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The objective of this study is to predict the high risk group of coronary artery disease from body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar and serum lipids level using the method of discriminant analysis. Variables with significant difference between coronary artery disease group and normal group were HDS-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG. But the acuity did not exceed 70% in any single variable. As the results of discriminant analysis, statistically significant discriminant variables were HDL-C, T-chol, FBS and TG. The discriminant equation was(Y) = -0.06759(HDL-C) + 0.01498(T-chol),+0.01923(FBS) - 0.01421(TG) + 0.5187, and the overall discriminant power using the above 4 variables was 79.3%
Objective : This study was designed to analyze the of correlation between narrowing disc space of lumbar X-ray and HIVD of L-spine CT in lumbosacral strain patients. Methods : 63 cases of lumbosacral strain patients who visited Bul-kyooh Oriental Hospital from june 13, 2000 to August 9, 2001 were selected. We performed the radiography by lumbar X-ray and L-spine CT for all cases. Results : 28 of 63 cases revealed narrowing disc space in Lumbar X-ray and these 28 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT at all. 35 of 63 cases revealed normal in Lumbar X-ray and 13 of these 35 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT. Conclusions : We found that narrowing disc space in lumbar X-ray has significant relvance to HIVD in L-spine CT(P-value = 0.001). For accurate diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral strain patients. combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination and radiography of X-ray and HIVD is needed
The objective of this study was to investigate the managing realities of EVD and provide a descriptive survey with the attempt to obtain basic data needed for the standardization of EVD management. For that purpose, 220 questionnaire copies were distributed to those nurses who were working with intensive care units at university hospitals, general hospitals, semi-general hospitals in Seoul, Kyongki-de and local areas. Of 158 returned questionnaire copies, 139 were used for analysis. Data were collected during the term of academic seminars of Neurosurgery Nursing Committee and KICA (Korea Intensive Care Association), ranging from Oct. 26 through 27. 2000. The tools utilized a structured questionnaire form consisting of 21 questions on general characteristics, the level of understanding, the level of work performance, standard management guidelines, etc. The data collected were analysed with frequency, percentage, mean vague, chi -square test using the SPSS 10.0 program Findings were revealed, as follows: For managing the prevention of EVD infection, aseptic technique was found to be of the most importance (48.9%),'the technique should be carried out at an operation room'(92.8%), but it was actually performed at intensive care units (over 51.5%). 'The term of antibiotics use should be less than 7 days' (81.8%), while it was actually executed for less than 7 days (49.5%). 'The proper time of quittance from it should be within less than 7 days'(74.1%) but actual quittance was executed only by 51.1%. 'Set exchange is needed' by 54.0% but actual exchange was implemented merely by 28.1%. 'The subject of management should be nurses' was reflected by 40% but actually 52.0% were carried out. As a result of hating analysed the understanding of the management of EVD by general characteristics, a significant difference was found in the necessity for set exchange by hospitals, in the time of quittance of a catheter, and in ablution items by work experience. The result of hating analysed the work performance levels of EVD management by general characteristics revealed that a significant difference in administration facilities of medicine by the classification of hospitals, especially the use of antibiotics and the quitting time of a catheter by the classification of intensive care units, and in the use of antibiotics and ablution items by the standard management guidelines.
Effective bandwidth allocation is desirable to control the ATM traffic. It should provide high fairness and utilization for different kinds of services in call admission. Complete bandwidth sharing is efficient for utilization of bandwidth but not efficient for fairness of call admission. Complete bandwidth partitioning is efficient for fairness but not efficient for utilization. We propose a new CST(Complete Sharing with Threshold) algorithm using threshold in a VP to improve fairness and utilization. Using CST algorithm. the system performance is improved by 1.4% compared with the RSC(Reserved Sharing with Common pool) algorithm.
