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Xu Ling and Yu Xin were the most famous authors in the Six Dynasties since Zhao Ming-Wenxuan(昭明文選). No more research work has been carried out in the comments of their paralled prose(駢文). In this paper we just only discuss the comments in the theory of paralled prose and Fu(賦). In the theory of paralled prose, Wang Wenlu’s(王文祿) Wen-Mai(文脈), Lang Zhangju’s(梁章鉅) Tui-An’s Lunwen(退庵論文), Sun Mei’s(孫梅) SiLiu-Conghua(四六叢話) and Sun Deqian’s(孫德謙) Liucao-Lizhi(六朝儷指) were the important books. Among them, the two Sun’s was the master work. They basically hold positive attitude toward Xu-Yu’s(徐庾) paralled prose, which in accord with their views about paralled prose and essay. So they could break through the time, heap praise on Xu-Yu’s creation, not affected by ancient prose movement(古文運動), Song-Ming neo-confucianism(宋明理學) and the trend of classicism. In the theory of Fu(賦), there were some different judgements. The blame, such as Zhu Yao’s(祝堯) Gufu-Bianti(古賦辨體), objected the comic(俳體), modern(侓體) and Si-Liu style(四六體), defended the old form(古體). On the other side, the praise, such as Li Diaoyuan’s(李調元) Fuhua(賦話), broke away from traditional ideas and affirmed Xu-Yu’s contributions. On the whole, Qing Dynasty’s people could give the positive evaluations on Xu-Yu for their awareness of stylistic. It’s because they attached importance to it. However, since the last century new culture movement(新文化運動), the trend of criticism appeared again. They had an obvious inclination of the emphasis on content rather than on form, which still existed in the most histories of literature written by modern researchers.
With the restorative trend and debating on parallel prose, the comments on XU Ling and YU Xin’s paralled prose were becoming more day by day in proofreading, note-offering, and annotation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. we find there existed some huge differences from general comments, which looks like impression type or a label to be pasted. They could find XU-YU’s advantages and affirmative their positions and values in Chinese literary history, even give some sympathies and understandings to their norms of action. Their comments, transcended the Tang-Song Dynasties and common cognitions, are worth learning by our literary researchers and historians.
Aims: We developed a new technique termed the single purse-string duct to mucosa Pancreaticogastrostomy, which reduced the risk of pancreatic stump bleeding caused by gastric acid corrosion and decreased the pancreatic fistula rate than Pancreaticojejunostomy. Methods: Data were collected prospectively on 75 consecutive patients (43 men and 32 women; mean age 65.3 years who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy using the single-string duct to mucosa Pancreaticogastrostomy. The technique was performed by the same surgeon and the key point is that pancreatic stump was placed between gastric mucosa and seromuscular layer.Pancreatic stump was covered with gastric mucosa and transfixed with it beside the pancreatic duct which was inserted with a silicone tube into the stomach lumen. finally, the gastric seromuscular layer was tied with the pancreas by a purse-string suture. Results: Mean time for PG anastomosis was 19 minutes (range 17 to 32 minutes), and mean blood loss was 380 mL (range 210 to 800 mL). There was no perioperative death. Over- all morbidity rate was 34.7% (26 of 75).Two patients had PF (overall rate was 2.7%) ,No one demonstrated a grade B or C postoperative PF.Postoperative abdominal hemorrhage developed in 2 patients (2.7%), no pancreatic stump bleeding occurs. Conclusions: These results suggest that our technique is effective. In addition to lower complication rates, this technique is easy to perform and mean time of the anastomosis was 19 minutes. This kind anastomosis is a reliable, safe, and easy to perform method. From our experiences, it appears to reduce the risk for pancreatic fistula and intragastric bleeding.
Aims: To profile the somatic mutation spectrum in gallbladder cancers(GBCs), to determine the oncogenic effects of the ERBB3 and ERBB2 mutations, and to find whether targeted therapy focus on ERBB signaling pathway is available for these kind of GBC patients. Methods: We performed a combination of exome sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of cancer-related genes on 57 tumor-normal pairs. The mutation pattern is defined by a dominant prevalence of C>T mutations at TCN sites.Three patients with staged IV GBCs and ERBB signaling pathway mutated who were not benefit from traditional chemo-radio therapy, were treated with ERBB signaling pathway targeted therapy. Results: Genes with a significant frequency of non-silent mutations include TP53 (47.1%), KRAS (7.8%) and ERBB3 (11.8%). Moreover, ErbB signaling (including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4 and their downstream genes), which have not been described previously in GBC, is the most extensively mutated pathway, affecting 36.8% (21/57) of the GBC samples. Multivariate analyses further show that the mutations have a worse outcome. Over-expression of each ERBB mutant resulted in a significant increase in proliferation in at least one cell line.The tumor maker expression including CA-199 and CA-125 had a different level of decline.The primary or metastasis tumor size also revealed a trend of decrease. And the average survival time have exceeded more than 12months. Conclusions: Our findings provide insight into the somatic mutational landscape in GBC and highlight the key role of the ErbB signaling pathway in GBC pathogenesis.And our results suggest that patients harboring mutations in the ErbB pathway might benefit from targeted therapies.
