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      • KCI등재

        一般評論中的徐庾文評

        서보여 ( Xu Bao-yu ) 중국어문연구회 2017 中國語文論叢 Vol.0 No.79

        Xu Ling(徐陵) and Yu Xin(庾信) are the most important authors in the Six Dynasties, who developed formal skills, rhetoric effects and phonetic beauty to the highest level. But the later evaluations were very difficult to balance in appraise. Some comments based on the ritual, music and political education, so they imputed the duty of national ruin to Xu Yu(徐庾). Some other based on the relationship between literary achievements and personality, debased their achievements since their some errors in the political integrity. In the Song Dynasty, with the emergence of Li Xue(理學), Xu Yu`s parallel prose got attacked once again as the sinner of literary. They despised the parallel prose just the style couldn`t accord with the principle named by Dao(道). Peoples in the Ming Dynasty liked returning to the ancient. So Xu Yu was to be discovered by the proofreading, note-offering, and annotating. The positive evaluations were increased more than before. To Qing Dynasty, the parallel prose was very flourishing. In the debating on parallel prose and prose, Xu Yu`s parallel prose was viewed as the orthodox form and taken unprecedented seriously. How to see the value of Xu Yu`s parallel prose, that formed a criticism history of Chinese literature. In some way, the level to praise or censure Xu Yu`s parallel prose reflects the level to recognize Chinese literature.

      • KCI등재

        歷代文話賦話中的徐庾文評

        Xu,Bao,Yu 중국학연구회 2017 中國學硏究 Vol.0 No.79

        Xu Ling and Yu Xin were the most famous authors in the Six Dynasties since Zhao Ming-Wenxuan(昭明文選). No more research work has been carried out in the comments of their paralled prose(駢文). In this paper we just only discuss the comments in the theory of paralled prose and Fu(賦). In the theory of paralled prose, Wang Wenlu's(王文祿) Wen-Mai(文脈), Lang Zhangju's(梁章鉅) Tui-An's Lunwen(退庵論文), Sun Mei's(孫梅) SiLiu-Conghua(四六叢話) and Sun Deqian's(孫德謙) Liucao-Lizhi(六朝儷指) were the important books. Among them, the two Sun's was the master work. They basically hold positive attitude toward Xu-Yu's(徐庾) paralled prose, which in accord with their views about paralled prose and essay. So they could break through the time, heap praise on Xu-Yu's creation, not affected by ancient prose movement(古文運動), Song-Ming neo-confucianism(宋明理學) and the trend of classicism. In the theory of Fu(賦), there were some different judgements. The blame, such as Zhu Yao's(祝堯) Gufu-Bianti(古賦辨體), objected the comic(俳體), modern(侓體) and Si-Liu style(四六體), defended the old form(古體). On the other side, the praise, such as Li Diaoyuan's(李調元) Fuhua(賦話), broke away from traditional ideas and affirmed Xu-Yu's contributions. On the whole, Qing Dynasty's people could give the positive evaluations on Xu-Yu for their awareness of stylistic. It's because they attached importance to it. However, since the last century new culture movement(新文化運動), the trend of criticism appeared again. They had an obvious inclination of the emphasis on content rather than on form, which still existed in the most histories of literature written by modern researchers.

      • KCI등재후보

        明淸輯選注解中的徐庾文評

        徐寶余(XU, Bao-yu) 중국인문학회 2016 中國人文科學 Vol.0 No.62

        With the restorative trend and debating on parallel prose, the comments on XU Ling and YU Xin's paralled prose were becoming more day by day in proofreading, note-offering, and annotation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. we find there existed some huge differences from general comments, which looks like impression type or a label to be pasted. They could find XU-YU's advantages and affirmative their positions and values in Chinese literary history, even give some sympathies and understandings to their norms of action. Their comments, transcended the Tang-Song Dynasties and common cognitions, are worth learning by our literary researchers and historians.

