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The nucleocapsid (N) protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) with a conserved amino acid usage pattern plays an important role in viral replication. The primary objective of this study was to estimate roles of synonymous codon usages of PPRV N gene and tRNA abundances of host in the formation of secondary structure of N protein. The potential effects of synonymous codon usages of N gene and tRNA abundances of host on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in N protein were estimated, based on the information about the modeling secondary structure of PPRV N protein. The synonymous codon usage bias was found in different folding units in PPRV N protein. To better understand the role of translation speed caused by variant tRNA abundances in shaping the specific folding unit in N protein, we modeled the changing trends of tRNA abundance at the transition boundaries from one folding unit to another folding unit (β-strand → coil, coil → β-strand, α-helix → coil, coil → α-helix). The obvious fluctuations of tRNA abundance were identified at the two transition boundaries (β-strand → coil and coil → β-strand) in PPRV N protein. Our findings suggested that viral synonymous codon usage bias and cellular tRNA abundance variation might have potential effects on the formation of secondary structure of PPRV N protein.
To rapidly estimate pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope, population densities in forests, the vertical distributions of M. alternatus oviposition sites and larvae on infested Masson pines (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were studied. Results showed that the number of oviposition sites on sections of trunks between 0 and 2 m above ground was significantly greater than on sections of trunk above 2 m, and the vertical distribution had a significant logarithmic relationship with trunk height. The larval number of M. alternatus on dead infested trees had a significant difference among heights of trunks. Sections on trunks at 2–4 m usually contained the largest number of M. alternatus larvae, while the number of larvae on trunks above 10 m declined significantly, as well as in the 1 m section of trunk at the base. The vertical distribution of M. alternatus larvae on dead infested pines showed a distinct parabolic relationship with trunk height. The number of oviposition sites of M. alternatus on infested Masson pine trunks revealed a significant exponential relationship with the diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. A significant positive linear relationship also was observed between M. alternatus larval number and DBH on the host pine trees, as well as between the numbers of larvae and oviposition sites on an individual tree. The total number of larvae in an infested tree could be calculated easily using an established equation, through counting the number of oviposition sites at 3–4 m of trunk aboveground. This study developed a practical method for rapid estimation of M. alternatus populations.
Growth of brown planthopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in rice paddies is mainly driven by meteorological factors under similar management practices. By analyzing field investigation and meteorological data collected from 2008 to 2013 in Nanchang, China, we show that BPH population densities and monthly growth rates (BGR) changed greatly from May to October, and these changes were closely associated with meteorological factors. Stepwise regression and path analysis indicated average speed of winds (AW) in June and lowest temperature (LT) in July were the first factors entering analysis, which interpreted 46.20% and 31.90% of their influences on BGR. While highest temperature (HT) in August and average temperature (AT) in September were the most important factors affecting BGR, but their direct path coefficients were all smaller than their corresponding indirect path coefficients. In October, relative humidity (RH), AW and number of raining days (RD) had significant effects on BGR. According to the sum of each meteorological factor entering stepwise regression analysis sequences, we found AW had the utmost effect on BPH growth, followed by AT and RH, but LT and RD least. The work demonstrate dynamic meteorological factors driving BPH growth and outbreak in rice paddies, which would facilitate the development of durable approaches for forecasting and controlling this destructive rice pest.
Objective: To determine whether CDX2 and villin protein expression are associated with intestinal metaplasia (IM) in gastric cardiac mucosa and to explore the relationship with evolution of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA). Methods: We studied 143 gastric cardiac biopsy or resection specimens from Henan province China, including 25 cardiac gastritis specimens with IM, 65 dysplasia specimens with IM and 35 gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma specimens and stained them for CDX2 and villin by the immunohistochemical SP method. 15 normal gastric cardiac biopsy specimens were also collected as control. Results: (1) Normal gastric mucosa presented no CDX2 and villin expression. The positive rates of CDX2 protein in cardiac gastritis with IM, dysplasia with IM, and carcinoma tissues were 84.0% (21/25), 66.7% (32/48) and 36.4% (20/55), respectively. While the positive rates of villin protein in cardiac gastritis with IM, dysplasia with IM, and carcinoma tissues were 76.0% (19/25), 70.8% (34/48) and 45.5% (25/55), respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups for both CDX2 and villin (P<0.01). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient(rho) showed a close correlation between the two proteins (r=0.843, P<0.01) and both were positively related with tumor differentiation (both P<0.05), but not associated with age, sex, invasion and metastasis of lymph node (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that ectopic expression of CDX2 and villin may be involved in early-stage IM and tumorigenesis in gastric cardia and the expression of villin may be regulated by CDX2.
Wang, Yi,Zhang, Ning,Kang, Chongqing,Xu, Qianyao,Li, Hui,Xiao, Jinyu,Wang, Zhidong,Shi, Rui,Wang, Shuai The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2015 Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol.10 No.5
Wind power planning aims to locate and size wind farms optimally. Traditionally, wind power planners tend to choose the wind farms with the richest wind resources to maximize the energy benefit. However, the capacity benefit of wind power should also be considered in large-scale clustered wind farm planning because the correlation among the wind farms exerts an obvious influence on the capacity benefit brought about by the combined wind power. This paper proposes a planning model considering both the energy and the capacity benefit of the wind farms. The capacity benefit is evaluated by the wind power capacity credit. The Ordinal Optimization (OO) Theory, capable of handling problems with non-analytical forms, is applied to address the model. To verify the feasibility and advantages of the model, the proposed model is compared with a widely used genetic algorithm (GA) via a modified IEEE RTS-79 system and the real world case of Ningxia, China. The results show that the diversity of the wind farm enhances the capacity credit of wind power.
