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No other sporting event possesses the grandeur of the Olympics, and few other development projects demonstrate the lack of cost containment as the Olympics which leaves local residents paying the debt and maintenance of a venue they may never use. Legacy planning is an important consideration for the hosting of the Olympics, but one that does not always receive adequate consideration resulting in the “white elephant phenomenon.” This study therefore looked to analyze the cost of hosting the Olympics compared to the economic activity in the host community in order to better inform public policy on the issues of sustainability and legacy, in particular. We are proposing a metric that helps to measure the costs that Olympic hosting has on the host community and provide a benchmark for containing those costs in terms of budgeting, construction and legacy planning for the Games. Consequently, the IOC can institute policy changes for project management that assist host cities in establishing a budget cap for venue development while simultaneously seeking to reduce the crippling debt that has accompanied them in the past.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of expansion joint spacing (slab size) on the life cycle costs of owning Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) airfield pavements. Previous research has shown that slab size has a statistically significant impact on pavement performance. A probabilistic life cycle cost analysis was performed to determine if the effect of slab size on pavement performance would affect the total cost of ownership of PCC pavements. Data from 48 Pavement Condition Index (PCI) inspections of military and civilian airfields were used to develop probability-of-distress-by-condition curves, which were then used to develop probabilistic cost-of-repair-by-condition curves. A present worth life cycle cost analysis was then performed for various slab sizes, using construction costs, rehabilitation costs, and maintenance costs. Maintenance costs were determined by assuming a condition deterioration rate appropriate for each slab size and applying the cost-by-condition curves. The probabilistic cost-of-repair-by-condition curves indicated that smaller slabs are more expensive to repair on a unit cost basis. Life cycle cost analysis showed that larger slabs have a higher total cost of ownership than smaller slabs due to a faster rate of deterioration.
We used the 4 m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) at Lowell observatory in 2014 to observe the Guitar Nebula, an Hα bow-shock nebula around the high-velocity radio pulsar B2224+65. Since the nebula's discovery in 1992, the structure of the bow-shock has undergone significant dynamical changes. We have observed the limb structure, targeting the “body” and “neck” of the guitar. Comparing the DCT observations to 1995 observations with the Palomar 200-inch Hale telescope, we found changes in both spatial structure and surface brightness in the tip, head, and body of the nebula.
Multiple generations of sub-vertical and sub-horizontal foliations preserved as inclusion trails in garnet in mylonitic rocks from the hanging wall of the Main Central Thrust in the Himalayas indicate that these porphyroblasts did not rotate during thrusting. This result is predicated by (i) a consistent succession of 5 changes in FIA trend (foliation inflection/intersection axes in porphyroblasts) for samples where the orientation changes from porphyroblast cores to rims; (ii) sub-vertical and sub-horizontal foliations occur as inclusion trails around each of the 5 FIAs in the succession, which would not be the case if the garnet porphyroblasts rotated during subsequent phases of deformation as tectonism continued; (iii) a change in inclusion trail asymmetry immediately prior to the commencement of mylonitzation indicates top to the south thrusting only if the porphyroblasts had not rotated as they grew; (iv) the latter asymmetry matches truncated crenulation relics preserved within the mylonitic matrix foliation that indicate top to the south thrusting as the latter foliation formed. Partitioning of deformation into shortening and shearing components stops rotation of porphyroblasts during their growth and during following periods of ductile tectonism. This can be replicated via computer modelling by duplicating the crenulation-hinge-like coaxial environment in which porphyroblasts nucleate and grow before the strain intensifies. This was done using Drucker-Prager constitutive models with temperature-dependent strain softening behaviour and resulted in no porphyroblast rotation when followed by non-coaxial deformation no matter how intense. Furthermore, strain localization in the model containing competent objects of variable size, shape and orientation, produced no rotation during deformation involving components of shortening and shearing. These approaches to modelling mechanically resolve the sub-vertical/sub-horizontal foliations defined by inclusion trails and consistent FIA trend successions obtained from the Main Central Thrust rocks as well as in orogens elsewhere.
Alone among surrounding powers, China has thus far successfully carried out a two-Korea policy. However, recent reports about Kim Jongil's ill health have revived debates over the future of North Korea. How China might react to a sudden collapse of the North Korean government is a major concern in Seoul. Many observers fear Chinese intervention to set up a pro-Beijing regime, or even annexation of the northern part of the Peninsula. For its part, China worries about joint US-South Korean intervention bringing American troops to its border. While economic ties between South Korea and China remain strong, and cultural exchanges are rife, some strains have been appearing. Recent incidents, such as clashes at the Olympic torch relay in Seoul, seizures of Chinese fishing boats in South Korean territorial waters, and concerns over the safety of Chinesemade products have contributed to less benign views of China's rise. Historical disputes over the “ownership” of Goguryeo and Korean claims to the Kando region lurk under the surface. To prevent a possible conflict, and secure Chinese support for South Korea's goal of unification, the two sides should begin addressing the issues that divide them.