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6S RNA, a conserved and abundant small non-coding RNA found in most bacteria, regulates gene expression by inhibiting RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. 6S RNAs from α-proteobacteria have been studied poorly so far. Here, we present a first in-depth analysis of 6S RNAs from two α-proteobacteria species, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Although both belong to the order Rhizobiales and are typical nitrogen-fixing symbionts of legumes, their 6S RNA expression profiles were found to differ: B. japonicum 6S RNA accumulated in the stationary phase, thus being reminiscent of Escherichia coli 6S RNA, whereas S. meliloti 6S RNA level peaked at the transition to the stationary phase, similarly to Rhodobacter sphaeroides 6S RNA. We demonstrated in vitro that both RNAs have hallmarks of 6S RNAs: they bind to the σ70-type RNAP holoenzyme and serve as templates for de novo transcription of so-called product RNAs (pRNAs) ranging in length from ~13 to 24 nucleotides, with further evidence of the synthesis of even longer pRNAs. Likewise, stably bound pRNAs were found to rearrange the 6S RNA structure to induce its dissociation from RNAP. Compared with B. japonicum 6S RNA, considerable conformational heterogeneity was observed for S. meliloti 6S RNA and its complexes with pRNAs, even though the two 6S RNAs share ~75% sequence identity. Overall, our findings suggest that the two rhizobial 6S RNAs have diverged with respect to their regulatory impact on gene expression throughout the bacterial life cycle.
The multiple 7S globulins composed of two fractions (A and B) in the electrophoresis with Davis' method were isolated at different stages of the soybean seed development. Electrophoresis of their subunits liberated in PAWU solvent [phenol-acetic acid-water (2 : 1 : 1) solution plus 5M urea] yielded 4 major bands. Observation of both the electrophoretic bands of the multiple 7S fractions(7S-A and 7S-B) and those of their subunits was suggestive of a similarity of the subunit pattern between two 7S fractions. The two fractions in multiple 7S globulins were isolated witb DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column(2.0×100㎝) chromatography. They were separated into 2 fractions in a linear gradient concentration of 0.28 to 0.40M NaCl with phosphate buffer (pH 7.8) containing 10mM β-mercaptoethanol(ME). The isolated protein was dissociated into subunits with two different solvent systems; m PAWU solvent and in Tris-HCl buffer(pH 8.0) containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 40mM ME. The dissociated subunits were subjected to electrophoresis in PAWU-treated 7.5% acrylamide gel and in 1% SDS-treated 5.6% acrylamide gel. In PAWU gel electrophoresis, total 7S globulin was separated into 5 major bands, two of which were occupied in common by two 75 fractions(7S-A and 7S-B). In SDS gel electrophoresis, total 7S globulin was separated into 7 major bands, three of which were overlapped with the subunit of the two 7S fractions. The above results alluded us to the presence of a common and/or similar subunit between the multiple 7S globulins.
Y. J. KIM, J. G. JI, J. T. KIM, J. H. HONG, J. S. LEE, H. S. LEE, S. B. PARK. A comparison study for mask plantar pressure measures to the difference of shoes in 20 female. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 83-98, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest of plantar pressures using the F-Scan system over speeds and plantar regions. 6 healthy female subjects in 20's were recruited for the study. Plantar pressure measurements during locomotor activities can provide information concerning foot function, particularly if the timing and magnitude of the loading profile can be related to the location of specific foot structures such as the metatarsal heads. The Tekscan F-Scan system consists of a flexible, 0.18mm thick sole-shape having 1260 pressure sensors, the sensor insole was trimmed to fit the subjects' right. left shoes - sneakers shoes & dress shoes. It was calibrated by the known weight of the test subject standing on one foot. The Tekscan measurements show the insole pressure distribution as a function of the time. This finding has important implications for the development of plantar pressure test protocols where the function of the forefoot is important. According to the result of analysis it is as follows : 1) Center of force trajectory in women's dress shoes display direct movement, compare with center of force trajectory in Sneaker shoes displays a little bit curved slow pronation movement. Sneaker shoes in forefoot part display very quick supination movement, therefore, this shoes effects negative effectiveness for ankle's stability. Considering center of force trajectory analyzing, the more center of force close straight line, the more movement can be quick movement for locomotion. For foot pressure distribution, center of force trajectory in locomotion is better to curved trajectory with pronation movement. So sneaker shoes style is good shoes considering center of pressure distribution trajectory compare with women's dress shoes. 2) Women's dress shoes increased peak pressure in medial, this is effected by high hill's height. The more increased women's dress shoes's height, the more women's peak pressure will increase, pronation can increase compare with before. Supination movement increase, this focused pressure in lateral, also, supination increased more. If the supination movement increased, foot pressure focused in lateral, therefore, it is appeared force distribution in gait direction. This is bad movement in foot's stability. 3) Women's dress shoes in landing phase displayed a long time, this is when women's dress shoes wear, gait movement is unbalance, so, landing phase displayed a long time. For compensation in gait, swing phase quick movement. 4) Women's dress shoes displayed peak pressure distribution in lateral of rearfoot part, Sneakers shoes displayed peak pressure distribution in medial of forefoot part. Its results has good impact absorption compare with women's dress shoes. In forefoot part, sneakers shoes has good propulsive force compare with women's dress shoes.
