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Removal of phosphate from environmental water has become more important to prevent eutrophication. In the present study, sorption behavior of phosphate onto magnesite was investigated under different conditions. The optimum pH of phosphate adsorption was determined to be 6.0. The adsorption capacity was found to decrease with increasing temperature, which indicates that a low temperature was beneficial for phosphate adsorption. The sorption capacity for phosphate was found to be 10.2 mg/g at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L and a dose of 2 g/L. The first order kinetic equation and Freundlich isotherm model fit the data well. Phosphate adsorption on magnesite was explained by electrostatic attraction and weak physical interactions.
Whether political ties enhance or weaken firm performance has been widely investigated in a number of studies, including some on China. Based on a database of non-financial A-share listed firms from 2004 to 2012, we study the effects of political ties on firm performance within a quantile regression framework. We find that there is a positive relationship between political ties and economic performance, but that it is diminishing with respect to firm performance. Political ties appear particularly important for weaker firms.
We analyzed dose-dependent effects of vancomycin on wound infection bacteria and investigated the relationship between dose and microbial imbalances in patients treated with intrawound vancomycin powder during spine surgery. Numerous trials have confirmed that using intrawound vancomycin powder during spine surgery may decrease postoperative wound infection rates. However, potential risks include changes in wound infection bacteria, inhibition of bone fusion, and systemic toxicity. We searched PubMed for articles published since October 2016 with the following terms: “local vancomycin” or “intrawound vancomycin” or “intraoperative vancomycin” or “intrawound vancomycin” or “topical vancomycin” and “spinal surgery” or “spine surgery.” We also screened the reference lists of included articles for additional studies and extracted data related to dose, infecting bacteria, sample size, infection rate and types, location of spine surgery, and perioperative antibiotics used.�������������������������������������������������������� �������������������������������������������������������Our review includes one prospective and nine retrospective studies. Overall, 1 or 2 g local vancomycin powder was used in 2,394 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were dominant in patients in whom 1 g vancomycin powder was used, whereas gram-positive bacteria were dominant in those in whom 2 g powder was used. The exact mechanism underlying this dose-dependent trend remains unclear, although it may be attributed to the pharmacological characteristics of vancomycin. The included studies showed that trends in infection bacteria may change after the use of topical vancomycin powder. In addition, the observed increase in gram-negative bacteria when intrawound vancomycin powder is used has generated considerable attention. The present results differ from previous results but do not provide additional information regarding vancomycin dose and microbial changes in infected wounds. Additional large randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the relationship between vancomycin dose and the types of wound infection bacteria in patients treated with intrawound vancomycin powder during spine surgery.
本論文的연究目的是從類型學的角度對四川瀘州方言的復數標記"些"、"화"、"們"、"家/家家"的用法進行考察,借此確定各復數標記具體來講可以表示나一類或些類的復數。在這過程中,本論文也對四川瀘州方言的復數標記與普通話的復數標記"們"進行了比較。本論文的第二章對復數進行了分類。首先,按照復數性(plurality)的標准,將復數分위了假性復數(mock plural)和진性復數(genuine plural)。而진性復數又可根据元素的同質性標准分위添加性復數(additive plural)和聯系性復數(associative plural)。本文認위,假性復數的存在屬于語用層面的問題,表達的是與數无關的其타語義。本論文以第二章的內容위基礎,在第三章對四川瀘州方言的復數標記"些"、"화"、"們"、"家/家家"的用法一一進行了考察,探明了各復數標記都可表示나一類或나些類的復數、是否存在互補性的分布特征等,同時也將其與普通話的復數標記"們"進行了比較。通過以上考察,本文探明了四川瀘州方言的復數標記中"些"與"們"呈現互補性分布特征,后者只能與"我"、"너"、"他"這樣的普通人稱代詞連用,而前者必須和除普通人稱代詞以外的特殊人稱代詞及普通名詞連用。相比之下,"화"和"家/家家"的用法極其受限,只能與極少數的幾個詞連用。
