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      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        True Digestibility of Phosphorus in Different Resources of Feed Ingredients in Growing Pigs

        X.,Wu,Z.,Ruan,Y.G.,Zhang,Y.Q.,Hou,Y.L.,Yin,T.J.,Li,R.L.,Huang,W.Y.,Chu,X.F.,Kong,B.,Gao,L.X.,Chen 아세아·태평양축산학회 2008 Animal Bioscience Vol.21 No.1

        To determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs, two experiments were designed with the experimental diets containing five true digestible P levels (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%) and the ratio of total calcium to true digestible P (TDP) kept at 2:1. In Experiment 1, five barrows (Duroc??Landrace??Yorkshire) with an average initial body weight of 27.9 kg were used in a 5?? Latin-square design to evaluate the effect of different dietary P levels on the digestibility and output of P and nitrogen. In Experiment 2, sixty healthy growing pigs (Duroc??Landrace??Yorkshire) with an average body weight (BW) of 21.4 kg were assigned randomly to one of the five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), and were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. The results indicated that the true digestibility of P increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing dietary TDP level below 0.26%. The true P digestibility was highest (56.6%) when dietary TDP was 0.34%. Expressed as g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), fecal P output increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing P input. On the basis of g/kg fecal dry matter (DM), fecal P output was lowest for Diet 4 and highest (p<0.05) for Diet 5. The apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) did not differ (p>0.05) among the five diets, with the average nitrogen output of 12.14 g/d and nitrogen retention of 66% to 74% (p>0.05), which suggested that there was no interaction between dietary P and CP protein levels. During the 28-d experimental period of Experiment 2, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Eq. (1): y = -809,532x4+788,079x3-276,250x2+42,114x-1,759; (R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %), F/G for pigs by Eq. (2): y = 3,651.1x4-3,480.4x3+1,183.8x2-172.5x+10.9 (R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = F/G; x = dietary TDP, %), and Total P concentrations in serum by Eq. (3): y = -3,311.7x4+3,342.7x3-1,224.6x2+195.6x-8.7 (R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest F/G (1.07) and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        True Digestibility of Phosphorus in Different Resources of Feed Ingredients in Growing Pigs

        Wu,,X.,Ruan,,Z.,Zhang,,Y.G.,Hou,,Y.Q.,Yin,,Y.L.,Li,,T.J.,Huang,,R.L.,Chu,,W.Y.,Kong,,X.F.,Gao,,B.,Chen,,L.X. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2008 Animal Bioscience Vol.21 No.1

        To determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs, two experiments were designed with the experimental diets containing five true digestible P levels (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%) and the ratio of total calcium to true digestible P (TDP) kept at 2:1. In Experiment 1, five barrows (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) with an average initial body weight of 27.9 kg were used in a $5{\times}5$ Latin-square design to evaluate the effect of different dietary P levels on the digestibility and output of P and nitrogen. In Experiment 2, sixty healthy growing pigs (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) with an average body weight (BW) of 21.4 kg were assigned randomly to one of the five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), and were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. The results indicated that the true digestibility of P increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing dietary TDP level below 0.26%. The true P digestibility was highest (56.6%) when dietary TDP was 0.34%. Expressed as g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), fecal P output increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing P input. On the basis of g/kg fecal dry matter (DM), fecal P output was lowest for Diet 4 and highest (p<0.05) for Diet 5. The apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) did not differ (p>0.05) among the five diets, with the average nitrogen output of 12.14 g/d and nitrogen retention of 66% to 74% (p>0.05), which suggested that there was no interaction between dietary P and CP protein levels. During the 28-d experimental period of Experiment 2, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Eq. (1): $y=-809,532x^4+788,079x^3-276,250x^2+42,114x-1,759$; ($R^2=0.99$; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %), F/G for pigs by Eq. (2): $y=3,651.1x^4-3,480.4x^3+1,183.8x^2-172.5x+10.9$ ($R^2=0.99$; p<0.01; y = F/G; x = dietary TDP, %), and Total P concentrations in serum by Eq. (3): $y=-3,311.7x^4+3,342.7x^3-1,224.6x^2+195.6x-8.7$ (R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest F/G (1.07) and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.