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본 연구는 군자적 리더십이 구성원의 유교적 가치와 리더에 대한 신뢰간의 관계에 미치는 영향을 검증하는 것을 주요 연구목적으로 하였다. 개인수준의 유교적 가치효과와 집단수준의 군자적 리더십 효과를 동시에 고려하기 위해 위계적 선형모형(HLM)분석을 실행하였다. 국내 다양한 산업에 속해 있는 18개 조직으로부터 얻은 98개 팀, 464명의 자료를 분석한 결과, 구성원의 유교적 가치성향이 리더에 대한 신뢰에 정적인 영향을 미쳤고, 집단의 리더가 군자적 리더십을 발휘할 때 이 효과의 크기가 정적으로 강화되고 있음을 확인하였다. 그리고 집단의 공식화 정도가 군자적 리더십의 효과를 대체하고 있음을 발견하였다. 이에 대한 해석을 결론부분에서 자세히 논의하였고, 본 연구의 한계와 미래 연구방향을 제시하였다. This article examines the influence of Kunja's leadership of team leaders on the relationship between Confucian values of team members and their trust in the leader. We hypothesized that 1) the strength of Confucian values of a team member is positively associated with his/her trust in the team leader, 2) Kunja's leadership of a team leader is positively associated with trust of his/her followers in the leader, 3) the degree of formalization of team operations is positively associated with the trust in team leader, 4) the degree of formalization weakens the relationship between Kunja's leadership of a team leader and the trust of his/her followers in the leader, and 5) Kunja's leadership of the team leader strengthens the positive relationship between the strength of Confucian values of followers and their trust in the team leader. To test these supposed hypotheses, we used data of 98 teams with 464 individuals from 18 domestic corporations in various industries. We conducted hierarchical linear regression model analysis to identify the crossed-effect of among multi-level variables as well as both roles of individual level's predicting variables and group level's predicting variables. The results strongly supported the research hypotheses (See Table 2, Figure 1 and Figure 2). First, We found that Confucian values of followers can positively contribute on member's attitudes in working place. This result is significant in suggesting empirically explainable rationale why parental leadership is more effective in Asian cultures than others. Despite many researcher attending the relationship between social value systems and desirable leadership styles referred that Confucian values would affect on the relationship between leaders and followers and the way of exercising power and accepting authority, however, no empirical article existed to directly testify these relationship. Therefore, we expect this result can inspire to stimulate forwarding research for roles of Confucianism in the workplace. Second, the result showed the more similar to Kunja's leadership a team leader is, the much more the leader obtain trust from his/her followers. This finding can be interpreted that deˊ(德), the nature of Kunja's leadership, has the power and its main influencing principle induces the feeling of debts for thanks from others by firstly giving kindness. Once they have feeling of debts, then they try to settle their uncomfortable mind by accepting and following the leader's requirements. This result has implication in empirically supporting the effectiveness of leading by virtues. Third, we found the degree of formalization positively affected on trust in the leader. This implies that institutional trust referred by Zucker(1986) can be transfer to human factor. Therefore, this result can give practical implication to field managers in advising to build standardized norms and procedures. Fourth, We also found remarkable result that the degree of formalization and Kunja's leadership were negatively interacted (Hypothesis 4). This explains that as referred to Kerr & Jamer(1978), the degree of formalization worked for a substitute variable of Kunja's leadership. This result implies that leadership effectiveness would be much larger norm or rules less developed and leader's autonomous control required situations than system well equipped situations. Fifth, the support of hypothesis 5, the positive interaction between Kunja's leadership and Confucian values of followers, is impressive result. Main reason of this result can be inferred from that Kunja's leadership includes emphasized core values of Confucianism and this would be positively affect to produce likeness, agreement and compliance of followers.
