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We examine gender differences in earnings among South Korean workers in 1988 and 1998. In 1988, the South Korean National Assembly enacted the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. Using OWS data, we explore the gender wage gap. Following Ronald Oaxaca'a (1973) work, we decompose male-female wage differentials. We also calculate a discrimination coefficient. Our work shows that gender earning differences decreased between 1988 and 1998. In 1988, men enjoyed a wage that was 208% of women's wages. In 1998, men earned a wage that was only 165% of women's wages. While men continue to earn a higher wage than women in South Korea, the wage gap has improved over time.
Both critical thinking and intellectual development are desirable outcomes of education. While education literature describes the faculty role of fostering critical thinking in students, there is less information on the intellectual development of college students. The longitudinal study reported here was undertaken to compare critical thinking skills and intellectual development on entry to and exit from a baccalaureate nursing program. Critical thinking skills were measured using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Intellectual development was measured using the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). The entry and exit critical thinking scores are highly correlated, as are the entry and exit intellectual development scores. Scores for both critical thinking and intellectual development changed positively for RN/BSN students (those who had completed either an Associate Degree or Diploma in nursing) from program entry to program exit. Basic pre-licensure students experienced a positive change in critical thinking scores, but a negative change in intellectual development from program entry to exit.
<sup>131</sup>I-Anti CD20 Radioimmunotherapy of Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma: A Phase II Clinical Trial of a Nonmyeloablative Dose Regimen of Chimeric Rituximab Radiolabeled in a Hospital
<P>In order to increase the availability and affordability of radioimmunotherapy of refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkins lymphoma, we developed and evaluated radioiodinated rituximab in an ongoing physician-sponsored Phase II Clinical Trial. The chimeric 1gG(1) anti CD 20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was radiolabeled with iodine-131 using a modified Chloramine T method with high radiochemical purity (98% +/- 0.82) and preservation of immunoreactivity. All patients received therapeutic loading doses of unlabeled rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) immediately prior to administration of tracer (200 MBq (131)I) or therapy (1.7-4.3 GBq (131)I) activities of (131)I-rituximab to provide additive immunotherapy and enhance tumor uptake of the radiolabeled antibody. Objective response rate (ORR) was 71% in 35 patients with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 4-28 months). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 54% of patients, with median duration 20 months. Toxicity evaluation included an additional 7 patients followed for at least 3 months. Tracer dosimetry studies were performed in each patient and the whole body radiation absorbed dose was limited to a mean prescribed dose (MPD) of 0.75 Gy. Myelosuppression was reversible and in only 2 of 42 patients was grade IV hematological toxicity observed. No hemopoietic support was required in any patient. There was no instance of hemorrhage or infection in this group of patients in each of whom individual prospective dosimetry was performed prior to (131)I rituximab radioimmunotherapy for relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma.</P>
Erythemal UV exposure for individuals involved in outside activities are affected according to surrounding structures in an urban environment. Occupational UV exposure is likely to increase by the effects of surrounding structures. UV reflections from surrounding structures, in this case vertical metal walls, were investigated for their influence on erythemal UV exposure in the southern hemisphere. Multiple dosimeters were placed at specific features on head forms, for three different vertical wall conditions, measured at hourly intervals, providing a more detailed representation of the effect of nearby (north facing) reflective wall, non-reflective wall and no wall on UV exposure for a construction worker facing the wall direction. Two types of metal sheeting walls were investigated, with the first type (shiny and smooth in appearance) showing results that indicate the UV reflectance from this surface can increase the average erythemal UV exposure by at least 20% and up to an average of 50% for certain facial positions, compared to no wall and up to 300% compared to a non-reflective wall. A second metal sheeting type coated with colour, does not show as much influence on UV exposure for larger solar zenith angles compared to the first type of metal sheeting, but for smaller solar zenith angles provides an influence that approaches similar erythemal UV exposure to that when no wall is present. The time to reach the exposure limits defined by regulatory bodies for occupational UV exposure can be decreased if the first type of metal sheeting is in proximity to an outdoor worker. The experimental method of this study leads to discussion of how metal surfaces used in the construction industry physically reflect UV radiation. The conclusion is that albedo, which is traditionally used to measure UV reflection, is not an appropriate quantity to explore UV reflection from vertical metal surfaces. This may be due to the reason that metal surfaces seem to involve specular reflection as well as diffuse reflection.
Previous research on healthcare workers’ protection has concentrated on liquid barrier protection by providing impermeable personal articles such as latex gloves. This property is of high importance but since most blood-borne pathogen transmissions in the healthcare industry are caused by needle-stick injuries, protection from sharp invasive instruments should also be of high concern. And since latex and alike provide no protection against needle-stick injuries, new protective systems need to be developed and evaluated. This part of the study provides a review regarding the current practice of protection and the serious problems that arise from needle-flick injuries. Additionally, the development of new protective system is described. In part II of the study, evaluation of the new system will be provided.
Damaging winds, associated with a variety of weather phenomena, are frequently experienced in New Zealand. Observations and modelling of two recent extreme wind events; the Taranaki tornado outbreak of July 2007, and the Greymouth down-slope easterly wind storm of July 2008 are described in detail here. Post-event engineering damage surveys, rare for New Zealand, were done for these storms and the results are summarized here. Finally, the issue of sampling extreme wind events is raised and the need to include detailed numerical modelling analysis to understand wind gust climatologies at observing sites and extending these to wider regions is discussed.