연구배경:당뇨병 환자에서 혈액응고 및 섬유소용해 체계의 이상경향이 있어 그 결과로 여러 혈관합병증의 발생위험이 높다는 사실은 널리 알려져 있다. 그 기전은 아직 확실히 밝혀지지 않았으나, 고혈당으로 인한 혈장 단백질들의 비효소성 당화작용이나 산화성 스트레스로 인한 유리 라티칼 작용으로 응고항진이나 섬유소용해 활성의 저하를 유발하는 것으로 생각되고 있다. 최근 응고 및 용해인자와 그 억제자의 복합체들의 증가가 이 상태를 비교적 예민하게 반영한다고 알려져 있다. 방법:본 연구에서는 당뇨병 환자 101명과 정상 대조군 20명에서 혈장내 thrombinantithrombin complex(TAT)와 plasminα₂plasmin inhibitor complex(PIC)를 측정하여 비교하고, 당뇨병 환자에서 미세혈관 합병증과 대혈관합병증의 유무에 따른 차이와, 이미 혈관 질환의 위험인자로 알려져 있는 인자들간의 상관성을 알아보고자 하였다. 결과:1. 환자의 분포를 살펴보면 혈관합병증이 있는 군은 85명, 혈관합병증이 없는 군은 16명이었고, 평균연령은 각각 57.9±14.1세, 49.9±16.6세로 혈관 합병증이 있는 군에서 더 나이가 많았고, 체질량지수는 23.2±3.4㎏/㎡, 24.1±3.4㎏/㎡로 두 군간 유의한 차이는 없었다. 또 두 군간의 혈압 및 HbA1c, 공복혈당 및 인슐린과 Cpeptide, 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방, HDL콜레스테롤, Lp⒜는 유의한 차이가 없었고, 미세혈관합병증이 있는 군에서 당뇨병의 유병기간이 길었다. 2. TAT 및 PIC의 농도는 정상 대조군에서는 2.8±1.2 ng/mL, 240.4±69.7 ng/mL이었고, 당뇨병 환자군에서는 9.5±22.6 ng/mL, 472.2±258.7 ng/mL이었다. TAT와 PIC 모두 당뇨병 환자군에서 정상 대조군에 비해 유의하게 증가되어 있었고(p<0.001), TAT/PIC ratio는 두 군간 차이가 없었다. 3. 당뇨병 환자의 혈관합병증에 따른 TAT 및 PIC, fibrinogen 농도는 합병증이 없는 군은 각각 4.1±2.4ng/mL, 362.2±272.0ng/mL, 322.7±102.4mg/mL으로 PIC와 fibrinogen의 증가를 보였으나, 연령을 보정한 후에는 통계학적 유의성은 없었다. 또 대혈관 합병증군에서는 각각 6.0±4.9 ng/mL, 507.4±321.6 ng/mL, 427.1±194.7 mg/dL이었으며 미세·대혈관 합병증군에서는 10.4±6.4 ng/mL, 484.8±269.7 ng/mL, 388.4±132.4 mg/dL으로 TAT의 증가를 보였으나 역시 연령을 보정한 후에는 통계학적 유의성은 없었다. 4. 미세혈관합병증군에서 HbA1c(>8%)가 높은 군의 PIC 농도가 유의하게 높았고(p=0.049), 대혈관합병증군에서 HbA1c(>8%)가 높은 군의 총 콜레스테롤 농도가 유의하게 높았다(p=0.042). 5. 총 당뇨병 환자군에서 PIC는 fibrinogen과 HbA1c와 양의 상관관계를, BMI와 음의 상관관계를 보였으며(r=0.47, 0.31,-0.25), 혈관 합병증이 없는 당뇨병 환자군에서만 TAT는 HbA1c와 양의 상관관계를 보였다(r=0.67). 결론:이상의 결과에서 혈장 TAT 및 PIC 농도는 당뇨병 환자에서 정상 대조군에 비해 의미있게 증가되어 있었고, 당뇨병 환자군에서는 연령의 증가와 유병기간이 혈액응고항진 및 용해의 장애에 큰 역할을 함을 알 수 있었으며, 총 당뇨병 환자군에 PIC와 HbA1c와 양의 상관관계를, BMI와 음의 상관관계를 보였으며 혈관 합병증이 없는 당뇨병 환자군에서만 TAT는 HbA1c와 양의 상관관계를 보였다. 따라서 당뇨병 환자에서 혈액응고 및 용해의 장애가 동반되어 있다고 볼 수 있으며, 혈장 TAT 및 PIC는 혈관합병증으로의 진행을 예측하는 지표로서 유용하리라 생각된다. 또 혈당조절정도와 상관성이 있으므로 혈당조절후에 추적검사를 시행하여 합병증의 예방이 가능한지 추후 연구가 필요하리라 생각된다. Background : Abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolystic system is known as a predisposing factor of vascular complication in diabetes. Although the pathogenesis is not well known, non-enzymatic glycation reaction and the increase in production of free radicals due to an increased oxidative stress may be linked to the hypercoagulibility and hypofibrinolytic activity. As indices of abnormality in coagulation and firinolysis in peripheral blood, plasma thrombin-antithrombin Ⅲ complex (TAT) and plasmin-α_2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) were measured. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether hypercoagulability exists in diabetic patients with or without vascular complication. Methods : In our study, we measured plasma thrombin-antithrombin Ⅲ compelx (TAT) and plasmin-α_2-plasmin inhibit or complex (PIC) in 101 diabetic subjects and 20 controls. Comparing TAT and PIC levels in diabetic microvascular complication group, diabetic macrovascular complication group and controls, we examined correlation between risk factors associated with diabetic vascular complication. Results : 1. The group with diabetic vascular complication was older than group without complication. There was no significant difference in BMI, blood pressure, HbA_ic, blood sugar level, insulin, C-peptide, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, Lp (a) between two groups. The group with diabetic microvascular complication had longer duration of diabetes. 2. Concentration of TAT and PIC were 2.8±1.2 ng/ mL, 240.4±69.7 ng/ mL in controls and 9.5±22.6 ng/ mL, 472.2±258.7 ng/ mL in diabetic patients, respectively. TAT and PIC were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control (p<0.001). But TAT/PIC ratio was no significant difference between two groups. 3. In diabetic patients, concentration of TAT and PIC and fibrinogen were respectively 4.1±2.4 ng/ mL, 362.2±272.0 ng/ mL, 322.7±102.4 mg/ dL in group without vascular complication and 5.3±4.1 ng/ mL, 529.5±258.7 ng/ mL, 374.9±106.2 mg/ dL in group with microvascular complication, which group had increase in PIC and Fibrinogen but no significance after correction of age. Concentration of TAT and PIC and Fibrinogen were 60.