The unreduced (2n) gametes have long been used in triploid breeding of citrus. In lemon, the previously reported mechanisms for 2n megagametophyte formation were controversial, whereas that for 2n pollen production is still unknown. Herein, the frequency of and mechanism underlying 2n megagametophyte and 2n pollen formation in ‘Eureka' lemon were investigated based on cytological observation and genotyping of the triploid hybrids between ‘Eureka' lemon and ‘Early gold' sweet orange. As a result, 4.79% of the viable pollens of ‘Eureka' lemon were identified as the 2n pollen with a larger diameter (70.16 ± 3.92 μm). The 2n pollen might be resulted from the formation of parallel spindles at meiosis stage II. Among the 204 plantlets regenerated from embryo rescue following the sexual cross, 12 were triploids as identified by flow cytometry. According to the analysis of heterozygosity transmission using 13 pericentromeric single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and 20 randomly distributed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, 11 triploids were identified to be originated from the fertilization of 2n megagametophytes of ‘Eureka' lemon, with a frequency of 5.39%. Among them, nine 2n megagametophytes were supposed to be arisen from the second division restitution (SDR), whereas the other two were from postmeiotic genome doubling (PMD). These results to understand the mechanism underlying 2n gamete formation in lemon are valuable for its efficient polyploid breeding.
Energy efficiency is one of the most critical issues in the design of wireless sensor networks. In object-tracking sensor networks, the data storage and query processing should be energy-conserving by decreasing the message complexity. In this paper, a Prediction-based Energy-conserving Approximate StoragE schema (P-EASE) is proposed, which can reduce the query error of EASE by changing its approximate area and adopting predicting model without increasing the cost. In addition, focusing on reducing the unnecessary querying messages, P-EASE enables an optimal query algorithm to taking into consideration to query the proper storage node, i.e., the nearer storage node of the centric storage node and local storage node. The theoretical analysis illuminates the correctness and efficiency of the P-EASE. Simulation experiments are conducted under semi-random walk and random waypoint mobility. Compared to EASE, P-EASE performs better at the query error, message complexity, total energy consumption and hotspot energy consumption. Results have shown that P-EASE is more energy-conserving and has higher location precision than EASE.
Electric-field coupled power transfer (ECPT) systems employ a high frequency electric field as an energy medium to transfer power wirelessly. Existing ECPT systems have made great progress in terms of increasing the transfer distance. However, the topologies of these systems are complex, and the transfer characteristics are very sensitive to variations in the circuit parameters. This paper proposes an ECPT system with a double-sided LC network, which employs a parallel LC network on the primary side and a series LC network on the secondary side. With the same transfer distance and output power, the proposed system is simpler and less sensitive than existing systems. The expression of the optimal driving voltage for the coupling structure and the characteristics of the LC networks are also analyzed, including the transfer efficiency, parameter sensitivity and total harmonic distortion. Then, a design method for the system parameters is provided according to these characteristics. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the system properties and the design method.
This paper presents an aerodynamic study for a target unmanned air vehicle with controlled canard, at cruise Mach number between 0.7 and 0.85, using a solid rocket motor as power. The results of semi-empirical method (DATCOM), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were compared with wind tunnel tests to evaluate perdition accuracy. Here DATCOM shows big discrepancy in pitching-moment coefficient; the CFD estimation of static aerodynamic force and moment agree well with wind tunnel data. An analysis was focused on the longitudinal data for complicated controlled canard-elements interactions and canard vortex behavior. The canard vortex interaction with tail wing of initial configuration concept with a thick canard (NACA0012) and the final improved configuration with a thin canard (NACA0007) were reviewed. It is proved that the stability and control characteristics of whole TUAV are sensitive to the thickness of canard in transonic peed regime because of different canard vortex intensity and effect generated.