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        일반논문 : 정정렬제 최승희<춘향가> "광한루 풍경" 대목의 음군(音群)과 사설 및 시김새의 상호관계에 관한 연구 - 김소희 <춘향가> "적성가" 대목과의 비교 분석을 중심으로-

        유선미 ( Sun Mi You ) 판소리학회 2011 판소리연구 Vol.0 No.31

        판소리는 문학적인 사설과 음악적인 소리가 만나서 이루어진 우리나라 고유의 음악장르이다. 문학인 사설을 지어내려면 어떤 이야기를 지을 것인지 생각하고, 그에 맞는 주제를 찾고, 그 주제를 어떻게 풀어갈 것인지 전개방식을 선택하여 이야기를 엮어가는 것이다. 그리하여 하나하나의 단락들이 만들어지고 이어나가면서 커다란 사설이 완성되어 지는 것이다. 음악적인 소리는 주어진 사설에 음을 사용하며 선율을 만들어 나간다. 판소리에서 주어진 사설에 무슨 음을 사용하여 어떻게 엮어 음악을 만들어 가는 것인지를 살펴보는 것은 중요한 연구 과제라 생각한다. 따라서 본 연구는 판소리의 최소한의 선율을 이루는 음군과 사설 및 시김새의 상호관계를 분석하여 판소리 악보의 독창성과 즉흥성의 핵심요인을 분석하는데 목적이 있다. 본고에서는 오용록이 제시한 동적(動的)음계론의 ``음군(音群)``이라는 개념을 적용하여 정정렬제 최승희<춘향가>中 ``광한루 풍경`` 대목의 한 단락에서 사용되는 ``음군(音群)``을 분석해 보았다. 더불어 이 음군들과 판소리 사설과의 상관관계, 그리고 음군과 시김새의 상관관계를 고찰하여 본 결과 다음과 같은 결론에 도달했다, 첫째, 정정렬제 최승희의 ``광한루 풍경``은 사설의 내용이 동편·북편·서편·남편의 방향 풍경을 나열하여 설명한 것으로 사설 내용은 4단락으로 구분지어 볼 수 있으나 선율음으로 보면 3단락으로 나누어진다. 제1단락(제1~5각)의 음군은 미-솔(도섭선율), 미-레, 미-솔, 레-솔이고, 제2단락(제6~8각)의 음군은 미-솔(도섭선율), 미-도이며, 제3단락(제9~14각)의 음군은 미-솔(도섭선율), 미-솔-레, 레-도, 미-라, 미-레(당겨 붙인 선율), 미-도, 도-솔(1장 종지선율)이다. 둘째, 음군은 장단의 각과는 상관없고 사설의 구절에 따라 2음이나 3음이 붙는다. 다시 말하면 사설의 1음보에 음군 하나가 붙어 최소 선율 골격을 이루고 여기에 가변음이 붙어 소리선율을 엮어간다. 음군과 가변음으로 엮어진 소리 선율음의 앞이나 뒤에 붙어서 덩어리를 이루는 시김새는 창자가 사설의 어감이나 음악적 느낌을 가락이나 표현기교로 나타내는 것이다. 이상과 같이 판소리의 음군은 사설과 밀접한 관계를 갖고 있으며 시김새 붙임에 따라 다른 창자와는 구별되는 모습을 갖게 된다. 따라서 판소리에서 음악 이야기를 엮어가는 최소선율 음군과 시김새 음군을 이해함으로써 남이 따라갈 수 없는 그 사람만의 특징을 지니는 독창적인 소리의 멋을 표현할 수 있을 것이다. Pansori is the unique genre of Korean traditional music, composed of literary lyrics and musical melodies. Composing this literary lyrics includes how to design the story, find its theme, and develop it. From these processes, as one paragraph is connected with the next paragraph. one story of Pansori can be completed. The melodies related in these lyrics are created using musical notes. Thus it is important to examine what are the notes used in the melodies and how these sounds are composed for the story. Therefore, this study aims to analyze ``Eumgun``, the minimum unit of the melodies, Sigimsae and the lyrics of Pansori. This study analyzed ``Eumgun``, the tonal group used in one paragraph of ``Kwanghan-nu scenery`` part in the Pansori <Chunhyangga> of Choi, Seung Hee Jeong, Jeong Ryeol je quoting ``Eumgun``, ``tonal group`` of dynamic scale theory called by Oh, Yong Nok. In addition, this paper focused on the interrelation between ``Eumgun``, and the lyrics, and Sigimsae of the Pansori. The followings are resulted from this study. ■ ``Kwanghan-nu scenery`` of Choi, Seung Hee Jeong, Jeong Ryeol je is composed of three Eumgun of the first <mi, sol / mi-re, mi-sol, re-sol>, the second <mi-sol, mi-do>, the third, <mi-sol, mi-sol-re, re-do, mi-la, mi-re, mi-do, do-sol> around mi as compared with the lyrics that mean the east side·the north side·the west side·the south side of Kwanghan-nu scenery. ■ The Eumgun of Pansori is constructed by 2 or 3 notes according to the passage of its lyrics regardless of the gak of Jangdan. As one Eumgun is attached to one passage of the lyrics, it comprises the minimum melody unit, and additional notes develop it. These Eumgun and additional notes organize the melody lines of the lyrics and then Sigimsae is added around them. Sigimsae is used to express the connotation of the lyrics and feel of the singer. Although Choi, Seung Hee and Kim, So Hee use same tonal group in this Pansori, they have different musical form because of using different Sigimsae. Consequently, Eumgun in Pansori is closely related with its lyrics. Although same Eumgun is used, the characteristics of singers can be distinguished according to using different Sigimsae. This paper verified that through using the different Eumgun and Sigimsae in pansori, the creativities of singers can be examined and understood.

