatophytes. We assumed that the application of NLC could effectively increase the skin permeability of ECO, thereby suppressing the growth of dermatophytes in stratum corneum as well as in epidermis. Meanwhile, ECO-NLC hybrid FFS (ECO-NLC@FFS) could increase the adhesion of ECO-NLC to the skin and prolong the antifungal activity of ECO. First, we optimized ECO-NLC, which shows nanosized particle (199 nm), high encapsulation efficiency (92.5%), and biocompatibility. ECO-NLC@FFS formed a transparent, homogeneous, and hard-to-remove film after topical application. <I>In vitro</I> skin permeation and deposition studies demonstrated that ECO-NLC@FFS showed 1.5-fold higher skin permeation and 3-fold higher ECO deposition in the epidermis layer than a commercial product, which resulted from the nanosized particle and its occlusion effect. And, <I>ex vivo</I> and <I>in vivo</I> antifungal activity studies confirmed that ECO-NLC@FFS improved the skin adhesion of ECO-NLC, thereby allowing ECO to be continuously exposed to the infection sited and reducing the number of applications with a single dose. These results showed that this hybrid system could be a potential for effectively improving the efficacy of antifungal agents and the patient compliance in the treatment of dermatophytes.</P> <P><B>Statement of significance</B></P> <P>Treatment of skin infection by dermatophytes is difficult due to the inconvenience and low efficacy of conventional topical formulations. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a film-forming system (FFS) hybridized with nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). First, we confirmed that the enhanced skin permeability of drug was improved by NLC. In addition, the hybridization of NLC with FFS improved the skin adhesion of NLC, allowing the drug to exhibit a sustained release profile and prolong antifungal activity. Given the maximized antifungal activity, this hybrid system can be used as a potential pharmaceutical technique to improve patient convenience and achieve complete treatment of skin infection.</P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

        • Strategic approach to developing a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance antiplatelet activity and bioavailability of ticagrelor

          Na, Young-Guk,Byeon, Jin-Ju,Wang, Miao,Huh, Hyun Wook,Son, Gi-Ho,Jeon, Sung-Hoon,Bang, Ki-Hyun,Kim, Sung-Jin,Lee, Hye-Jin,Lee, Hong-Ki,Cho, Cheong-Weon Dove Medical Press 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE Vol.14 No.-

          <P><B>Background</B></P><P>Ticagrelor (TCG) is used to inhibit platelet aggregation in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but its poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its in vivo efficacy. The purpose of this study was to manufacture an optimized TCG-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability and antiplatelet activity of TCG.</P><P><B>Materials and methods</B></P><P>Solubility and emulsification tests were conducted to determine the most suitable oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Scheffé’s mixture design was applied to optimize the percentage of each component applied in the SMEDDS formulation to achieve optimal physical characteristics, ie, high solubility of TCG in SMEDDS, small droplet size, low precipitation, and high transmittance.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>The optimized TCG-loaded SMEDDS (TCG-SM) formulation composed of 10.0% Capmul MCM (oil), 53.8% Cremophor EL (surfactant), and 36.2% Transcutol P (cosurfactant) significantly improving the dissolution of TCG in various media compared with TCG in Brilinta<SUP>®</SUP> (commercial product). TCG-SM exhibited higher cellular uptake and permeability in Caco-2 cells than raw TCG suspension. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, TCG-SM exhibited higher oral bioavailability with 5.7 and 6.4 times higher area under the concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration, respectively, than a raw TCG suspension. Antiplatelet activity studies exhibited that the TCG-SM formulation showed significantly improved inhibition of platelet aggregation compared with raw TCG at the same dose of TCG. And, a 10 mg/kg dose of raw TCG suspension and a 5 mg/kg dose of TCG-SM had a similar area under the inhibitory curve (907.0%±408.8% and 907.8%±200.5%⋅hours, respectively) for antiplatelet activity.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results suggest that the developed TCG-SM could be successfully used as an efficient method to achieve the enhanced antiplatelet activity and bioavailability of TCG.</P>