      • KCI등재

        광-펌핑 파장에 따른 Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$Te 단결정의 THz 발진

        전용석,X.,-C.,Zhang,강현식 한국물리학회 2006 New Physics: Sae Mulli Vol.52 No.4

        We present a general phase-matching condition for the generation of a THz beam from Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$Te single crystals. We show that the phase matching condition depends both on the phase velocity of the T-ray and the group velocity of the optical pumping beam. For various phase matching condition, we calculated the wavelength of the pumping beam of a femtosecond laser in order to generate a THz beam by using various $x$ of Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$Te single crystals. This matching condition is used to explain the T-ray generation of ZnTe crystals for the 820 nm wavelength of the optical pumping beam. 펨토초 레이저의 광 펌핑 파장에 따른 Cd$_{x}$Zn$_{1-x}$Te 단결정에서 THz 발진 (T-Ray)의 위상정합 조건, 즉 T-ray의 위상속도와 펌핑빔 (pumping beam)의 군속도가 같아지는 조건으로부터, 단결정의 혼합 성분비와 맞는 펌핑 광의 파장을 계산하였고, 실제 ZnTe 단결정에 대하여 820 nm에서 THz발진이 가장 적합함을 설명하였다.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Recent Advances in III-Nitride Ultraviolet Photonic Materials and Devices

        H.,X.,Jiang,J.,Y.,Lin 한국물리학회 2003 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.42 No.III

        This paper summarizes some of the recent advances made on III-nitride ultraviolet photonics materials and devices. In particular, the growth and characterization of AlGaN alloys are discussed in detail. It was shown that AlGaN could be made n-type for $x$ up to 1 (pure AlN). Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies carried out on these materials have shown that Si-doping reduces the effect of carrier localization in Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$N alloys and a sharp drop in carrier localization energy occurs when the Si doping concentration increases above 1 $\times$ 10$^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$, which directly correlates with the observed electrical properties. For the Mg-doped Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$N alloys, p-type conduction was achieved for $x$ up to 0.27. From the Mg acceptor activation energy as a function of Al content, the resistivity of Mg-doped Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$N with high Al contents can be estimated. For example, the projected resistivity of Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$N ($x$=0.45) is around 2.2 $\times$ 10$^4$ $\Omega$-cm. Thus alternative methods for acceptor activation in AlGaN or InAlGaN with high Al contents must be developed before the high performance deep UV emitters can be realized.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        COMPLETELY MONOTONIC FUNCTIONS RELATING TO THE GAMMA AND PSI FUNCTIONS

        X.,Li 장전수학회 2009 Proceedings of the Jangjeon mathematical society Vol.12 No.1

        In this paper, the complete monotonicity of the function x 7↔ ψ(x+1)- ψ (ax+1)+ln a on (0,∞) for a > 0 and the logarithmically complete monotonicity of the function x ↔Γ(x + 1)a/Γ(ax + 1) on (0,∞) for a > 0 are considered and the corresponding results by C. Alsina and M. S. Tomas, J. Sandor are extended. In this paper, the complete monotonicity of the function x 7↔ ψ(x+1)- ψ (ax+1)+ln a on (0,∞) for a > 0 and the logarithmically complete monotonicity of the function x ↔Γ(x + 1)a/Γ(ax + 1) on (0,∞) for a > 0 are considered and the corresponding results by C. Alsina and M. S. Tomas, J. Sandor are extended.

      • KCI등재

        Piezoelectric activities and domain patterns of orthorhombic Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics

        P.,Zheng,K.X.,Song,H.B.,Qin,L.,Zheng,L.M.,Zheng 한국물리학회 2013 Current Applied Physics Vol.13 No.6

        Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.065) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. Crystalline structures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that all the Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3(0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.065) ceramics were of orthorhombic phase at room temperature. Piezoelectric activities and domain patterns were investigated and compared with those of BaTiO3 ceramic. All the Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics showed nearly the same d33 values of about 265 pC/N and the same domain width of about 220 nm. By comparing the grain sizes and domain width of the Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics with those of BaTiO3 ceramic, it is speculated that the variation of domain width with grain sizes in orthorhombic Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics may be different with that in tetragonal BaTiO3 ceramic. Besides domain width,the effective inertia mass of domain wall is also considered to be a very important factor that impacts the piezoelectric activities of the Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics.

      • KCI등재

        Effect of Rheedia longifolia Leaf Extract and Fractions on the P2X_7 Receptor In Vitro: Novel Antagonists?

