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Gladiolus is one of the most popular cut flowers in the world floral market and is highly attractive to consumers. The production of poor-quality gladiolus spikes is one of the most important hurdles to obtaining high prices for this crop. The main objectives of this study were to improve the quantitative characteristics of gladiolus spikes, to increase propagule production and to enhance chemical constituent levels in leaves to help improve plant growth. We performed foliar application of bioregulators, including polyamines (putrescine and spermine) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and thiamine), at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 mM) to gladiolus plants at the three leaf, five leaf and slipping stages. Application of 1 mM putrescine was the most effective treatment, with prominent effects on economically important spike traits including spike length (55.53 ㎝), spike diameter (7.53 ㎜), florets per spike (13.99), first floret diameter (9.66 ㎝) and first floret weight (4.90 g), followed by spermine treatment. The 1 mM putrescine treatment also had positive effects on corm-associated traits including corm diameter and corm weight, with values of 4.57 ㎝ and 26.16 g compared to 3.47 ㎝ and 17.16 g in control plants, respectively. The contents of chemical constituents in leaves, including total chlorophylls (8.06 ㎎·g<SUP>-1</SUP>), total carotenoids (1.66 ㎎·g<SUP>-1</SUP>), total soluble sugars (4.75 ㎎·g<SUP>-1</SUP>) and phenolics (0.89 ㎎·g<SUP>-1</SUP>) increased in response to foliar application of 1 mM putrescine compared to the control. Ascorbic acid and thiamine also had positive effects on various plant morphological traits and chemical constituents in leaves compared to control plants, but the growth-promoting effects of polyamines were more pronounced. Hence, applying polyamines to gladiolus leaves will help improve spike production and increasing propagule (cormel) yields.
In this article, we constructively prove that on a surface S with genus g ≥ 2, there exit maximal geodesic laminations with 7g - 7,..., 9g - 9 leaves. Thus, S can have ideal cell-decompositions (i.e., S can be (ideally) triangulated by maximal geodesic laminations) with 7g - 7,..., 9g - 9 (ideal) 1-cells. Once there is a triangulation for a compact surface, the Euler characteristic for the surface can be calculated as the alternating sum F - E+V, where F,E, and V denote the number of faces, edges, and vertices, respectively. We also prove that the same formula holds for the ideal celldecompositions. In this article, we constructively prove that on a surface S with genus g ≥ 2, there exit maximal geodesic laminations with 7g - 7,..., 9g - 9 leaves. Thus, S can have ideal cell-decompositions (i.e., S can be (ideally) triangulated by maximal geodesic laminations) with 7g - 7,..., 9g - 9 (ideal) 1-cells. Once there is a triangulation for a compact surface, the Euler characteristic for the surface can be calculated as the alternating sum F - E+V, where F,E, and V denote the number of faces, edges, and vertices, respectively. We also prove that the same formula holds for the ideal celldecompositions.
The Purpose of this qualitative case study is to discern the issues pertaining to different dimensions of internationalization from the perspectives of both foreign and local students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 foreign, and 13 local students. The results show that there is a dissonance between policy makers and implementers, and the students themselves on "what a truly international higher education organization" in fact is. Moreover, the results suggest that asymmetrical aims of local and foreign students endanger fulfillment of the academic, social, and Cultural rationales behind internationalization. Fulfilling the rationales of internationalization depends not only the adaptability of foreign students to local conditions but also on the priorities, choices and level of commitment of local Students, administrative staff, and faculty members to the imperatives of internationalization.
The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal.