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V

          Ryoo, Na Yung,Shin, Ha Young,Kim, Jae Hyun,Moon, Jin Soo,Lee, Chong Guk The Korean Pediatric Society 2015 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.58 No.9

          Purpose: The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Methods: Koreans aged ${\leq}22$ years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. Results: In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years ($174.3{\pm}0.5cm$ vs. $174.3{\pm}0.6cm$, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years ($159.8{\pm}0.4cm$ vs. $161.0{\pm}0.4cm$, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II ($161.2{\pm}0.3cm$ vs. $159.8{\pm}0.4cm$, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was $0.3{\pm}0.8cm$ in males (P=0.721) and $0.5{\pm}0.6cm$ in females (P=0.386). Conclusion: Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans.

        • KCI등재

          다양한 관점 점화가 아이디어의 양과 질에 미치는 효과

          이국희(Guk-Hee Lee),신나영(Na-Young Shin),한다혜(Da-Hye Han) 충남대학교 사회과학연구소 2020 사회과학연구 Vol.31 No.2

          현 연구는 다양한 관점을 점화하는 것이 창의성의 양과 질 향상에 기여하는지 확인하기 위해 이루어졌다. 이를 위해 다양한 관점을 점화한 참가자들과 그렇지 않은 참가자들에게 편의점으로 사용하던 학교 내 공터 활용 방안 아이디어를 최대한 많이 제시하게 하는 과제를 수행한 후, 아이디어의 양을 창의성의 양으로, 아이디어 목록에 대한 제3자의 평가를 창의성의 질로하는 평가하는 분석을 수행하였다. 결과적으로 다양한 관점 점화는 아이디어의 양(창의성의 양) 증진에 기여하는 것으로 나타났고(연구 1A), 제3자들은 다양한 관점에 점화된 참가자가 작성한 아이디어 목록을 이에 점화되지 않은 참가자가 작성한 아이디어 목록보다 더 창의적이라고 평가함(창의성의 질)을 확인하였다(연구 1B). 또한 다양한 관점에 점화된 참가자들은 공터의 원래 용도였던 ‘편의점’을 아이디어 목록에 포함하는 비율이 이에 점화되지 않은 참가자들보다 낮았고, 참가자들이 재학 중인 학교에 없는 것을 아이디어로 제시하는 비율은 높았다. 추가적으로 연구자가 참가자들에게 창의적인 아이디어를 제시하라고 지시하는 것은 창의성의 양(연구 2A)과 질(연구 2B) 모두를 증진시키지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 다양한 관점 점화가 아이디어의 양과 창의성을 동시에 향상시킴을 경험적으로 검증한 드문 연구라는 점에서 중요하다. 또한 본 연구는 회사의 브레인스토밍 회의, 창의성을 요하는 과제를 수행하기 전에 다양한 관점을 (짧게) 점화하는 것이 창의성 향상에 기여할 수 있음을 보여주었다는 점에서도 시사점이 있다. This examined whether diverse perspective priming would improve the quantity and quality of creativity. To address the study objective, participants, who were primed in diverse perspectives and those who were not, performed a brainstorming task on how to utilize optimally an empty space within a school that had previously housed a convenience store. For data analysis, the quantity of creativity was defined as the number of generated ideas and the quality of creativity was defined as a third party’s assessment of the catalogue of ideas. Diverse perspective priming increased the number of ideas (quantity of creativity) (Study 1A), and that third parties evaluated the idea catalogue developed by the participants who were primed in diverse perspectives as being more creative (quality of creativity) compared to those who were not primed (Study 1B). The group primed in diverse perspectives had a low proportion of participants who included the original use of the empty space (convenience store) in the idea catalogue and a higher proportion of participants who proposed ideas regarding what the school did not currently have, compared to the not-primed group. In addition, the results showed that the researchers’ explicit instruction to brainstorm creative ideas increased neither the quantity (Study 2A) nor quality (Study 2B) of creativity. This study is significant because it is one of few studies, in which simultaneous improvement in the quantity of ideas and creativity by diverse perspective priming was tested empirically. These findings suggest that creativity might be enhanced by the (brief) priming of diverse perspectives prior to a brainstorming session at work or before performing a creative task.

