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Aksoy,,Rifat,Taner,Thran,,Ahmet,Taner,Boran,,Nurettin,Tokmak,,Aytekin,Isikdogan,,Betul,Zuhal,Dogan,,Mehmet,Thlunay,,Hakki,Gokhan Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.16
Background: The relation ofsurvivin gene expression to survival and surgical prognostic factors in the patients with endometrial carcinoma is unclear. Materials and Methods: In this study, 62 cases who were operated due to endometrial carcinoma were investigated between 2003 and 2011 in the the gynecological oncology clinic of Female Disease Training and Investigation Hospital of Etlik Zubeyde, Hanim, Turkey. Clinical and surgical prognostic factors were investigated by screening the records of these cases. With the standard streptavidin-biotin immune peroxidase method, cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin was investigated in sections with specific antibodies (1:100, diagnostic Bio Systems, USA) primer. The aim was to elucidate any relation between survivin expression and defined prognostic factors and survival. Results: There was no statistically significant relationship between cytoplasmic and nuclear indexes identified for survivin and age, body mass index, the levels of preoperative hemoglobin, platelet and Ca 125, stage, grade, lymph node meastasis, the number of meta statical lymph nodes (total, paraaortic and pelvic), myometrial invasion, serosal invasion, adnexal involvement, the presence of acid in the first diagnosis, the involvement of omentum, the adjuvant treatment application of the cases, the presence of recurrence and rate of mortality (p>0.05). Statistical significance was noted for the presence of advanced stage lymph node metastasis (pelvic, paraaortic, pelvic and paraaortic), serosal involvement, positive cytology, lymph vascular space invasion, intra abdominal metastasis, and omentum involvement. When investigated the relation between cytoplasmic and nuclear survivin indexes and total survival, the result was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: In our study, there was no statistically significant relationship between the rates of cytoplasmic and nuclear survivin expression with identified prognostic factors and total or non-disease survival.
In this study, the effects of combined utilization of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) in bitumen modification and fly ash in modification of mixtures on the mechanical properties of hot mix asphalts were investigated. Within the scope of this study, 12different mixtures were obtained by combination of three different proportions of SBS additive relative to the total bitumen mass (0,3 and 6 wt.%) with four different proportions of fly ash replacement relative to the total aggregate mass (0, 2, 4 and 6 wt.%). As a result of these tests, the use of fly ash was found to reduce the Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC), while the use of SBS increased the OBC. It was determined that the individual utilization of SBS and fly ash improved the stability of the mixtures, resilience at normal temperatures, resistance against moisture-induced damage, fatigue life and strength against permanent deformation. In addition, it was found that using only SBS in bitumen modification at 3 wt.% without using fly ash and the use of only fly ash as filler at a proportion of 6 wt.% with pure bitumen yielded similar results. The combined usage of SBS and fly ash was ascertained to boost the associated positive effects, while a comparison of separate additions showed that SBS is more effective than fly ash. Besides, it was also detected that as the SBS content in the mixture increased, the effectiveness of fly ash decreased.
Multiple hazards (multihazard) conditions may cause significant risk to structures that are originally designed for individual hazard scenarios. Such a multihazard condition arises when an earthquake strikes to a bridge pre-exposed to scour at foundations due to flood events. This study estimates the impact spectrum of flood-induced scour on seismic vulnerability of bridges. Characteristic river-crossing highway bridges are formed based on the information obtained from bridge inventories. These bridges are analyzed under earthquake-only and the abovementioned multihazard conditions, and bridge fragility curves are developed at component and system levels. Research outcome shows that bridges having pile shafts as foundation elements are protected from any additional seismic vulnerability due to the presence of scour. However, occurrence of floods can increase seismic fragility of bridges at lower damage states due to the adverse impact of scour on bridge components at superstructure level. These findings facilitate bridge design under the stated multihazard condition.
Stringent starvation protein A (SspA) is a glutathione S-transferase homolog. In this study, his6-tagged SspA from Escherischia coli has been cloned and over-expressed. SspA binds glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, the substrates for glutathione S-transferases, with the dissociation constants as 225.0?±?34.4 ?M and 75.3?±?4.3 ?M, respectively. This observation is contradictory to the previous report that SspA, lacking glutathione S-transferase activity, does not bind glutathione. It has been reported that SspA is an RNA polymerase-associated transcription factor and that a functional relA gene is required for SspA to affect gene expression. A function of relA is to synthesize ppGpp, a global regulator in replication, transcription, and translation. This study shows for the first time that SspA binds ppGpp with the dissociation of constants of 109.1?±?7.2 ?M. This study may provide an insight why relA is required for regulating gene expression by SspA.
