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Bi,,Wei-Wei,Zhang,,Wei-Hua,Yin,,Gui-Hua,Luo,,Hong,Wang,,Shou-Qin,Wang,,Hongran,Li,,Chao,Yan,,Wei-Qun,Nie,,De-Zhi Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.14
Background: To determine the amount of co-expression of IDO and EGFR in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods:In order to obtain the distribution of co-expression of IDO and EGFR in breast cancer, we tested 110 breast cancer paraffin tissue blocks with immunohistochemical methods. Then we investigated the relationship between the diagnostic and pathologic characteristics (tumor size, lymph node status, histologic grade, the gene expression of ER, PR, HER2, p53, Ki67 and PCNA) with the situation of co-expression of IDO and EGFR by reviewing the medical records of 32 breast cancer patients. Results: Among 110 breast cancers, 32 cases demonstrated IDO and EGFR co-expression (29.1%), IDO and EGFR synchronous co-expression being found in 19.1% and asynchronous in 10.0%. Conclusions: IDO and EGFR were co-expressed in breast cancer, including synchronous and asynchronous co-expression. The results suggest that considering IDO and EGFR as two indicators for breast cancer treatment or prognosis analysis provides a potential option of individual treatment for the portion of breast cancer patients with co-expression of IDO and EGFR.
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is generally considered to be a polyphagous pest. The current study challenges this view by investigating its oviposition preference, larval survival and development on different host plants under both laboratory and field conditions. Rice and water-oat populations of the borer inhabiting on corresponding plants respectively have partial reproductive isolation based on previous studies. In a laboratory multiple-choice test, C. suppressalis adults from rice population laid most of eggs on water-oat (46.5% of total eggs) and rice (43.8%), with very fewlaid onwheat (3.6%), sugarcane (4.0%) andmaize (2.0%). Field surveys supported the laboratory study and found no egg on the plants other than rice and water-oat. Neonate inoculation experiments performed in field and laboratory showed that larval survival rate was much higher on rice (49.1%–51.2%) and wheat (36.5%–44.1%) than that on water-oat (10.7%–10.8%), maize (1.2%–7.2%), sugarcane (0–1.5%) and weeds (2.4%). These results were discussed with the data reported from water-oat population and it was concluded that C. suppressalis is not a typical polyphagous pest. Rice population mainly reproduces on rice and use water-oat only as minor host, and water-oat population breeds better on water-oat than on rice as reported. Neither population could thrive on the other recorded host plants, which are used for the supplementary nutrition sources of larvae. These findings provide useful information for the development of control strategies to prevent C. suppressalis laying eggs on rice seedlings in early spring, hence effectively reducing population density of this pest in rice fields.
A well-defined three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of bone-cartilage transitional structures is crucial for the osteochondral restoration. This paper presents an accurate, computationally efficient and semi-automated algorithm for the alignment and segmentation of two-dimensional (2-D) serial to construct the 3-D model of bonecartilage transitional structures. Entire system includes the following five components: (1) image harvest, (2) image registration, (3) image segmentation, (4) 3-D reconstruction and visualization, and (5) evaluation. A computer program was developed in the environment of Matlab for the semi-automatic alignment and automatic segmentation of serial sections. Semi-automatic alignment algorithm based on the position's cross-correlation of the anatomical characteristic feature points of two sequential sections. A method combining an automatic segmentation and an image threshold processing was applied to capture the regions and structures of interest. SEM micrograph and 3-D model reconstructed directly in digital microscope were used to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of this strategy. The morphology of 3-D model constructed by serial sections is consistent with the results of SEM micrograph and 3-D model of digital microscope.
Homophilic interaction of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules plays a pivotal role in regulating neurite outgrowth and neural cell networking in vivo. Functional defects in L1 family members are associated with neurological disorders such as X-linked mental retardation, multiple sclerosis, low-IQ syndrome, developmental delay, and schizophrenia. Various human tumors with poor prognosis also implicate the role of L1, a representative member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules, and ectopic expression of L1 in fibroblastic cells induces metastasis-associated gene expression. Previous studies on L1 homologs indicated that four N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains form a horseshoe-like structure that mediates homophilic interactions. Various models including the zipper, domain-swap, and symmetry-related models are proposed to be involved in structural mechanism of homophilic interaction of the L1 family members. Recently, cryo-electron tomography of L1 and crystal structure studies of neurofascin, an L1 family protein, have been performed. This review focuses on recent discoveries of different models and describes the possible structural mechanisms of homophilic interactions of L1 family members. Understanding structural mechanisms of homophilic interactions in various cell adhesion proteins should aid the development of therapeutic strategies for L1 family cell adhesion molecule-associated diseases.
