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尹瓘 9城의 설치 범위에 대해서는 조선 초기까지만 해도 고려사, 세종실록 지리지, 동국여지승람 등 官撰史料의 기록 그대로 두만강 북(7백리)에 공험진과 선춘령이 있다는 데 의심의 여지가 없었다. 그러나 조선 중기 우리나라 역사지리학의 창시자인 韓百謙이 등장하여 함경남도 利原郡과 端川郡 경계의 磨雲嶺,높이 416m 상에 있는 石樞舊基, 돌기둥이 서 있는 옛터를 윤관비(선춘령 정계비)로 推定한 이래 그의 영향을 받은 실학자들이 윤관비를 마운령 이남으로 내려잡는, 이른바 吉州 이남설을 제기하기에 이르렀다. 그 이후 1929년에 현장을 답사한 崔南善에 의해 문제의 비는 신라 진흥왕의 巡狩碑로 뒤늦게 밝혀졌다. 일제 官邊 사학자 이케우치 池內宏 등이 이를 빌미(핑계)삼고 조선인들의 실학자에게 거는 기대와 信望에 편승하여 윤관9성을 아예 함경남도 함주군과 홍원군 경계에 있는 咸關嶺 높이 450m이남, 즉 함흥평야 일대로까지 끌어내려 버렸다. 이른바 함흥평야설이다. 그러나 윤관 9성 연구의 선구자인 方東仁과 金九鎭은 세종실록 지리지 상에서 밝히고 있는 선춘령과 공험진의 위치를 추적한 끝에 두만 강북 7백리 지점, 綏汾河 상류 지역에 있는 老松嶺이 곧 선춘령 일 것이라고 추정한 바 있다. 최근 한 軍,육군소장 출신 교수 尹日寧이 5백 년 전에 6진을 개척했던 金宗瑞가 발로 답사했던 세종지리지 상의 그 路程을 GPS 방식으로 두 차례에 걸쳐 실측하여 앞의 두 원로교수가 추정했던 노송령이 곧 선춘령임을 재확인하게 되었다. About the territories of nine castles established by general Yoon, Gwan, there had been no doubt until the former era of Chosun dynasty that it was the area of ‘Gonghum’ fortress and Mt.’Sunchun’. It is seven hundreds li north of Tomun river. This is according to official government history records "The history of Corea dynasty", "The chronicle of King Sejong (geography section)" and "The geographical information of eastern country". But the founder of historical geography of Korea, Han, Baek-gyum estimated that a stone foundation which is located on Mt. Maun near to the boundary of ‘Iwon’ county and ‘Dancheon’ county of southern Hamkyung province must be the monument of general Yoon-Gwan. Japanese historians who were controlled by the government like Ikeuchi Hiroshi took advantage of this theory and the respect of Korean people toward these scholars. They insisted that general Yoon,gwan's nine castles should be located in the Hamheung plain that is south of Mt. Hamgwan The frontrunner of the study of general Yoon,gwan's 'nine castles', professor Bang, dong-in already knew Ikeuchi's bad intension 35 years ago, and wrote "(Ikeuchi's theory) is total distortion." in his article <A thought regarding Yoon-gwan's nine castles>. And professor Kim,gu-jin found Korea's oldest map 'The map of eastern country' in the Naikaku library ’ in Japan, and studied location of Mt.Sunchun and ‘Gonghum’ fortress. Finally, he concluded that Mt.Nosong, seven hundred li north of Tomun river should be Mt.Sunchun in his article <Gonghum fortress and the monument of Mt.Sunchun>. The record of ‘Chronicle of King Sejong ’ which might be the base of the 'The map of eastern country' is the milestone of the seven hundreds li way north of Tomun river which was studied and recorded by then governor of Hamkil province, general Kim,Jong-Seo who established ‘six fortresses’ afterward. He did this according to secret mission of King Sejong. Recently a professor named Yoon, yil-young who was former general of Republic of Korean Army, surveyed the route of “The chronicle of King Sejong " route surveyed by twice through the method of GPS and proved that as the estimation of former two professors, “Mt.Nosong mountains is actually Mt.Sunchun”. And for ‘Gonghum’ fortress, it should be the 'Obong mountain castle' which is located on the north-western part of Habipa mountain ranges. By doing this, he could prove that Mt.Sunchun and ‘Gonghum’ fortress were the tactical fortresses which were established to defend the eastern side and the north-western side by general Yoon,gwan who conquered Yeojin people in order to secure Karran area.