This study focuses on the amplitude dependency of damping of tall structures by the random decrement technique (RDT). Many researchers have adopted RDT to establish the amplitude dependency of damping ratios in super-tall buildings under strong wind loads. In this study, a series of simulated examples were analyzed to examine the reliability of this method. Results show that damping ratios increase as vibration amplitudes increase in several cases; however, the damping ratios in the simulated signals were preset as constants. This finding reveals that this method and the derived amplitude-dependent damping ratio characteristics are unreliable. Moreover, this method would obviously yield misleading results if the simulated signals contain Gaussian white noise. Full-scale measurements on a super-tall building were conducted during four typhoons, and the recorded data were analyzed to observe the amplitude dependency of damping ratio. Relatively wide scatter is observed in the resulting damping ratios, and the damping ratios do not appear to have an obvious nonlinear relationship with vibration amplitude. Numerical simulation and field measurement results indicate that the widely-used method for establishing the amplitude-dependent damping characteristics of super-tall buildings and the conclusions derived from it might be questionable at the least. More field-measured data must be collected under strong wind loads, and the damping characteristics of super-tall buildings should be investigated further.
A new method is proposed in this study for estimating the damping ratio of a super tall building under strong wind loads with short-time measured acceleration signals. This method incorporates two main steps. Firstly, the power spectral density of wind-induced acceleration response is obtained by the wavelet transform, then the dynamic characteristics including the natural frequency and damping ratio for the first vibration mode are estimated by a nonlinear regression analysis on the power spectral density. A numerical simulation illustrated that the damping ratios identified by the wavelet spectrum are superior in precision and stability to those values obtained from Welch’s periodogram spectrum. To verify the efficiency of the proposed method, wind-induced acceleration responses of the Guangzhou West Tower (GZWT) measured in the field during Typhoon Usagi, which affected this building on September 22, 2013, were used. The damping ratios identified varied from 0.38% to 0.61% in direction 1 and from 0.22% to 0.59% in direction 2. This information is expected to be of considerable interest and practical use for engineers and researchers involved in the wind-resistant design of super-tall buildings.
The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ubiquitin gene promoter and the effects of conserved motifs, such as TAAG, TATA, and CAAT, along with baculovirus enhancer homologous region 3 (hr3), on promoter activity. Ubiquitin gene of BmNPV was expressed during the late phase of virus infection. In the presence of viral factors, significant reduction of promoter activity was observed by deletion of -382 to -124 bp upstream of ATG. The fragment between -187 and -383 bp upstream of ATG, including distal TAAG, CAAT motif, and TATA box, could also drive expression of the reporter gene. The mutation of cis-elements TATA boxes and TAAG motifs significantly decreased the promoter’s activity, while CAAT mutations enhanced promoter activity by 2- or 3-fold, as compared with the native promoter. In the presence of BmNPV, hr3, both located downstream of the reporter gene of the same vector, and separate vector, could significantly enhance transcription activity of ubiquitin promoter as compared to the control. We concluded that BmNPV ubiquitin gene might be regulated by dual sets of promoter elements, where TAAG and TATA box may positively regulate the expression of ubiquitin, while CAAT motif functions as a negative regulator. Viral factor(s) play an important role in the co-activation of hr3 and promoter.
본 연구는 기업의 위치선정이론 및 조건부 로짓 모델을 기반으로 2007년부터 2015년까지 베트남으로 유입된 해외직접투자의 결정 요인을 살펴보았다. 베트남에 위치한 6,018개 다국적기업의 자료를 사용하여 분석한 결과 시장규모, 인건비, 인프라 개발 및 정책 등과 관련된 변수들 외에도 베트남의 해외직접투자에 영향을 미치는 몇 가지 새로운 요소를 발견하였다. 특히, 베트남 내의 풍부하면서도 연령이 낮은 노동이 결정적인 역할을 하며 언어나 종교, 민족 등과 같은 문화적 요인이 FDI의 유입에 크게 기여한다는 결론을 얻었다. 각 지역의 불교인구와 외국인 비율, 성비, 초혼 연령, 진입에 소요되는 비용 등 지역이 갖고 있는 고유의 특성도 투자자의 결정에 영향을 미침이 확인되었다. 또한 베트남에 투자하는 한국투자자와 나머지 투자자들의 위치선정에 대해 일부 요인이 미치는 영향이 상이한 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 본 논문은 베트남 각 지역의 문화적 특성과 해외직접투자 위치선정에 상당한 상관관계가 있음을 확인하였다. This study analyzes how the Korea-India CEPA and the third FTA influences the bilateral trade bewteen Korea and India using the trade date over 2001-2018. The results show that the Korea-India CEPA is playing a role in increasing the bilateral trade. However, as other FTAs have developed competitive relations with the Korea-India CEPA, the bilateral FTA has a negative impact on the bilateral trade. In particular, the sector that has a negative impact on industry-wise analysis shows that Korea is losing its competitiveness or is in worse conditions than other FTAs. Thus, These areas are need to be improved in the Korea-India CEPA amendment negotiations. In addition, some FTAs have been found to play a role in improving the Korea-India trade. This implies that the bilateral trade will expand as the GVC system is well established with the countries of other FTA signed by the two countries. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a mutually win-win system between the Korea-India CEPA and other FTAs by delicately establishing GVC system with other countries. In conclusion, the FTA signed between the two countries may have negative trade diversion effects, but if it is used well with a delicate GVC system, it could lead to positive trade diversion effects.