      • KCI등재

        일장기(日章旗)와 불교의 상관관계

        천선미(Chun, Sun Mi) 동아시아일본학회 2014 일본문화연구 Vol.0 No.51

        This study examines the relationship between the national flag of Japan and Buddhism. Prince Sh?toku, who made Japan a Buddhist nation and sought to establish it as a sound and independent nation, chose the sun, signifying Vairocana, as the national symbol and ‘日ノ本, meaning the source of the sun, as the name of the country. The historical records of Japan written in the 8th century, 『Kojiki』 and 『Nihon Shoki』, presented the origin myth of the nation for the first time, and the sun was used as a major symbol. Considering the time these records were written, the sun symbol was most certainly influenced by Buddhism. In addition, sun patterns had been used on the Japanese commemorative day and regarded as a talisman for the safety of noblemen since the Heian period, well before one was used in the national flag. This was because a sect of Buddhism, Shingon Buddhism, thought to have incorporated incantations or mysterious miracles, was widespread at the time, and the sun symbols of their central Buddha Mah?vairocana were therefore imitated. Sun patterns spread more widely during the Edo period, being used even in everyday objects and in a variety of colors. However, the important point is that the red sun pattern, which is now on the national flag of Japan, was a talisman, featuring a sacred color. Conclusively, sun patterns had been seen by the Japanese as guardians for individuals and the nation, well before they were used in the national flag. What is notable is that the sun patterns in Japan began under the influence of Korea Buddhism, which was introduced to Japan in the 6th century from Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla.

