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Purpose: To investigate the effect on recurrence of vaporization of the tumor surroundings and suspicious areas with a plasma-kinetic (PK) system after transurethral resection (TUR) of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: The study included 121 patients with a primary superficial bladder tumor who were randomized as those who underwent TUR with the PK system (Group 1, n=62) and those who underwent TUR with the monopolar system (Group 2, n=59). The vaporization procedure was performed by suppressing the cutting option of the PK system for a period, which would accumulate energy sufficient to make swelling-waves on the mucosa very close to the area of the loop to be vaporized. Results: A total of 121 patients who met the study criteria were included for evaluation. Recurrence was determined in 21 patients in Group 1 (33.87%) and in 29 patients in Group 2 (49.15%) (p=0.088). Recurrence was close to the old resection site in 6 of 21 patients in Group 1, and in 13 patients in Group 2 (p=0.028); the difference was statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was determined between the two groups with respect to age, gender, number of tumor foci, rate or range of additional treatments applied, cigarette smoking rate, repeat TUR rate and rate of tumor en- countered in repeat TUR, T-stage, and tumor grade. Conclusions: The effect of vaporization on recurrence by the PK system may seem similar to the effect of standard TUR, the recurrence- lowering effect surrounding nonmuscle invasive bladder cancers is better.
The β-galactosidases belong to the class of hydrolytic enzymes and have been used as lactose hyrolysis. The enzyme is used in reducing lactose milk production, an outstanding industrial product used by a large lactoseintolerant population. This is the first detailed report of some characteristics of β-galactosidase and the gene encoding β-galactosidase in Thermus oshimai DSM 12092. The growth rate (μ, 1/h), and the doubling time (tD, h) for T. oshimai grown both in shaking flasks and in a bioreactor were determined. The optimal temperature and pH for β-galactosidase were determined as 75oC and 7.4, respectively. This enzyme was thermostable and was retained by more than 70% at 90oC for 3 h. The β-galactosidase from T. oshimai DSM 12092 was more stable in basic pH and Zn2+was the most effective divalent cation. Also, 2 steps of purification consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration were employed and purified 32-fold.
Most of the reforms, which have been undertaken in the last 30 years in the Turkish educational system, are about teacher education, When we examine the teacher education curriculum from the perspective of these reforms, it has been observed that there is a controversy between the academic and professional approaches used in these curricula. While the reforms undertaken in 1982 and 1997 were in favor of the academic approach, the latest reform undertaken in 2006 was made to strengthen the professional aspects of teacher education curriculum. In this paper, Turkish teacher education reforms are introduced in the light of the professional and the academic approaches, which have always been the topic of discussions about teacher education.
Although earthquakes generate random cyclic lateral loading on structures, a quasi-static cyclic loading pattern with gradually increasing amplitude has been commonly used in the laboratory tests because of its relatively low cost and simplicity compared with pseudo-dynamic and shake table tests. The number, amplitudes and sequence of cycles must be chosen appropriately as important parameters of a quasi-static cyclic loading pattern in order to account for cumulative damage matter. This paper aims to reach a new cyclic displacement pattern to be used in quasi-static tests of well-confined, flexure-dominated reinforced concrete (RC) columns. The main parameters of the study are sectional dimensions, percentage of longitudinal reinforcement, axial force intensity and earthquake types, namely, far-fault and near-fault.
High-energy linear accelerators are increasingly used in the medical field. However, the unwantedphoto-neutrons can also be contributed to the dose delivered to the patients duringtheir treatments. In this study, neutron fluxesweremeasured ina solid water phantomplacedat the isocenter1-mdistancefromthe head of an18-MVlinac using the foil activationmethod. The produced activities were measured with a calibrated well-type Ge detector. From themeasured fluxes, the total neutron fluence was found to be (1.17 ± 0.06) 107 n/cm2 per Gy atthe phantomsurface in a 20 20cm2 X-ray field size. The maximumphoto-neutron dose wasmeasured to be 0.67 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy at dmax ¼ 5 cm depth in the phantom at isocenter. Thepresent results are compared with those obtained for different field sizes of 10 10cm2,15 15cm2, and 20 20cm2 from 10-, 15-, and 18-MV linacs. Additionally, ambient neutrondose equivalentswere determined at different locationsin theroomandtheywere foundto benegligibly low. The results indicate that the photo-neutron dose at the patient position is not anegligible fraction of the therapeutic photon dose. Thus, there is a need for reduction of thecontaminated neutron dose by taking some additional measures, for instance, neutronabsorbing-protective materials might be used as aprons during the treatment.
