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The phylogenetic tree of the partial elongation factor-1 alpha gene fits better than the partial 18S rDNA for generic classification. From the results of the molecular tree and analysis of morphological characters, Petriella setifera LH was identified. It can be induced to produce carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The crude CMCase only shows a 44.1-kDa band by activity staining after SDS-PAGE. It is optimally active at 55°C and pH 6.0, and is stable from pH 5.0–8.0 and at 45°C or below. The crude CMCase, which is not affected by Co2+, is strongly activated in the presence of 10 mM Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, and Mn2+. It is strongly inhibited by 10 mM Fe2+, Pb2+, Al3+, Zn2+, Ag+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. When compared with denim treatment by Novoprime A800 (a commercial neutral cellulase), crude CMCase exhibits a similar fabric weight loss and indigo dye removal. These results indicate that crude CMCase has potential application in denim biostoning.
In this study, we aimed to verify the effect of nutritional factors on the accretion of secondary metabolites in the adventitious root (AR) cultures of Malaysian ginseng (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) grown in small-scale bioreactors. AR were induced from leaf explants and cultured in different types of media including Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, Driver Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) medium, Gamborg's B5 medium, Woody Plant Medium (WPM), and ¾ MS medium. Among these media, the MS and Gamborg's B5 media induced lateral root development from initial inoculum, which accounted for the increase in AR biomass accretion. By contrast, the DKW and WPM media did not induce lateral root formation from the cultured explants. The ¾ MS medium was optimal for the growth of AR and accretion of secondary metabolites, after 7 weeks of culture, the biomass of AR increased by 8.6-fold in ¾ MS medium, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents reached 5.23 and 2 mg g−1 of tissue dry weight, respectively. Analysis of mineral elements in the spent medium revealed that ¾ MS medium was most suitable for nutrient supply to developing AR. LC–MS analysis showed the accretion of eurycomanone, a therapeutically useful metabolite, in the AR of Malaysian ginseng.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tectorigenin on chemically induced liver fibrosis in rats. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats with carbon tetrachloride, a diet high in fat, cholesterol and alcohol in the drinking water. Our results indicate that tectorigenin treatment significantly inhibited the increases in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the increases in the serum levels of hyaluronate (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIIP); tectorigenin treatment also significantly inhibited the increases in the amount of collagen in the livers of the fibrogenic rats. Chemically induced liver fibrosis caused a drop in the serum albumin concentration and a decrease in the ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G). Tectorigenin caused a remarkable increase at a dose of 30 mg/kg, but only a slight increase at the lower doses. Tectorigenin was also able to inhibit the increase in the liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the decrease in the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), caused by liver fibrosis. In addition, we present a related metabolic profile determined, using a 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate pattern recognition techniques. The results were consistent with the pathological examination, liver function analysis and liver fibrosis marker analysis. Furthermore, tectorigenin does not cause acute toxicity.