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I have studied life of Yoon-Dong-Li(尹東里), who applied Un-Ki(運氣) theory to medicine during Suk-Jong(肅宗) to Jeong-Jo(正祖) in Yi-Dynasty and also studied his existing writings named 《Cho-Chang-kyeol》(草窓訣). The referenced original work prints were based on 1980's pring of Chung-Ku oriental medical society and National Central Library and The academy a korean studies possessed print. Studied with these books, I have concluded as follows. 1. Yoon-Dong-Li(尹東里) courtesy name is Ja-Mi(子美), pen name is Cho-Chang(草窓). He was born in 1705, Suk-Jong(肅宗) 31yrs, and died in 1784, Jeong-Jo(正祖) 3yrs in Yi-Dynasty. He had lineage of third-generationed-doctor and learned medicine from his uncle, Yoon-Woo-Kyo(尹雨敎). His father Yoon-Yi-Kyo(윤이교) gaved him second influence. 2. Confucianal physician in Ming Dynasty You-Bu(劉溥) respected Ju-Ryeom-Kyo(周濂溪), confucianist in Song-Dynasty and You-Bu(劉溥) does not removed grass in front of window (because in chinese, Cho-Chang(草窓) means grass in front of windows), and named himself Cho-Chang(草窓). Yoon-Dong-Li(尹東里) followed this suit so called himself Cho-Chang(草窓). 3. The main contents of 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣), <Un-Ki-Yeon-Lon>(運氣衍論) was written in 1725, when Yoon-Dong-Li(尹東里) was 21yrs old and printed in 1736. The other part of 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣), <Yong-Yak-Pyeon>(用藥篇) was written in 1746. These two parts were not written in the same time. The <Un-Ki-Yeon-Lon>(運氣衍論) was written 11years earlier than <Yong-Yak>(用藥). Two parts were combined another day and named 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣). 4. Existing 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣) is transcribed printing with the content of "Five elements motion and the six kind of natural factors theory"(五運六氣論). Each edition is generally similar in content, but also has different points each other so naw we hardly finds a complete set of works. 5. 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣) is a first technical book which treats of Un-Ki(運氣) theory in korea. 6. The contents of <Un-Ki-Yeon-Lon>(運氣衍論) of 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣) is mechanism of diease according to excess and insuffciency of five elements motion and six kinds of natural factors, and symptoms and priscriptions, includes variated priscriptions. 7. Two parts in <Un-Ki-Yeon-Lon>(運氣衍論) of 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣), 'Sang-tong'(相通) and 'Kak-Tong'(各通), threats of mechanisim of the disease according to five elements, with the principle of inter-promoting and inter-acting, in the change of ten heavenly stems and five elements motion. 8. In the <Yong-Yak-Pyeon>(用藥篇) of 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣) describes priscription for clinical application according to Un-Ki(運氣) and also records about misuse of medicine. 9. In the 《Cho-Chang-Kyeol》(草窓訣), most of priscription are common using one, which also found in 《Dong-Ui-Bo-Gam》(東醫寶鑑) and there are few of priscriptions by Yoon-Dong-Li(尹東里).