      • KCI등재

        甲骨文과의 比較를 통한『說文』部首字의 誤謬 硏究

        서영근(Xu Ynog-Gen) 한국서예학회 2005 서예학연구 Vol.7 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        『說文解字』는 後漢의 許愼이 지은 中國語言文字學史上 최초의 字典으로, 文字學, 聲韻學, 訓詁學, 書藝學 等 方面에 커다란 影向을 미치고 있다. 『說文解字』의 硏究는 經書를 연구하는 補助書에 그치는 것이 아니라, 獨立的인 學問인 小學으로 발전되어 『說文』學의 最高峰인 段玉裁의 『說文解字注』와 王筠의 『說文解字句讀』, 朱駿聲의 『說文解字通訓定聲』等 卓越한 저서들이 출현하게 되었다. 許愼은 『說文解字』에서 形과 義에 의하여 540部首를 확립하고, 9353자의 小篆을 분류별로 세우고 서로 섞이지 않게 하였다. 이 “部首法”은 『說文解字』 이전에는 없었던 일종의 特殊한 方法으로, 後世의 『康熙字典』,『新華字典』等 字典과 詞典의 편찬에 지대한 영향을 미쳤다. 許愼은 中國語言文字學의 初創期에 처하여, 時代的 影向을 받았을 뿐만 아니라, 『說文解字』를 편찬 할 當時에는 아직 甲骨文이 출토되지 않았으므로, 문자를 解說하는 가운데서 적지 않은 錯誤를 범하였다. 本文은 『說文』의 誤謬를 지적하고, 進一步 漢字의 本義를 탐구하며, 漢字敎育에 正確한 基礎를 제공하는데 硏究目的이 있다. 上述한 硏究目的에 의하여, 本 論文은 『說文解字』의 540部首 중 “甲骨文字에서도 보이는 370部首字”를 硏究範圍위로 정하고, 甲骨文과의 比較를 통하여 그 誤謬를 검토하고자 한다. 남은 170部首字에도 誤謬가 존재하나, 甲骨文 等 根據資料가 不充分한 관계로 硏究範圍에 포함시키지 않는다. 文字의 硏究方法에는 “形․音․義”에 의한 연구가 있지만, 本文에서는 “形․義” 두 方面으로 硏究를 진행한다. 硏究結果, 『說文解字』의 540部首 중“ 甲骨文에서도 보이는 370部首字”중, 字形分析이 正確하지 않은 部首는 66字로 7.8%를 차지하고, 字義解說이 正確하지 않은 部首는 23字로 6.2%를 차지하며, 形義解說이 모두 正確하지 않은 部首는 101字로, 370字중 27.3%를 차지한다. 그 외, 本義가 分明하지 않은 部首는 19字, 甲骨文에서 同一字 혹은 異體字이나, 許愼은 두 개 혹은 서너 개의 部首로 분류한 것은 24種 53個字이다. 以上의 結果를 圖表로 통계하면 다음과 같다. 區分 硏究範圍 字形 字義 形義 誤謬合計 本義不分明 部首誤分 字數 370 66 23 101 190 19 53 百分比 100% 17.8% 6.2% 27.3% 51.3% 5.1% 14.6% 우리는 『說文解字』의 偉大한 業績을 인정함과 동시에, 그 缺點 도한 重視하여야 한다. 이렇게 하여야만 비로소 이 위대한 저서를 正確히 운용할 수 있으며, 中國語言文字學과 書藝學 등 여러 학문의 發展과 漢字敎育에 貢獻할 수 있을 것이다. 《ShuoWenJieZi》, written by Xu Shen in the latter Han, is the first Chinese Character Dictionary in Chinese language and cultural history, its influences on the afterwards Chinese vocabulary, Chinese phonetics as well as Shunguxue, Calligraphy are enormous. Xu Shens work was not only a complement tool to investigate the Old Chinese Jingshu, at the same time, a new research area, named Xiaoxue, was also founded in his work. After the publish Shuo Wen Jie Zi, there were many excellent great works related to this area, such as Notation to Shuo Wen Jie Zi written by Duan Yucai, Sentences Interpretation in Shuo Wen Jie Zi written by Wang Jun and Phonetics Origin in Shuo Wen Jie Zi written. As many as 540 building blocks of Chinese vocabulary was separated by Xu Shen in 《ShuoWenJieZi》, based on these blocks more than 9353 Chinese words, so called Small Seal, could be formed independently and definitely, combining the pictography and the meaning of Chinese characters. The method of Xu Shen was original in history and was employed by the composition of afterwards Chinese dictionary such as 《Kangxi Dictionary》and 《Xinhua Dictionary》. There were many mistakes in 《ShuoWenJieZi》as Xu Shens time was not so far from the beginning of Chinese Characters, moreover, the Oracle Bone Inscriptions, which was the oldest origin of writing Chinese, had not been found during that time. The purpose of this study is to find out and correct the mistakes in 《ShuoWenJieZi》, further explore the original meanings of Chinese Characters and make a sound background for nowadays Chinese language education. In order to realize above purpose, this study choose the 370 building blocks of Chinese Character, which appeared in both 《ShuoWenJieZi》and Oracle Bone Inscriptions, as the targets, find out the mistakes through comparing the difference in above two materials. Because of the lack of references, the other 170 blocks are not included in this study. Generally speaking, there are three methods for language study, that is, from pictography, from meanings and from phonetics, the former two methods are employed in this study. The study results indicate that there are 66 blocks having pictographic mistakes, about 17.8%, 23 blocks having meaning mistakes, about 6.2%, and 101 blocks having both pictographic and meaning mistakes, about 27.3% of 370 blocks. Additionally, there are 19 blocks whose original meaning are not clear. And other 53 blocks in 24 kinds has only one meaning in Oracle Bone Inscriptions, but 2 or 3 kinds of meanings in 《ShuoWenJieZi》. Above results are summarized in the following table. Items Total Blocks Pictographic Mistake Meaning Mistake P+M Mistake Total Mistakes Meaning Unclear istake Clarification Amounts 370 66 23 101 190 19 53 Percentage 100% 17.8% 6.2% 27.3% 51.3% 5.1% 14.6% We should face the mistakes when we give our respects to 《ShuoWenJieZi》, only by this way could we use this great work to develop our Chinese Character education to a higher stage.

