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Widely orthant dependence (WOD, in short) is a special dependence structure. In this paper, by using the probability inequalities and moment inequalities for WOD random variables, we study the L<sub>p</sub> convergence and complete convergence for the partial sums respectively under the conditions of RCI(α), SRCI(α) and R-h-integrability. We also give an application to nonparametric regression models based on WOD errors by using the L<sub>p</sub> convergence that we obtained. Finally we carry out some simulations to verify the validity of our theoretical results.
This paper presents analytical approximate solutions for the initial post-buckling deformation of the pipes in oil and gas wells. The governing differential equation with sinusoidal nonlinearity can be reduced to form a third-order-polynomial nonlinear equation, by coupling of the well-known Maclaurin series expansion and orthogonal Chebyshev polynomials. Analytical approximations to the resulting boundary condition problem are established by combining the Newton's method with the method of harmonic balance. The linearization is performed prior to proceeding with harmonic balancing thus resulting in a set of linear algebraic equations instead of one of non-linear algebraic equations, unlike the classical method of harmonic balance. We are hence able to establish analytical approximate solutions. The approximate formulae for load along axis, and periodic solution are established for derivative of the helix angle at the end of the pipe. Illustrative examples are selected and compared to "reference" solution obtained by the shooting method to substantiate the accuracy and correctness of the approximate analytical approach.
제31기 리우데자네이루 올림픽에서 국제스포츠중재원은 처음으로 임시중재원과 반도핑중재원을 설립하여 올림픽도핑사건에 관한 공동관할을 시행하였다. 본문은 국제스포츠중재원 사이트에서 공시한 9건의 사건에 대한 분석을 통하여 반도핑에 관한 리우데자네이루 올리핌의 변화를 아래와 같은 세 가지 부분으로 나뉘어 설명하였다. 첫째, 리우데자네이루 올림픽에서 설립한 임시중재원과 반도핑중재원의 “二重중재체계”는 선수에게 상고의 기회를 부여하는 것으로 선수의 권한을 보장하였으며, 서로 독립된 중재원의 설치로 기존 임시중재원의 관할제한에 구애하지 않은 구제절차를 마련하였다. 둘 째, 도핑사건의 “무과실책임”책임의 기준을 명확히 하였다. 즉, 선수 또는 기타 당사자가 고의적으로 도핑을 사용한 것을 증명하지 못한 경우 4년의 경기금지을 하지만, 기타 경우 2년의 경기금지을 한다. 셋째, 도핑중 재제도의 전문화를 추진하였다. 한 면으로는 도핑 방지의 강도를 높혔으며, 다른 한 면으로 도핑분쟁중 재원의 전문화를 현실화 하였다. 이러한 제도는 반도핑에 관한 법적 규제와 선수의 기본권 보장에 관한 이익형량을 통하여 전문화 될 수 있다. 앞서 논한 내용을 바탕으로 반도핑분쟁에 관한 저자의 견해는 다음과 같다. 첫째, CAS중재판례에 대한 중재원의 인용을 규범화 하며, 중재원의 재량권을 제한하여 당사자의 기대이익을 보장한다. 둘째, 중재원은 도핑관리기관의 相異한 처벌을 심사할 수 있지만, 다만 이러한 권한은 IFs반도핑사건의 자치적 해결을 존중하는 기초에서 충돌된 부분에 대하여만 심사를 할 수 있다. The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) set up firstly two temporary divisions: CAS Ad Hoc Arbitration Division (AHD) and CAS Anti-Doping Division (CASADD), which were in charge of doping-related matters arising on the occasion of the Games cooperatively, in 2016 Olympic Games on the site of the Rio de Janeiro in the history of Olympic Games. Through systematic studying the 9 cases published by CAS on its official website, the authors conclude that the dual system of arbitration including the AHD and CASADD established in Rio Olympic Game is beneficial to achieve the specialization of the arbitration system, to safeguard the basic rights of athletes, and to clarify and to standardize the strict liability principle in the anti-doping cases. Furthermore, the authors suggest the tribunals to conform to the standard of the invoking of precedents by CAS, and to coordinate effectively the conflicts between the penalty decisions rendered by different Anti-Doping organizations.
This paper deals with large deformation post-buckling of a linear-elastic and hygrothermal beam with axially nonmovable pinned-pinned ends and subjected to a significant increase in swelling by an alternative method. Analytical approximate solutions for the geometrically nonlinear problem are presented. The solution for the limiting case of a string is also obtained. By coupling of the well-known Maclaurin series expansion and orthogonal Chebyshev polynomials, the governing differential equation with sinusoidal nonlinearity can be reduced to form a cubic-nonlinear equation, and supplementary condition with cosinoidal nonlinearity can also be simplified to be a polynomial integral equation. Analytical approximations to the resulting boundary condition problem are established by combining the Newton's method with the method of harmonic balance. Two approximate formulae for load along axis, potential strain for free hygrothermal expansion and periodic solution are established for small as well as large angle of rotation at the end of the beam. Illustrative examples are selected and compared to "reference" solution obtained by the shooting method to substantiate the accuracy and correctness of the approximate analytical approach.
Sliding mode control (SMC) contains two phases, namely reaching and sliding phases, where the invariance of SMC is not guaranteed during the reaching phase. Integral SMC (ISMC) eliminates the reaching phase such that the invariance is guaranteed from the initial time instant. Several smoothing techniques have been applied to reduce chattering in the ISMC, including boundary layer, high-order SMC, low-pass filtering, etc. In this study, we discuss pros and cons of these techniques and suggest a simple and effective solution to attenuate chattering in the ISMC. In the suggested solution, the discontinuous part of the ISMC law is smoothed by a low-pass filter based on the equivalent control method. The resultant ISMC can not only avoid the trade-off among chattering, tracking accuracy, and robustness, but also act as a disturbance observer to exactly estimate and reject uncertainties. Numerical results have been provided to verify the arguments of this study.
Chinese courts' attitudes toward domestic surrogacy have appeared to soften and are inclined to protect the best interests of children and the legal rights of intended parents. However, many problems remain unsolved in transnational surrogacy cases, including the validity of a contract, parentage or guardianship determination, citizen conferral, and household registration. In this article, transnational surrogacy is analyzed from the perspective of private international law, particularly jurisdiction, choice of law, and recognition of foreign judgment on parental relationships and foreign public documents. In addition, some specific cases, such as transnational surrogacy for same-sex partners and transnational surrogacy without the consent of intended parents, are discussed and analyzed in detail.
Widely orthant dependence (WOD, in short) is a special dependence structure. In this paper, by using the probability inequalities and moment inequalities for WOD random variables, we study the $L_p$ convergence and complete convergence for the partial sums respectively under the conditions of RCI$(\alpha)$, SRCI$(\alpha)$ and $R$-$h$-integrability. We also give an application to nonparametric regression models based on WOD errors by using the $L_p$ convergence that we obtained. Finally we carry out some simulations to verify the validity of our theoretical results.