      • KCI등재후보

        백서 심근경색모델에서 시간경과와 경색의 크기에 따른 심자도의 변화

        김동운,김미성,박영선,이용호,오광식,권혁찬,신종성,지정훈,양용모,조명찬,권순길,연태진 대한내과학회 2002 대한내과학회지 Vol.62 No.1

        Background: Magnetocardiogram (MCG), which records the changes of magnetic fields generated by the heart`s electrical activity, theoritically can provide unique data for clinical application. To date, MCG has been investigated only at a single time point after myocardial infarction (MI) with severe left ventricular dysfunction in rats. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sequential changes of MCG after MI and to evaluate effects of infarct size on MCG. Methods: Acute MI were induced by the permanent ligation of left coronary artery in 22 rats. Magnetic fields were recorded just above a rat with Nb Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) gradiometer inside a magnetically shielded room. MCG was measured before and immediately after surgery and it was subsequently recorded at the time points of 1, 4 and 6 hours post operatively. MCG was also measured at 1, 3, 7 and 21 days after surgery. Results: Elevation of ST segment and appearance of pathological Q wave on the MCG were evident immediately after the ligation of coronary artery and persisted to 6 hours after MI. On MCG, ST segment was depressed and T wave was inverted from 1 day after MI. In rats with small-and moderate- sized MI (infarct size〈30%), ST depression returned to near the isoelectric level and Q wave disappeared from 7 days after MI. However, ST depression and Q wave were still present in rats with larger infarct (infarct size≥30%). Conclusion: Evolutional changes of MCG were well-recognized up to 21 days after MI. Furthermore, the infarct size can be expressed by the extent of Q wave and ST segment depression on MCG. Taken together, these data indicate that MCG is a helpful modality for the diagnosis, evaluation of infarct size and follow up after MI.(Korean J Med 62:42-48, 2002)

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재후보

        심근경색 모델 흰쥐에서 스트레스가 B-type Natriuretic Peptide 발현 및 심박변이율 변화에 미치는 영향

        이삼윤(Sam Youn Lee), 이미경(Mi Kyoung Lee), 김남호(Nam-ho Kim), 주민철(Min Cheol Joo), 조항정(Hyang Jeong Jo), 강지숙(Ji Sook Kang), 김병숙(Byung Sook Kim), 윤선식(Sun Sik Yoon), 최을식(Eul Sig Choi), 이문영(Moon Young Lee) 대한스트레스학회 2010 스트레스硏究 Vol.18 No.3

        심박변이율의 감소는 심근 경색 환자에서 예후의 악화와 관련되어 있다. 심박변이율 중 very low frequency가 심부전환자의 예후를 판단할 수 있는 독립적 인자로서 사용이 가능하다고 보고된 바 있으며, 심실의 압력 증가에 반응해서 생성되는 B-type natriuretic peptide가 심근 경색의 예후 인자로서 사용할 수 있음 역시 보고된 바 있다. 본 연구에서는 심근경색 모델을 제작하여 일정의 회복 기간을 거친 다음 다시 일정 기간의 스트레스를 겪게 한 후 심박변이율의 변화 및 심실 조직에서의 BNP 발현 정도를 비교하여 스트레스에 의한 영향을 관찰하고자 하였다. Sprague-Dawley계 수컷 흰쥐 15마리를 대상으로 하였다. 실험동물은 인위적 스트레스 및 수술을 받지 않은 대조군(CON, n=5), 심근경색 수술을 받은 후 restraint stress를 받지 않은 군(MI+No Stress, n=5), 심근경색 수술을 받은 후 1주일 동안 restraint stress를 받은 군(MI+Stress, n=5)으로 분류하였다. 심근경색 모델 제작 직후 15분 이상 심전도의 변화를 기록하였으며, 2개월 정도 후 심근경색 수술을 받은 동물을 두 군으로 나누어 그 중 한 군에는 1주일 동안 restraint stress를 가한 후 restraint stress를 가하지 않은 동물과 심박변이율을 비교 분석하였다. 심실 조직은 좌심실 전벽 부위의 위축을 관찰할 수 있었고, 대식세포에 의하여 응고, 괴사된 심근세포의 탐식과 혈관이 풍부한 육아조직 및 섬유 변화를 볼 수 있었다. 심박변이율은 심근경색 수술을 받은 직후 심박수는 유의한 증가를 보였고, standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals (SDNN), very low frequency (VLF) 및 low frequency (LF)의 유의한 감소를 보였다. 심근경색 수술을 받았던 동물에서 두 달 정도의 회복 기간을 거친 후 스트레스를 받지 않은 군은 심박수 및 기타 심박변이율 분석에서 SDNN 값을 제외하고는 정상군과 유의한 차이를 관찰할 수 없었던 반면 1주일 동안 스트레스를 받은 군에서는 심박수가 다시 유의하게 증가했을 뿐만 아니라 SDNN, VLF 및 LF 역시 정상군과 유의한 차이를 보였다. 이상의 결과를 종합하면 심근경색 동물에 대해 1주일 동안 스트레스를 가한 결과 심박변이율이 감소하고 심실에서의 BNP 발현은 더욱 증가하여 악화함을 보여주고 있다. Diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with less favorable prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI). It has been reported that very low frequency (VLF) power in HRV analysis is an independent risk predictor in patients with congestive heart failure and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can be used as a prognostic factor of MI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stress has an effect to the changes of BNP expression and/or heart rate variability in MI model in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (CON), MI group (MI+No Stress), and MI followed by stress group (MI+Stress). MI+Stress group rats were raised for a two month recovery period after the operation, followed by being exposed to restraint stress for 2 hours per day for 1 week. Electrocardiogram was recorded after the operation and the last day after 1 week of stress. The frequency components of HRV were calculated in the frequency domain such as VLF, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and so on. In HRV analysis, standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals (SDNN) was significantly reduced in both groups compared to the control group. VLF and LF also were significantly reduced in MI+Stress group compared to the control groups. In addition, BNP expression in western blotting was shown the strongest bands in MI+ Stress group among experimental groups. These results suggest that BNP and HRV were aggravated by stress in MI rat model. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:275∼285)