        • KCI등재

          Stability evaluation of H3N2 influenza split vaccine in drying process for solidification

          김성진,Young‑Guk Na,Hong‑Ki Lee,Hye‑Jin Lee,Miao Wang,Hyun Wook Huh,Han‑Sol Lee,Jae‑Young Lee,조정원 한국약제학회 2020 Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation Vol.50 No.1

          Purpose Currently, most vaccines have been manufactured in liquid forms that are needed a cold-chain system. However, this system does not guarantee the stability of vaccines always and requires a high cost. Although solidifcation of vaccine can be alternative, vaccine stability is a problem. Recently, infuenza vaccine delivery using microneedle formulation has been studied extensively. Moreover, the stability of the vaccine can be improved since the vaccine is solid form in the microneedle. Therefore, the aim of this study is to screen the suitable stabilizer in the drying process and to compare evaluation methods for H3N2 split vaccine stability. Methods Dried vaccine samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD). Results Fructose provided stability to the vaccine during the drying process by ELISA (91.1±8.9%) and SDS-PAGE (about 65%). Trehalose was rated as providing stability to the vaccine when evaluated with ELISA and SDS-PAGE but was not when evaluated with CD. Conclusions The stability of the vaccine should be fnally determined by comprehensively evaluating the structure and antigenicity of various proteins.

        • KCI등재

          傾斜面에 衝突하는 水噴流의 熱傳達 特性에 關한 硏究

          최국광(Choi Guk-Gwang),나기대(Na Gi-Dae),김은영(Kim Yeun-Young),전성택(Jeon Sung-Taek),이종수(Lee Jong-Su) 한국태양에너지학회 1993 한국태양에너지학회 논문집 Vol.13 No.1

          下向의 軸對稱自由噴流가 等熱流束 條件의 傾斜傳熱面에 衝突하는 軸對稱 衝突水噴流系를 構成하였다. 實驗變數로는 노즐-전열면간 距離, 레이놀즈수, 無次元傾斜角으로 하였으며, 노즐_전열면간 거리의 범위는 1.5~10.5, 레이놀즈수의 範圍는 1X10⁴~4X10⁴, 무차원 경사각의 범위는 0.5, 0.67, 0.83, 1.00으로 하였다.<br/> 이와같은 實驗的 硏究에서 국소누셀트수는 Rw^0.7에 比例하여 增加되었으며 또한 停滯點으로부터 局所距離가 8培되는 下向勾配傳熱面의 局所位置에 第2의 極大 熱傳達 現像이 나타나고 있으나, 高速領域이 됨에 따라 경사각의 영향이 增加되었으며, 특히 국소위치의 X/D≤-4는 壁面噴流領域에서 경사각에 대한 영향이 明確하게 나타나고 있다.<br/> 停滯點熱傳達은 噴流速度와 노즐-전열면간 거리에 比例해서 增加되며 層流理論解에 比하여 最少2.4培 이상 높은 熱傳達效果를 나타내었으며, 停滯點누셀트수는 레이놀즈수, 프란틀수, 노즐-전열면간 거리 그리고 無次元 傾斜角을 包含하는 無次元 實驗式으로 나타내었다. The purpose of this research is to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer in the downward axisymmetric free water jet system impinged on a flat oblique plate which has the uniform heat flux. Experimental conditions considered were Reynolds number, distance between nozzle and flat plate, inclination angle of heater surface and nozzle exit velocity.<br/> Local Nusselt number was subjected to the influence of Re number, Pr number, oblique angle of heating surface and local position of flat plate. In the wall region of downward surface, the secondary peak point of heat transfer appeared at the local point of X/D = -8 from the stagnation point. The stagnation heat transfer rate of this experimental study augments 2.4 times than that of laminar theorical solution. The stagnation nusselt number is function of Reynolds number, nozzle-plate spacing, Prandtl number and oblique angle of impinging plate.