        José,A.A.,Santos,Antonio,Augusto,Fidalgo-Neto,Robson,X.,Faria,Ana,Simo˜es,Andrea,S.,Calheiros,Ana,Luiza,Be´renger,Hugo,C.C.,Faria-Neto,Maria,Raquel,Figueiredo,Valber,S.,Luiz,Frutuoso,Luiz,Anastacio,Al 한국식품영양과학회 2011 Journal of medicinal food Vol.14 No.9

        Recently, the P2X_7 receptor has been reported to be associated with chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Because Rheedia longifolia extract has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the in vitro inhibitory potential of methanol extract and fractions from its leaves on the P2X_7 purinergic receptor. The activity of P2X_7 was studied with a dye uptake assay and with the whole-cell patch clamp technique in mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with methanol extract of R. longifolia leaves and fractions. The dye uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The R. longifolia extract and some fractions showed an inhibitory effect on the P2X_7 purinergic receptor in a dose-dependent manner. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the most potent inhibitory effects. The methanol extract and the butanol fraction showed the same inhibitory effects, despite their lower potency compared with the other fractions. The R. longifolia extract and some of its fractions may be anti-inflammatory because of their inhibitory effect on the P2X_7 receptor. Further investigation is needed to determine the pattern of inhibition and selectivity. Chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of bisflavonoids in the methanol extract fractions. A member of this chemical family is the most probable active compound responsible for the P2X_7 inhibitory effects present in the R. Longifolia extract and fractions.

      • Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) Studies of the Structure of Si$_{1-x}Ge_x$/Si Surface Alloy

        Shi,,Y.,Zhao,,R.,Jiang,,C.Z.,Fan,,X.J. 한국진공학회 2002 Journal of Korean Vacuum Science & Technology Vol.6 No.2

        The Si$_{1-x}$ Gex/Si surface alloy (x = 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5), which are prepared by solid source MBE and have the SiGe epilayer thickness of 50$\AA$, are annealed with different parameters. The surface structure analyses of the heterostructure samples are made on a triple-axis X-ray diffractometer in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) geometry. It has been found that with different annealing time (1.5h, 18h, 64h) and annealing temperature (550 $^{\circ}C$, 750 $^{\circ}C$), the SiGe epilayer experienced different strain relaxation process, which was deduced from the GIXRD measurements of the in-plane (220) diffraction peak of Si(001) substrate and the relevant (220) surface diffraction of SiGe epilayer. The results show that the stress relieving and the lateral strain relaxation in the SiGe/Si heterostructure can be promoted by correct annealing, which is very helpful for the preparation of SiGe/Si strained superlattice with fine strain crystallization..

      • Grazing Incidence X - ray Diffraction (GIXRD) Studies of the Structure of Si₁_xGex / Si Surface Alloy

        Y.,Shi,R.,Zhao,C.,Z.,Jiang,X.,J.,Fan 한국진공학회(ASCT) 2002 Journal of Korean Vacuum Science & Technology Vol.6 No.2

        The Si_(1-x)Ge_x/Si surface alloy (x = 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5), which are prepared by solid source MBE and have the SiGe epilayer thickness of 50Å, are annealed with different parameters. The surface structure analyses of the heterostructure samples are made on a triple-axis X-ray diffractometer in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) geometry. It has been found that with different annealing time (1.5h, 18h, 64h) and annealing temperature (550℃, 750℃), the SiGe epilayer experienced different strain relaxation process, which was deduced from the GIXRD measurements of the in-plane (220) diffraction peak of Si(001) substrate and the relevant (220) surface diffraction of SiGe epilayer. The results show that the stress relieving and the lateral strain relaxation in the SiGe/Si heterostructure can be promoted by correct annealing, which is very helpful for the preparation of SiGe/Si strained superlattice with fine strain crystallization.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effects of Graded Levels of Isomaltooligosaccharides on the Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Status of Weaned Pigs

        X.X.,Wang,P.X.,Song,H.,Wu,J.X.,Xue,X.,Zhong,L.Y.,Zhang 아세아·태평양축산학회 2016 Animal Bioscience Vol.29 No.2

        The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) on the performance, immune function and intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, one hundred eighty, twenty eight-day-old, crossbred (Duroc×Large White×Landrace), weaned pigs, with an initial body weight of 8.19±1.45 kg, were fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal based diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% IMO added at the expense of corn. Each treatment was replicated six times with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. From day 0 to 14, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p = 0.05) linearly declined as the IMO level increased. On d 14, the level of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in the serum of pigs were linearly increased (p<0.05) with increasing IMO supplementation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) decreased as IMO intake increased. From day 15 to 28, there was a trend for weight gain to be linearly increased, and IL-2 was linearly (p<0.05) increased as IMO supplementation increased on d 28. Over the entire experiment, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p<0.05) was linearly decreased as the IMO level increased. Supplementation with IMO had no effect on the intestinal microflora of pigs in the ileum and cecum of pigs, as well as the villus height and crypt depth in the ileum and jejunum (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary inclusion of IMO increases weight gain, gain:feed and enhanced the immune status of pigs, and could be a valuable feed additive for use in weaned pigs, particularly during the period immediately after weaning.

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