Objective: We sought to distinguish lipid plaques using a CT quantitative pixel density histogram, based on the pathological diagnosis of lipid cores as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Eight patients awaiting heart transplantation due to end-stage coronary heart disease underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) spectroscopy prior to heart transplantation; coronary artery pathological analysis was performed for all patients. Lipid-core plaques were defined pathologically as manifesting a lipid core diameter > 200 μm, a circumference > 60 degrees, and a cap thickness < 450 μm. The percentage distributions of CT pixel attenuation ≤ 20, 30, 40, and 50 HU were calculated using quantitative histogram analysis. Results: A total of 271 transverse sections were co-registered between CCTA and pathological analysis. Overall, 26 lipid cores and 16 fibrous plaques were identified by pathological analysis. There was no significant difference in median CT attenuation between the lipid and fibrous plaques (51 HU [interquartile range, 46–63] vs. 57 HU [interquartile range, 50–64], p = 0.659). The median percentage of CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU accounted for 11% (5–17) of lipid-core plaques and 0% (0–2) of fibrous plaques (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the method for diagnosing lipid plaques by the average CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU were 80.8% and 87.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curve was 0.898 (95% confidence interval: 0.765–0.970; 3.0% was the best cut-off value). The diagnostic performance was significantly higher than those of the average pixel CT attenuation percentages ≤ 20, 40, and 50 HU and the mean CT attenuation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In in vivo conditions, with the pathological lipid core as the gold standard, quantification of the percentage of average CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU in the histogram can be useful for accurate identification of lipid plaques.
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The issue of piracy is one of the major difficulties in international trade today. It is often the original-brand manufacturer who ends up in a great deal of trouble because of it. Pirated products have disrupted global trade and have caused untold damage to the world s economy. Hence, the copyright awareness of the consumers in a target market is worth looking at. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Chinese customers copyright awareness on online consumer behavior. For this purpose, data were collected via a web-based questionnaire survey from 252 consumers across 23 cities in China. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were adopted in the study. By building and analyzing the structural equation modeling using AMOS, it was found that copyright awareness has begun to make a drastic change in Chinese consumer behavior. The results reveal that first, Chinese customers age and educational level have significant effects on their copyright awareness; second, those part of the high-copyright awareness group put more importance on service quality than others where satisfaction is concerned; and lastly, their satisfaction have a significant effect on loyalty, but this effect is smaller when observed in the low-copyright awareness group.
Objective: The net energy requirement for the maintenance (NEm) of broilers was determined using regression models by the indirect calorimetry method (ICM) or the comparative slaughter method (CSM). Methods: A 2×4 factorial arrangement of treatments including the evaluation method (ICM or CSM) and feed intake (25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of ad libitum recommended) was employed in this experiment. In the ICM, 96 male Arbor Acres (AA) birds aged d 15 were used with 4 birds per replicate and 6 replicates in each treatment. In the CSM, 116 male AA birds aged d 15 were used. Among these 116 birds, 20 were selected as for initial data and 96 were assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicate cages and 4 birds each. The linear regression between retained energy (RE) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) or the logarithmic regression between heat production (HP) and MEI were used to calculate the metabolizable or net energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) or NEm, respectively. Results: The evaluation method did not detect any differences in the metabolizable energy (ME), net energy (NE), and NE:ME of diet, and in the MEI, HP, and RE of broilers. The MEI, HP, and RE of broilers decreased (p<0.01) as the feed intake decreased. No evaluation method× feed intake interaction was observed on these parameters. The MEm and NEm estimated from the linear relationship were 594 and 386 kJ/kg of body weight (BW)0.75/d in the ICM, and 618 and 404 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the CSM, respectively. The MEm and NEm estimated by logarithmic regression were 607 and 448 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the ICM, and were 619 and 462 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the CSM, respectively. Conclusion: The NEm values obtained in this study provide references for estimating the NE values of broiler diets.