        • KCI등재

          커피박 추출물 및 분말 첨가 머핀의 품질 특성과 항산화 활성

          김병국(Byeong-Guk Kim),박나영(Na-Young Park),이신호(Shin-Ho Lee) 한국식품영양과학회 2016 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.45 No.1

          본 연구는 커피를 추출한 후 발생되는 커피박을 식재료로 활용할 수 있는 방안을 모색하고자 커피박 첨가 형태를 달리하여 머핀을 제조하고 품질 특성을 검토하였다. 커피박 열수추출물(CRE) 머핀의 중량(62.01~62.36 g)은 대조구(61.64g)에 비해 높았으며, 높이(6.03~6.23 cm)와 부피(186~493mL)도 대조구(5.87 cm, 185 mL)에 비해 높았다. 수분 함량은 CRE 머핀(29.41~29.92%)과 커피박 분말(CRP) 머핀(30.10~31.11%)이 대조구에 비해 높았다. L(lightness) 값과 b(yellowness) 값은 CRE 및 CRP 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였으나 a(redness) 값은 증가하였다. CRE 머핀의 경도는 대조구에 비해 유의적으로 낮았으나, CRP 첨가구는 대조구보다 높았으며 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하였다. 총 폴리페놀 함량은 CRE 및 CRP 머핀이 대조구보다 높았으며, 첨가량이 증가할수록 유의적으로 증가하였다(P<0.05). CRE머핀의 DPPH 라디칼 소거능은 15.91~83.25%로 대조구(5.53%)에 비해 유의적으로 높았으며, 농도 증가에 비례하여 증가하였다. ABTS 라디칼 소거능도 CRE 첨가구(1.91~48.09%)가 대조구(25.20%)에 비해 유의적으로 높았으며, 농도가 증가함에 따라 유의적으로 증가하였다(P<0.05). 관능검사 결과 머핀 내부의 외관과 색, 풍미와 맛은 CRE 첨가구가 대조구보다 우수하였다. 맛과 종합적 기호도는 1.0%첨가구가 가장 우수하였다. CRP 머핀의 외관과 내부 색은 1.0% 첨가구가 가장 우수하였으며, 풍미는 CRP 첨가구가 대조구보다 높았고 맛과 종합적 기호도는 1.0% 첨가구가 가장 우수하였다. 이상의 결과를 종합해 보면 항산화 활성이 다량 잔존하고 있는 커피박은 제과제빵의 항산화 활성 등 기능성 강화 소재로 활용이 가능하며, 머핀 이외에도 다양한 식품 산업에 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다. This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidative activity of muffins prepared with coffee ground residue water extracts (CRE) and powder (CRP). CRE-muffins were prepared by addition of CRE (0∼ 2.0%, w/v) to water of a basic formulation, whereas CRP-muffins were prepared by addition of CRP (0∼3.0%, w/w) to the flour. The height and volume index of CRE-muffins were higher than those of control. The weight and water contents of CRE-muffins and CRP-muffins were higher than those of the control. The hardness of CRE-muffins decreased compared to the control, whereas hardness of CRP-muffins increased. The total polyphenol contents and antioxidative activity of muffin significantly increased with increasing concentrations of CRE and CRP. Muffins containing 0.5∼2.0% CRE and 0.5∼3.0% CRP had acceptable sensory properties (flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability). Therefore, this study indicated that the optimal concentrations of CRE and CRP into muffin formula are 1.0 % (w/v) and 1.0% (w/w), respectively.

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