±4.9 ng/ mL, 507.4±321.6 ng/ mL, 427.1±194.7 mg/ dL in macrovascular complication, and 10.4±6.7 mg/ mL, 484.8±269.7 ng/ mL, 388.4±132.4 mg/ dL in combined vascular complication which group showed increase of TAT but also had no significant increase after correction of age. 4. In diabetic microvascular complication patients, group of high HbA_1c (>8%) (p=0.049) had significant high PIC concentration. In diabetic macrovascular complication patients, group of high HbA_1c (>8%) (p=0.042) had significant high total cholesterol concentration. 5. In all diabetic patients, PIC was positively correlated with fibrinogen and HbA_1c and negatively correlated BMI (r=0.47, 0.31, -0.25). Only in daibetic patients without angiopathy, TAT was positively correlated with HbA_1c (r=0.67). Conclusion : In this study, plasma TAT and PIC concentration significantly increased in diabetic patients compared with controls, and PIC was increased in group with microvascular complication, TAT were increased in group with combined micro macrovascular complication. However, there was no significance relationship existed when correctinf for age. PIC was correlated with HbA_1c. TAT was correlated with HbA_1c only in the group without angiopathy. Abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis were combined in diabetes, plasma TAT and PIC can be used as an index of vascular complication. Also we found the correlation with the degree of the blood glucose control. Therefore we need follow up study for the possibility of prevention of vascular complication after controlling the blood glucose to age-matched patients (J Kor Diaabetes Asso 25:354~363, 2001).
To investigate the effect and mechanism of caffeine on endurance exercise, two experiments were performed. First, to test caffeine effect on aerobic exercise, 200-300g Sprague-Dawley rats were used and three groups, control group, low caffeine injection group and high caffeine injection group, were divided. Blood smpling by heart puncture were done at rest, after 30 min treadmill exercise, and after maximal exercise. Blood glucose, free fatty acid concentration were detected and following results were obtained. Glucose concentration showed significant difference between groups(p=0.0305) and also significant changes were exhibited between time(p=0.0004). Free fatty acid concentration had no difference between groups. but had significance between times(p=0.00065). Exercise endurance performance time showed significant difference(p=0.02350 in high caffeine injection group compared to control group. In this experiments, endurance exercise capacity was increased by caffeine injection. Therefore, second experiment was performed to investigate the effect of caffeine on ion current induced inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter. GABA and glycine. Single periaqueductal gray neuron was acutely dissociated and nystatin perforated patch clamp was performed under voltage clamping condition. Caffeine evoked outward current in PAG neuron dose dependent manner. 1mM of caffeine application had no response. but 3mM caffeine evoked about 32.5±8.539pA outward ion current and 10mM caffeine evoked about 215.46±19.4pA outward current. 10^-2mM GABA activated Cl￣current and recorded by inward current. Caffeine inhibited GABA activated Cl￣ current concentration dependent manner. 10^-2mM of caffeine had no effect on 1-^-2mM of GABA response. but 10^-1mM caffeine inhibited GABA activated Cl￣ current about 5.74±2.13%, 1mM caffeine inhibited about 17.25±2.70%, 10mM caffeine inhibited GABA response about 45.31±7.71%. 10^-1mM of glycine activated Cl￣ current and also recorded by inward current. Caffeine inhibited glycine activated Cl￣ current concentration dependent manner. 10^-2mM caffeine decreased glycine activated Cl￣ current about 4.61±1.650%, 10^-1mM caffeine decreased about 6.49±2.24%, 1mM caffeine decreased about 26.82±4.27%, and 10mM caffeine decreased glycine response about 94.47±1.39%. These results suggest that caffeine inhibite inhibitory amino acid, GABA and glycine, this response causes excitation of CNS and this seems to be the basic mechanism of increasing effect to aerobic exercise performance by caffeine.
