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A large number of residential buildings in regions subjected to severe earthquakes do not have enough load carrying capacity. The most of them have been constructed without receiving any structural engineering attention. It is practically almost impossible to perform detailed experimental evaluation and analytical analysis for each building to determine their seismic vulnerability, because of time and cost constraints. This fact points to a need for a simple evaluation method that focuses on selection of buildings which do not have the life safety performance level by adopting the main requirements given in the seismic codes. This paper deals with seismic assessment of existing reinforced concrete residential buildings and contains an alternative simplified procedure for seismic evaluation of buildings. Accuracy of the proposed procedure is examined by taking into account existing 250 buildings. When the results of the proposed procedure are compared with those of the detailed analyses, it can be seen that the results are quite compatible. It is seen that the accuracy of the proposed procedure is about 80% according to the detailed analysis results of existing buildings. This accuracy percentage indicates that the proposed procedure in this paper can be easily applied to existing buildings to predict their seismic performance level as a first approach before implementing the detailed and complex analyses.
The effect of tempering temperature and microstructure on dry sliding wear behavior of quenched and tempered PM with 0.3% graphite and 1-2% Ni steels was investigated. The sintered specimens were quenched from 890℃ and then tempered at 200℃ and 600℃ for 1 hr. Wear tests were carried out on the quenched+tempered specimens under dry sliding wear conditions using a pin-on-disk type machine at constant load and speed. The experimental results showed that the wear coefficient effectively increased with increasing tempering temperature and decreased with increasing Ni content.
The mixed atomized iron powders with 0.3% graphite and 1% Ni powders were cold pressed and sintered at for 30 min under pure Ar gas atmosphere. Some of the sintered specimens were intercritically annealed at and quenched in water (single quenching). The other sintered specimens were first fully austenized at and water quenched. These specimens were then intercritically annealed at and re-quenched in water. The experimental results showed that the wear coefficient effectively decreased in the double quenched specimen.
One of the important factors is the infill walls in the change of the structural rigidity, ductility, dynamic and static characteristics of the structures. The infill walls are not generally included in numerical analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structural system due to lack of suitable theory and the difficulty of calculating the recommended models. In seismic regions worldwide, the residential structures are generally RC buildings with infill wall. Therefore, understanding the contribution of the infill walls to seismic performance of buildings may have a vital importance. This paper investigates the effects of infill walls on seismic performance of the existing RC residential buildings by considering requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC). Seismic performance levels of residential RC buildings with and without walls in high-hazard zones were determined according to the nonlinear procedure given in the code. Pushover curves were obtained by considering the effect of masonry infill walls on seismic performance of RC buildings. The analysis results showed that the infill walls beneficially effected to the rigidity, roof displacements and seismic performance of the building.
Purpose: In our study, the effects of harmonic scalpel, scalpel, and monopolar electrocautery usage on the health and healing of colon anastomosis after resection was investigated. Methods: In this study, 120 female albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups each containing 40 rats. Group A, resection with scalpel; group B, resection with monopolar electrocautery; group C, resection with harmonic scalpel. The groups were divided into 4 subgroups consisting of 10 rats and analysed in the postoperative 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. Anastomotic bursting pressures, hydroxyproline levels and histopathological parameters were surrogate parameters for evaluating wound healing. Results: The tissue hydroxyproline levels did not show any significant difference between the groups and subgroups. The mean bursting pressure of group A on the 5th day was significantly higher than groups B and C (P < 0.001). When the fibroblast and fibrosis scores were evaluated, scores of group C on the 5th day were significantly higher than the other groups, but the results of bursting pressures and biochemical parameters did not support the fibroblast and fibrosis scores. There were not any significant differences between the groups in other histopathologic parameters. Conclusion: The use of monopolar electrocautery needs more attention since the device causes tissue destruction. The obliterating effect of harmonic scalpel on luminal organs is an important problem, especially if an anastomosis is planned. Despite the disadvantages of scalpel, its efficacy on early wound healing is better than the other devices.