      • Clinical Comparison between Paclitaxel Liposome (Lipusu<sup>®</sup>) and Paclitaxel for Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Gastric Cancer

        Xu,,Xu,Wang,,Lin,Xu,,Huan-Qin,Huang,,Xin-En,Qian,,Ya-Dong,Xiang,,Jin Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.4

        Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel liposome (Lipusu$^{(R)}$) with paclitaxel in combination with tegafur and oxaliplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients with advanced gastric cancer receiving chemotherapy were retrospectively collected, and divided into two groups. Patients in group A received paclitaxel liposomes at a dose of 135 $mg/m^2$ on day 1 of each cycle, and patients in group B were given paclitaxel at the same dose with the same timing. All patients received tegafur at a dose of 500 $mg/m^2$ on days 1-5, and oxaliplatin at a dose of 80-100 $mg/m^2$ on day 1 for 2 cycles (each cycle was 21 d in total). Results: Fifty-eight patients could be evaluated for efficacy. The overall response rate was 47% in group A (14/30), and 46% in group B (13/28). Disease control rate was 73% in group A (22/30), and 71% in group B (20/28) (P>0.05). No significant differences were detected in hematologic and neurologic toxicities between the two groups (P>0.05). However, nausea, vomiting and hypersensitive reactions were significantly lower in group A than in group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: Paclitaxel liposomes are as effective as paclitaxel when combined with tegafur and oxaliplation in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer, but adverse reactions with paclitaxel liposomes are less common.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        RNAi suppression of nuclear receptor genes results in increased susceptibility to sulfoxaflor in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

        Lu,Xu,Chun-Qing,Zhao,De-Jin,Xu,Guang-Chun,Xu,Xiao-Long,Xu,Zhao-Jun,Han,Ya-Nan,Zhang,Zhong-Yan,Gu 한국응용곤충학회 2017 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.20 No.2