An adaptive estimator to estimate the water quality in a river under unknown biased measurements environment is developed. In modeling the unknown measurement bias, it is assumed that the bias sequence is governed by semi-Markov process. By incorporating the semi-Markov probability concepts into the Bayesian estimation theory. an effective adaptive estimator which consists of parallel Kalman-type filters is obtained. Computer simulation results for the multiple-reach river system show that the proposed adaptive estimator have good estimation performance in spite of the unknown randomly switching measurement bias.
In this highly competitive market, fashion brands struggle to distinguish themselves to increasingly apathetic consumers. To become more competitive, fashion retailers employ emotional branding as a way to engage their customers, addressing the growing trend of consumers’ seeking emotional relationships with a brand. Although brand technicalities such as product attributes, features, and facts may be unmemorable, personal feelings and experiences better shape consumers’ evaluations of brands. This study illustrates why emotional branding is essential, especially to fashion brands, when developing brand strategies in a volatile marketplace. Trends that support a need for these strategies include consumers’ desires for positive experiences, expressing authentic self, achieving warm glow from helping others, and co-creating design or ideas with the brand. We propose a model for emotional branding strategies that focuses on sensory branding, storytelling, cause branding, and empowerment. The case studies we provide for each strategy describe how fashion brands can engage customers through emotional branding.
( Kyung Ah Kim ),( Sook Hyang Jeong ),( Eun Sun Jang ),( Young Seok Kim3 ),( Youn Jae Lee ),( Eun Uk Jung ),( In Hee Kim ),( Sung Bum Cho ),( Mee Kyung Kee ),( Chun Kang ) 대한간학회 2014 Clinical and Molecular Hepatology(대한간학회지) Vol.20 No.4
Background/Aims: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Korea exhibits significant geographic variation, with it being higher in Busan and Jeonam than in other areas. The reason for this intranational geographic difference was investigated in this study by conducting a comparative analysis of the risk factors related to HCV infection among three geographic areas: the capital (Seoul), Busan, and the province of Jeolla. Methods: In total, 990 patients with chronic HCV infection were prospectively enrolled at 5 university hospitals located in Seoul (n=374), Busan (n=264), and Jeolla (n=352). A standardized questionnaire survey on the risk factors for HCV infection was administered to these three groups of patients, and a comparative analysis of the findings was performed. Results: The analysis revealed significant regional differences in exposure to the risk factors of HCV infection. By comparison with patients in Seoul as a control group in the multivariate analysis, patients in Busan had significantly more experience of invasive medical procedures, acupuncture, cosmetic procedures, and multiple sex partners. In contrast, patients in Jeolla were significantly older, and they had a higher prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma, a lower prevalence of multiple sex partners, and had experienced fewer invasive procedures. Conclusions: There was a significant geographic difference in the exposure to potential risk factors of HCV infection between patients from the three studied regions. This may explain the regional variation of the prevalence of HCV infection in Korea, and should be taken into account when planning strategies for the prevention and management of HCV infection. (Clin Mol Hepatol 2014;20:361-367)
To evaluate the specificity of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein gene for various NDV strains. F protein genes of NDV CBP-1 isolate, LaSota, B1 and Kyojungwon (KJW) were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RFLP were examined. In RT-PCR using F primer sets for 1.7 kb F gene, the amplified products were observed in CBP-1, LaSota and B1 except KJW. However, F2 primer set for 521 bp yielded the amplified bands with all strains. The amplified F genes (1.7 kbp) were treatd with 15 different restriction enzymes to analyze RFLP and the cleavage patterns. CBP-1 showed various cleavage patterns with 8 enzymes, LaSota, with 11 enzymes and B1, with 11 enzymes. According to the cleavage patterns, the physical maps were constructed, and it was found that CBP-1, LaSota and B1 strains had specific cleavage sites with HinfI, XbaI and XhoI. These findings suggest that RFLP are worth applying in the diagnosis and molecular epidemiological studies of Newcastle disease.