Concerning the issue of exceptions in generics, Cohen (2004) argues that exceptions are allowed in generics only if "homogeneity" is not violated. The homogeneity constraint restricts that the exceptions should not form a salient "chunk" of the domain of the generic. A salient chunk could be formed, depending on the way in which the domain is mentally represented. "Tree" and "geometric" representations are proposed as the two ways of mapping of cognitive mental representations. Yoon (2006) argues, however, that choices between these two mental representations claimed to be involved in the interpretation process of generics are quite arbitrary, and that counterexamples also exist for the "homogeneity" requirement. Yoon also suggests that generics involve cognitive conceptualizations based on the language users' encyclopedic knowledge, world knowledge from experiences, common sense, beliefs, stereotypes, prejudices, etc. Given this, this paper revisits the widely-agreed-upon phenomenon of exceptions in generics, and proposes that generics could be divided into two kinds depending on whether they contain trivial or real exceptions, elaborating on Yoon's analysis. It is further proposed that one kind of generics is characterizing statements based on the salient properties of "whole" sets while the other kind is characterizing statements based on the salient properties of "representative" sets. It will be shown that this approach better accounts for the acceptable and unacceptable generic statements.
韓國産 底棲性 大型無脊椎動物 총 29개 指標分類群을선정하여 肉眼的 分類檢索表를 작성하였으며, 生物綜合 點數를 기준으로한 相對出現度 분석으로 分類群의 汚濁階級値를 3段階로 구분하고, 주요 出現祥에 대해 加重値를 적용하는 簡易水質判定表를 제안하여 분석한 결과,理化學的 項目에 의해 나타난 水質等級과 동일한 等級으로 판정된 경우가 총 378개 調査單位중 63%, 1 階級 이하의 오차를 보이는 調査單位는 99%로 나타나 水質判定에 매우 신빙도가 높은 것으로 판단되었다. 또한 簡易水質判定表를 基準으로 群汚染指數(Yoon-Kong's Group Pollution Index)라 命名한 새로운 指數를 제안하였으며, GPI指數는 Pantie-Buck의 汚水生物指數 및 Yoon-Kong의 生物綜合點數 TBS와 0.9이상의 높은 相關度를 보였다. 최종적으로 각 生物指數의 汚水生物系列 및 水質環境基準에 대한 區間을 綜合的으로 整理, 提案하였다. In this present paper, simple water quality evaluation method using Korean benthic macroinvertebrate 29 systematic groups was proposed from data matrix investigated by authors etc. at 613 sampling units in Korean streams and lakes since 1971. The evaluation of water quality criteria by this method showed identity of 63% in 378 sampling to chemical evaluation. Also we proposed the quantitative index named Yoon-Kong's GPI (Group pollution index) and this index showed correlation coefficient over 0.9 to Pantle-Buck's saprobic index S and Yoon-Kong's Total Biotic Score, TBS.
The preference on the substrate particle size in two Potamanthid mayflies (Pota-wanthus yooni and Rhoenanthus coreanus) was studied in the field and laboratory. In the field, the change pattern of density was different between two species, but the period of highest density was 23^(rd) September in both species. Both species occurred most abundantly in small cobble (P. yooni: 163 individuals, R. coreanus: 93 individuals), and over 85% of total individuals of both species occurred in the substrate particles from large pebble to large cobble. The distribution pattern of each species was not changed significantly during the sampling period. The results from laboratory experiment were well consistent with those from field survey and certified the substrate particle sise (SPS) preference of P. yooni and R. coreanus. The shape of the fundamental niche induced from the results of laboratory experiments was similar between two species, but the depth was deeper in P. yooni than in R. coreanus. The comparison of the realized and the fundamental niche of each species showed the relative importance of SPS as environmental factor. One of the potential factors that affected interspecific competition between two species would be the life cycle of each species.