        Nuclear receptors (NRs), which belong to a superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors, play essential roles in gene regulation to affect numerous physiological pathways. Twenty NR genes were identified in Nilaparvata lugens by using genomic, transcriptomic and GenBank databases, and categorized into NR0-NR6 subfamilies according to standard nomenclature. Among them, three NR geneswere classed into NR0, four into NR1, eight into NR2, one into NR3, one into NR4, two into NR5, and one into NR6, respectively. A phylogenetic tree of NRs from N. lugens and other representative species was constructed, which provided evolutionary insight into genetic distance. In order to investigate the NRs,whichwere induced by sulfoxaflor, time- and tissue-specific expression profiles of NR genes in fourth-instar nymphs were determined following LD50 sulfoxaflor treatment (0.28 ng/insect) and compared with control samples. NlUSP, NlE78, NlTLL, NlHR51, NlHR83, NlPNR and NlFTZ-F1 were highly expressed following 12–48 h of sulfoxaflor treatment. NlHR39 and NlDSF transcripts were detected in the head and the thorax, respectively. High-level and constitutive expression of NlHR3, NlTLL, NlHR83, NlFTZF1 and NlHR4 were found in the abdomen. Feeding of dsRNAs reduced the expression of NlHR3, NlUSP, NlTLL, NlHR83, NlPNR, NlFTZ-F1 and NlHR4 (35.48–49.77%) and caused significant nymph mortality (69.21–81.45%). These NRs, considered as insecticide targets, may play important function in sulfoxaflor detoxification.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Amperometric Determination of Nitrite at Poly(Methylene Blue)-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

        Xu,,Guang-Ri,Xu,,Guifang,Xu,,Ming-Lu,Zhang,,Zhengqing,Tian,,Yuan,Choi,,Han-Nim,Lee,,Won-Yong Korean Chemical Society 2012 Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society Vol.33 No.2

        Electrochemical characteristics of nitrite ion were investigated at a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited enhanced anodic signals for nitrite. The effects of key parameters on the detection of nitrite were evaluated at the modified electrode, such as pH, accumulation time, and scan rate. Under optimum condition, the chemically modified electrode can detect nitrite in the concentration range $2.0{\times}10^{-6}$ to $5.0{\times}10^{-4}$ M with the detection limit of $2.0{\times}10^{-6}$ M and a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The detection of nitrite using the chemically modified electrode was not affected by common ions such as $Na^+$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Cl^-$, $HPO_4^{2-}$ and $H_2PO_4^- $. The modified electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. The practical application of the present method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite ion in cabbage samples.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Hydrothermal Synthesis of La-Mn-hexaaluminates for the Catalytic Combustion of Methane

        Xu,,Jinguang,Zhijian,Tian,Wang,,Junwei,Yunpeng,Xu,Zhusheng,Xu,Lin,,Liwn 한국화학공학회 2003 Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol.20 No.2

        Hydrothermal synthesis by using urea hydrolysis at 1.0~3.0MPa and 120~130℃ was employed to prepare Mn-substituted hexaaluminate catalysts for methane combustion. The results from DTA-MS demonstrated that CO^2-_3 and OH^- anions co-exist in the hydrothermal reaction. XRD reveals that the components of carbonates of carbonates and hydroxides in the hydrothermal reaction are more favorable than those in the(NH_4)_2CO_3 co-precipitation for the formation of the Mn-substituted hexaaluminate phase. After calcination at 1,200℃ for 2h, LaMnAl_11O_19 is the major phase of the catalyst prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method while LaAlO_3 is the major one of the catalysts prepared by NH_4OH and (NH_4)_2CO_3 co-precipitation. The catalyst prepared by hydrothermal synthesis has higher activity than that prepared by NH_4OH and (NH_4)CO_3 co-precipitation. The major reason is that more Mn^2+ ions have incorporated into the hexaaluminate lattice. The effect of drying methods on the formation of hexaaluminate phase was also discussed.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Nonlinear fatigue life prediction model based on material memory

        Xu,Xu,Qiwen,Xue,Yiqian,He 대한기계학회 2020 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.34 No.12

        New nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation model is established on the basis of material memory theory and fatigue driving energy damage parameters to evaluate highcycle fatigue life under multilevel variable amplitude loading. The loading interaction factor is constructed on the basis of damage degree and then the model is modified to consider the effect of loading interaction on fatigue damage accumulation. The two proposed models are convenient for calculation and have only two parameters that can be easily identified through experiments. In accordance with the test data of aluminum alloy Al-2024-T42, titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, nodular cast iron GS61, Q235B welded joint, and hot-rolled 16Mn steel, the two models developed in this study have been verified to predict fatigue life effectively. For multilevel loading, the modified model achieves higher prediction accuracy and its results are closer to the actual test data compared with those of the other models.

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