The objective of this paper is to present an energy-based method for calculating target displacement of RC structures. The method, which uses the Newmark-Hall pseudo-velocity spectrum, is called the “Pseudo-velocity Spectrum (PSVS) Method”. The method is based on the energy balance concept that uses the equality of energy demand and energy capacity of the structure. First, nonlinear static analyses are performed for five, eight and ten-story RC frame structures and pushover curves are obtained. Then the pushover curves are converted to energy capacity diagrams. Seven strong ground motions that were recorded at different soil sites in Turkey are used to obtain the pseudo-acceleration and the pseudo-velocity response spectra. Later, the response spectra are idealised with the Newmark-Hall approximation. Afterwards, energy demands for the RC structures are calculated using the idealised pseudo-velocity spectrum. The displacements, obtained from the energy capacity diagrams that fit to the energy demand values of the RC structures, are accepted as the energy-based performance point of the structures. Consequently, the target displacement values determined from the PSVS Method are checked using the displacement-based successive approach in the Turkish Seismic Design Code. The results show that the target displacements of RC frame structures obtained from the PSVS Method are very close to the values calculated by the approach given in the Turkish Seismic Design Code.
The exact etiology of the coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is not certain. CSFP is not a normal variant as it is an absolutely patho -logical entity. Furthermore, CSFP not only leads to myocardial ischemia but it can also cause classical acute ST elevation myocardial in-farction, which necessitates coronary angiography for a definite diagnosis.
In this study, modified bitumens were prepared by mixing two types of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS-D and SBS-M) and Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) with B 160/220 base bitumen 3% by weight. The short- and long-term aging processes were applied to base and modified binders with rolling thin film oven test and pressure aging vessel, respectively. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test conducted at different temperatures and frequencies showed that while the shear complex modulus (G*) of unaged, short- and long-term aged binders reduced, the phase angle (δ) of those increased. The shear complex modulus values increased and the phase angle values decreased by the effect of aging and increase in frequency. The G*/sinδ values increased with the addition of modifiers to the base bitumen. Comparison of modifiers demonstrated that the effective modifier type shows variety according to frequency, temperature and aging conditions.
This paper presents a comprehensive work on determination of yield base shear coefficient and displacement ductility factor of three to eight story actual reinforced concrete buildings, instead of using generic frames. The building data is provided by a walkdown survey in different locations of the pilot areas. Very detailed three dimensional models of the selected buildings are generated by using the data provided in architectural and reinforcement projects. Capacity curves of the buildings are obtained from nonlinear static pushover analyses and each capacity curve is approximated with a bilinear curve. Characteristic points of capacity curve, the yield base shear capacity, the yield displacement and the ultimate displacement capacity, are determined. The calculated values of the yield base shear coefficients and the displacement ductility factors for directions into consideration are compared by those expected values given in different versions of Turkish Seismic Design Code. Although having sufficient lateral strength capacities, the deformation capacities of these typical mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings are found to be considerably low.
In current seismic design codes, various elastic design acceleration spectra are defined considering different seismological and soil characteristics and are widely used tool for calculation of seismic loads acting on structures. Response spectrum analyses directly use the elastic design acceleration spectra whereas time history analyses use acceleration records of earthquakes whose acceleration spectra fit the design spectra of seismic codes. Due to the fact that obtaining coherent structural response quantities with the seismic design code considerations is a desired circumstance in dynamic analyses, the response spectra of earthquake records used in time history analyses had better fit to the design acceleration spectra of seismic codes. This paper evaluates structural response distributions of multi-story reinforced concrete frames obtained from nonlinear time history analyses which are performed by using the scaled earthquake records compatible with various elastic design spectra. Time domain scaling procedure is used while processing the response spectrum of real accelerograms to fit the design acceleration spectra. The elastic acceleration design spectra of Turkish Seismic Design Code 2007, Uniform Building Code 1997 and Eurocode 8 are considered as target spectra in the scaling procedure. Soil classes in different seismic codes are appropriately matched up with each other according to VS30 values. The maximum roof displacements and the total base shears of considered frame structures are determined from nonlinear time history analyses using the scaled earthquake records and the results are presented by graphs and tables. Coherent structural response quantities reflecting the influence of elastic design spectra of various seismic codes are obtained.