모노레일은 그동안 과좌식과 현수식으로 분류 되어 왔으나 세계 최초로 도입한 중앙 안내 방식의 인천 월미은하레일은 신개념의 Y Beam을 가이드 레일로 사용한 새로운 형식의 모노레일이라 할 수 있다. Y Beam 은 안내륜을 통해 모노레일의 수평 하중을 전달하는 역할을 담당하고 있기 때문에 수직 하중을 타이어를 통해 전달 받는 콘크리트 바닥 및 강재 Beam과 함께 모노레일의 주행 안전에 없어서는 안 될 가장 중요한 구조물이다. 본 연구에서는 수평 하중을 감당하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 모노레일의 안정과 안내를 함께 보장 하면서 급전선을 지지하는 역할도 동시에 담당하고 있는 Y Beam과 Y Beam을 고정하는 클램프의 특성과 안전성에 대해 고찰하였다. Monorail has been classified as straddled type and suspended type. However, Inchon Wolmi Eunha rail, a center guide type first ever introduced in the world, uses a new concept Y-Beam as guide rail. Since Y-Beam takes horizontal loads of monorail through guide wheels, it is an essential structure for the safe operation along with concrete surface and steel beam which take vertical loads through main tires. This study presents the characteristic and reliability of Y-Beam and Y-Beam fixture, clamp, which are not only taking horizontal loads but also guarantying both guiding and stability of monorail and holding power supply line.
In this study, a method for fatigue performance estimation of deepwater steel catenary riser (SCR) under short-term vortex-induced vibration was investigated for selected S-N curves. General tendency between S-N curve capacity and fatigue performance was analysed. SCRs are generally used to transport produced oil and gas or to export separated oil and gas, and are exposed to various environmental loads in terms of current, wave, wind and others. Current is closely related with VIV and it affects fatigue life of riser structures significantly. In this regards, the process of appropriate S-N curve selection was performed in the initial design stage based on the scale of fabrication-related initial imperfections such as welding, hot spot, crack, stress concentration factor, and others. To draw the general tendency, the effects of stress concentration factor (SCF), S-N curve type, current profile, and three different sizes of SCRs were considered, and the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of SCR was derived. In case of S-N curve selection, DNV (2012) guideline was adopted and four different current profiles of the Gulf of Mexico (normal condition and Hurricane condition) and Brazil (Amazon basin and Campos basin) were considered. The obtained results will be useful to select the S-N curve for deepwater SCRs and also to understand the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of deepwater SCRs.
We have made a comparison of the magnetic properties between columnar defect introduced YBCO single crystal(S#1) and partially introduced crystal(S#2).Magnetization vs. applied field curves of S#1 had larger width than S#2 by SQUID magnetometer measurement. But if we considered the volume of partially introduce columnar defect in S#2, the curves of magntization of S#1 and S#2 showed nearly same magnitude. Moreover, S#1 and S#2 showed same normalized relaxation rate thus we may concluded that only the part of columnar defect contrubute the flux pinning in S#2. Irreversibility line(IRL)was obtained from AC susceptibility measurement. IRL of S#2 showed downward shift relative to the case of S31. Below the Bcr, exponent αwas 1.85 and 1.68 in the S#2, respectively. Bose-glass phase was even showed in the case of S#2 defect structure.