The presence of epicanthal folds in Asian eyelids is one of their unique features, in combination with the lack of supratarsal folds. Western culture has influenced many people to prefer to eliminate the prominent epicanthal fold. A number of surgical techniques have been suggested for their correction. However, difficulty with design, excessive and prominent scarring of medial canthal and nasal area, recurrence, and rigidity of application are potential problems associated with many procedures. This paper describes a epicanthoplasty with three-dimensional Z-plasty. Through epicanthal fold incision, the medial canthal tendon is medially advanced and sutured to the periosteum of nasal bone. After the transposition of the flaps, trimming of the flap is usually required. Three-dimensional Z-plasty creates the attractive eyes. From March, 1995 to March, 1997, the technique was applied to 37 patients with epicanthal fold and was performed with or without double-fold operation. There were 34 females and 3 males with ages ranging from 17 to 30 years. Through 2 years follow-up, this technique has delivered esthetically good results with minimal postoperative scar and could made the reduction of ICD from 40 ± 2.13 mm to 34 ± 1.98 mm. The advantages of epicanthoplasty procedure using three-dimensional Z-plasty(Yoon's method) are as follows; 1) simple in design 2)minimal postoperative scar in the medial canthal area 3) versatile in its application 4) no recurrence 5) no hypertrophic scar 6) preserving ethnic identity.
YoonJunKim,Hyo-SukLee,JongPilIm,Byung-HoonMin,Hyun-DaeKim,JiBongJeong,Jung-HwanYoon,ChungYongKim,MyungSooKim,JunYeonKim,JiHyunJung,LyoungHyoKim,ByungLaePark,신형두 생화학분자생물학회 2003 Experimental and molecular medicine Vol.35 No.3
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) can act as both a tumor suppresor and a stimulator of tu-mor progresion. We have examined the relation-ship betwen polymorphisms of the TGF-β1 gene and the risk of hepatocelular carcinoma (HC) in patients with chronic hepatis B virus (HBV) in-fection. A total of 1,237 Korean subjects were prospectively enroled; 1,046 patients with chronic HBV infection and 191 healthy controls with no evidence of recent or remote HBV infection. The out (n = 809) and those with HC (n = 2 3 7 ) . S i n g l e nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGF-β1 were searched for and genotyped using the single base extension method. In Korean subjects, only two SNPs were found among the seven known poly-morphisms of TGF-β1, at position -509 and in co-don 10. The risk of HCC was significantly lower in patients with the T/T or C/T genotypes than in those with the C/C genotypes at position -509 (P < 0.02), and also lower among those with the the Leu/Leu genotypes in codon 10 (P < 0.007). Haplotype analysis revealed that the possession of [-509C> T; L10P] conferred a decreased likeli-hod of HCC (OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P =0.008). In conclusion, the presence of the TGF-β1 -509C> T promoter or of the L10P polymor-phism, and the combination of both [-509C> T; L10P] as a haplotype were strongly associated with a reduced risk of HC in patients with chronic HBV infection.
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a chaperone proteinassociated with tumorigenesis and chemoresistance, hasattracted significant attention as a potential therapeutic targetfor the development of anticancer drugs. Here, the effects ofpifithrin-μ, an effective dual inhibitor of HSP70 and p53, onanticancer activities and epithelial–mesenchymal transition(EMT) were investigated in malignant mesothelioma (MM)cells. MSTO-211HAcT cells, pre-incubated in a mediumcontaining lactic acid, showed more potent resistance to cisplatinand gemcitabine, compared with their acid-sensitiveparental MSTO-211H cells. Pifithrin-μ treatment inducedboth apoptosis and necroptosis, which were accompaniedby an EMT-like phenomenon, as evidenced by an elongatedcell morphology, decreased levels of epithelial cell markersincluding E-cadherin, claudin-1, and β-catenin, increasedlevels of mesenchymal markers including Snail, Slug, andvimentin, and increased cell migratory property. Moreover,pifithrin-μ increased intracellular ROS levels, which is associatedwith mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased cellularATP content. A series of changes caused by pifithrin-μ treatmentwere effectively restored by lowering the ROS levelthrough pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Collectively,our results suggest that pifithrin-μ may promote the metastaticbehavior of surviving cells by triggering the EMT, despite its effective cell-killing action against MM cells,possibly linked to oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction andATP depletion.