Rebar corrosion in concrete is one of the main causes of reduction of service life of reinforced concrete buildings. This paper presents the influence of rebar corrosion on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to strong earthquake ground motion. Different levels of rebar corrosion scenarios were applied on a typical four story RC frame. The deteriorated conditions as a result of these scenarios include loss in cross-sectional area and loss of mechanical properties of the reinforcement bars, loss in bond strength, and loss in concrete strength and its modulus of elasticity. Dynamic analyses of the frame with different corrosion scenarios are performed with selected strong earthquake ground motion records. The influences of degradation in both concrete and reinforcement on structural behavior are investigated by comparing the various parameters of the frame under different corrosion scenarios with respect to each other. The results show that the progressive deterioration of the frame due to rebar corrosion causes serious structural behavior changes such as change in failure mode. The intensity, propagation time, and extensity of rebar corrosion have very important effects on the level of degradation of steel and concrete, as well as on the earthquake behavior of the structure.
Volatile compound profiles of probiotic yogurt samples prepared using 8 different prebiotic combinations were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro extraction during 28 days of storage. A total of 40 volatile compounds were identified in yogurt samples during storage consisting of 2 aldehydes, 6 ketones, 4 alcohols, 6 acids, 5 esters, 3 terpenes, 3 aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 aliphatic hydro-carbons. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, 2-heptanone, ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid, caproic acid, caprilic acid, and capric acid were the major volatile compounds in all probiotic yogurt samples.
The aim of the present paper is to present the cyclic behavior of strengthened reinforced concrete shear wall test specimen, which was reinforced with cold drawn welded wire mesh fabric. Two reinforced concrete shear wall specimens have been tested in the present study. The walls were tested under reversed cyclic loading with loading applied near the tip of the walls. The control wall is tested in its original state to serve as a baseline for the evaluation of the repair and strengthening techniques. The two test specimens include a control wall and a repaired wall. The control wall test specimen was designed and detailed to simulate non-ductile reinforced concrete shear walls that do not meet the modern seismic provisions. The response of the original wall was associated with the brittle failure. The control shear wall was repaired by addition of the reinforcements and the concrete and then it was reloaded. The effectiveness of the repair technique was investigated. Test results indicate that there can be a near full restoration of the walls' strength. The data from this test, augmenting other data available in the literature, will be useful in calibrating improved analytical methods as they are developed.
When the temperature of a structure varies, there is a tendency to produce changes in the shape of the structure. The resulting actions may be of considerable importance in the analysis of the structures having non-prismatic members. The computation of design forces for the non-prismatic beams having symmetrical parabolic haunches (NBSPH) is fairly difficult because of the parabolic change of the cross section. Due to their non-prismatic geometrical configuration, their assessment, particularly the computation of fixed-end horizontal forces and fixed-end moments becomes a complex problem. In this study, the efficiency of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) in predicting the design forces and the design moments of the NBSPH due to temperature changes was investigated. Previously obtained finite element analyses results in the literature were used to train and test the ANN and ANFIS models. The performances of the different models were evaluated by comparing the corresponding values of mean squared errors (MSE) and decisive coefficients (R2). In addition to this, the comparison of ANN and ANFIS with traditional methods was made by setting up Linear-regression (LR) model.
The purpose of this study is to investigate symbolic consumption of fashion global brands and its relation to the self. This work adopts a qualitative approach and the “tripartite model of self” (Brewer & Yuki, 2007) to study brand meaning among consumers in two different cultural settings: UK and Colombia. Findings show how some meanings change among groups, addressing different self-identity needs, motivations and tensions. This work contributes to debates around international marketing strategies.