( Yasar Colak ), ( Gulcin Bozbey ), ( Tolga Erim ), ( Ozge Telci Caklili ), ( Celal Ulasoglu ), ( Ebubekir Senates ), ( Hasan Huseyin Mutlu ), ( Banu Mesci ), ( Mehmet Sait Dogan ), ( Guralp Tasan ), ( Feruze Y) 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회(구 대한소화관운동학회) 2016 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.22 No.3
Background/Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Along with the increase in the incidence of NAFLD and associated obesity, an increase in gallbladder disease (GD) has been noted. This has led to the identification of a new disease entity called fatty GD. There is a gap in the literature on the dynamics of gallbladder function in patients with NAFLD. Methods An observational case-control study, a total of 50 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD without gallbladder stone/sludge and 38 healthy comparison subjects were enrolled. Fasting, postprandial gallbladder volumes (PGV), gallbladder ejection fraction (GEF), and fasting gallbladder wall thickness (FGWT) were measured by real-time 2-dimensional ultrasonography. Results Fasting gallbladder wall thickness, fasting gallbladder volumes and PGV were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than control subjects (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly lower in the NAFLD group than the controls (P = 0.008). The presence of NAFLD was an independent predictor for GEF, PGV, and FGWT. Also, steatosis grade was an independent predictor for GEF, and GEF was significantly lower in the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) subgroup than the controls. Conclusions Gallbladder dysfunction and increase in gallbladder wall thickness exists in asymptomatic (without stone/sludge and related symptoms) patients with NAFLD and are useful in identifying fatty GD. Measurement of these variables in NAFLD patients may be useful in identifying those at higher risk for GD. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2016;22:470-476)
The study investigated the efficiency and cost effectiveness of solar-assisted photochemical processes in comparison with advance oxidation processes (AOPs) for the textile effluents treatment. Efficiency of UV irradiation alone for one hour in removing color was almost double in comparison to solar radiation alone for effluents of different dye concentrations (E1>E2>E3). For coupled UV/H2O2 process, there was higher color removal efficiency obtained for effluent E3 (85%) as compared to E2 (70%) and E1 (57%), while E1 showed higher COD removal efficiency (70%) as compared to E2 (50%) and E3 (62%). However, the efficiency of solar/H2O2 for COD removal was comparable to UV/ H2O2, i.e., E2 (57%) and E3 (53%). In the case of UV and solar-assisted photo-Fenton processes, removal efficiency of the UV process was further increased as approached to almost 90% removal for E1; on the other hand, the solar-assisted process efficiency remained the same. The relative efficiencies of AOPs were found to be in the order of UV assisted photo-Fenton process>UV/H2O2>UV alone. Although, solar-assisted Fenton treatments were relatively low and slow but without any energy consumption in comparison to high energy consumption of UV. Among the UV processes, UV assisted photo-Fenton treatment appeared to have better color removal efficiency with energy requirements of 5 kWh/m3, 8 kWh/m3 and 3 kWh/m3 for E1, E2 and E3, respectively.
We FInd the expression for the curvature tensor of Lorentzian para-Sasakian (briefly LP-Sasakian) manifold that admits a type of semi-symmetric non metric con-nection. We study the properties of curvature tensor, conformal curvature tensor and projective curvature tensor. We show that the projective curvature tensor of Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold is skew symmetric with respect to semi-symmetric non-metric connection. Last we obtain conditions under which the conformal curvature and the quasi conformal curvature tensors are conformally and quasi conformally flat, respec-tively.
We are developing a prototype underwater glider for subsea payload delivery. The idea is to use a glider to deliver payloads for subsea installations. In this type of application, the hydrodynamic forces and dynamic stability of the glider is of particular importance, as it has implications on the glider's endurance and operation. In this work, the effect of two different wing forms, rectangular and tapered, on the hydrodynamic characteristics and dynamic stability of the glider were investigated, to determine the optimal wing form. To determine the hydrodynamic characteristics, tow tank resistance tests were carried out using a model fitted alternately with a rectangular wing and tapered wing. Steady-state CFD analysis was conducted using the hydrodynamic coefficients obtained from the tests, to obtain the lift, drag and hydrodynamic derivatives at different angular velocities. The results show that the rectangular wing provides larger lift forces but with a reduced stability envelope. Conversely, the tapered wing exhibits lower lift force but improved dynamic stability.
One of the most popular and commonly used strengthening techniques to protect against earthquakes is to infill the holes in reinforced concrete (RC) frames with fully reinforced concrete infills. In some cases, windows and door openings are left inside infill walls for architectural or functional reasons during the strengthening of reinforced concrete-framed buildings. However, the seismic performance of multistory, multibay, reinforced concrete frames that are strengthened by reinforced concrete wing walls is not well known. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the experimental behavior of vulnerable multistory, multibay, reinforced concrete frames that were strengthened by introducing wing walls under a lateral load. For this purpose, three 2-story, 2-bay, 1/3-scale test specimens were constructed and tested under reversed cyclic lateral loading. The total shear wall (including the column and wing walls) length and the location of the bent beam bars were the main parameters of the experimental study. According to the test results, the addition of wing walls to reinforced concrete frames provided significantly higher ultimate lateral load strength and higher initial stiffness than the bare frames did. While the total shear wall length was increased, the lateral load carrying capacity and stiffness increased significantly.