( Yi Dong Wang ),( Guo Hui Bian ),( Xiao Yan Lv ),( Rong Zheng ),( Huan Sun ),( Zheng Zhang ),( Ye Chen ),( Qin Wei Li ),( Yan Xiao ),( Qiu Tan Yang ),( Jian Zhong Ai ),( Yu Quan Wei ),( Qin Zhou ) 생화학분자생물학회 2008 BMB Reports Vol.41 No.10
Wang, Jia-Yi,Zhou, Yu-Qiao,Li, Xiao-Xu,Jin, Xin,Wang, Li-Li,Lei, Lei,Zhou, Yu,Lu, Jiang,Zeng, Xin,Dan, Hong-Xia,Liao, Ga,Chen, Qian-Ming Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.12
Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated in cancer development. However, results from the published reports have remained inconclusive. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the association between polymorphisms in IL-4R gene and cancer risk. Pubmed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for case-control studies published up to October 30, 2012 that investigated IL-4R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of any associations. Three IL-4R polymorphisms (Q576R, rs1801275; I75V, rs1805010; S503P, rs1805015) in 21 case-control studies were analyzed. Our meta-analysis indicated that these three polymorphisms are not associated with cancer risk when all studies were pooled together. In the subgroup analysis by tumor site, the results showed that Q576R G allele carriers were associated with a significantly decreased cervical cancer risk (recessive model: OR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.60-0.98; homozygote comparison: OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.98). I75V G allele carriers were associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer (dominant model = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89, heterozygote comparison: OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.55-0.87). When stratified by ethnicity, Q576R G allele carriers were associated with a decreased cancer risk in Caucasians (dominant model: OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.83-0.98; heterozygote comparison: OR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.82-0.98). I75V G allele carriers were associated with a decreased cancer risk in Asians (heterozygote comparison: OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.62-0.94). S503P C allele carriers were also associated with a decreased cancer risk in Asians (CC VS TT: OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.08-0.99). Our results suggest that Q576R, I75V and S503P may be associated with a decreased cancer risk for certain types of cancers and in some specific ethnic groups. Future case-control studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate these associations in detail.
Wang, Na-Na,Xu, Yong,Yang, Kuo,Wei, Dong,Zhang, Yao-Guang,Liu, Ming,Shi, Xiao-Hong,Liang, Si-Ying,Sun, Liang,Zhu, Xiao-Quan,Yang, Yi-Ge,Tang, Lei,Zhao, Cheng-Xiao,Wang, Xin,Chen, Xin,Hui, Juan,Zhang, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.5
Background: KLK3 gene products, like human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), are important biomarkers in the clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). G protein-coupled receptor RFX6, C2orf43 and FOXP4 signaling plays important roles in the development of PCa. However, associations of these genes with PCa in northern Chinese men remain to be detailed. This study aimed to investigate their impact on occurrence and level of malignancy. Methods: All subjects were from Beijing and Tianjin, including 266 cases with prostate cancer and 288 normal individuals as controls. We evaluated associations between clinical covariates (age at diagnosis, prostate specific antigen, Gleason score, tumor stage and aggressive) and 6 candidate PCa risk loci, genotyped by PCR- high resolution melting curve and sequencing methods. Results: Case-control analysis of allelic frequency of PCa associated with PCa showed that one of the 6 candidate risk loci, rs339331 in the RFX6 gene, was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.57-0.94, P = 0.013) in northern Chinese men. In addition, subjects with CX (CC+TC) genotypes had a decreased risk for prostrate cancer compared to those carrying the TT homozygote (OR =0.64, 95% CI = 0.45- 0.90, P = 0.008). The TT genotype of 13q22 (rs9600079, T) was associated with tumor stage (P=0.044, OR=2.34, 95% CI=0.94-5.87). Other SNPs were not significantly associated with clinical covariates in prostate cancer (P > 0.05). Conclusions. rs339331 in the RFX6 gene may be associated with prostate cancer as a susceptibility locus in northern Chinese men.
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the best known fungi in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Many efforts have been devoted to locating the production areas of this species resulting in various reports; however, its geographic distribution remains incompletely understood. Distribution of O. sinensis at the county level is clarified in this work based on both a literature search and fieldwork. More than 3600 publications related to O. sinensis were investigated, including scientific papers, books, and online information. Herbarium specimens of O. sinensis and field collections made by this research group during the years 2000-2010 were examined to verify the distribution sites. A total of 203 localities for O. sinensis have been found, of which 106 are considered as confirmed distribution sites, 65 as possible distribution sites, 29 as excluded distribution sites and three as suspicious distribution sites. The results show that O. sinensis is confined to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions, including Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces in China and in certain areas of the southern flank of the Himalayas, in the countries of Bhutan, India and Nepal, with 3,000 m as the lowest altitude for the distribution. The fungus is distributed from the southernmost site in Yulong Naxi Autonomous County in northwestern Yunnan Province to the northernmost site in the Qilian Mountains in Qilian County, Qinghai Province, and from the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau in Wudu County, Gansu Province to the westernmost site in Uttarakhand, India. The clarification of the geographic distribution of O. sinensis will lay the foundation for conservation and sustainable use of the species.