      • KCI등재

        Reliability of Hip Migration Index in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Classic and Modifi ed Methods

        Sun,Mi,Kim,박은숙,Eun,Geol,Sim,Seong,Gyu,Lim 대한재활의학회 2012 Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine Vol.36 No.1

        Objective To determine reliability and clinical use of two methods of migration index (MI) in CP patients with or without hip dysplasia. Method The materials included radiographs of 200 hips of children with cerebral palsy. Conventional anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were taken with the child in the supine position with standardized methods. Two rehabilitation doctors measured the migration index using two methods. In the classic method,the lateral margin of the acetabular roof was used as a landmark and in the modifi ed method the lateral margin of the sourcil was used as a landmark. Each rater measured the migration index at three separate times with a time interval of at least one week. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to test the inter- and intra-rater reliability. Results MI shows excellent intra-rater reliability in both the classic and modified methods, but the inter-rater reliability was higher in the classic method than in the modified method. When categorized according to the sourcil classifi cation, inter-rater reliability was higher in the normal sourcil type and lower in the dysplastic sourcil types. Conclusion Generally, the classic method showed higher reliability than the modifi ed method, even though the reliability of the MI measurement was relatively high with both methods. Objective To determine reliability and clinical use of two methods of migration index (MI) in CP patients with or without hip dysplasia. Method The materials included radiographs of 200 hips of children with cerebral palsy. Conventional anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were taken with the child in the supine position with standardized methods. Two rehabilitation doctors measured the migration index using two methods. In the classic method,the lateral margin of the acetabular roof was used as a landmark and in the modifi ed method the lateral margin of the sourcil was used as a landmark. Each rater measured the migration index at three separate times with a time interval of at least one week. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to test the inter- and intra-rater reliability. Results MI shows excellent intra-rater reliability in both the classic and modified methods, but the inter-rater reliability was higher in the classic method than in the modified method. When categorized according to the sourcil classifi cation, inter-rater reliability was higher in the normal sourcil type and lower in the dysplastic sourcil types. Conclusion Generally, the classic method showed higher reliability than the modifi ed method, even though the reliability of the MI measurement was relatively high with both methods.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Original Articles : Comparison of Melanoma Subtypes among Korean Patients by Morphologic Features and Ultraviolet Exposure

        ( Hong Sun Jang ), ( Jee Hung Kim ), ( Kyu Hyun Park ), ( Jae Seok Lee ), ( Jung Min Bae ), ( Byung Ho Oh ), ( Sun Young Rha ), ( Mi Ryung Roh ), ( Kee Yang Chung ) 대한피부과학회 2014 Annals of Dermatology Vol.26 No.4

        Background: Genetic alterations have been identified in melanomas according to different levels of sun exposure. Whereas the conventional morphology-based classification provides a clue for tumor growth and prognosis, the new classification by genetic alterations offers a basis for targeted therapy. Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the biological behavior of melanoma subtypes and compare the two classifications in the Korean population. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients found to have malignant melanoma in Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2012. Age, sex, location of the tumor, histologic subtype, tumor depth, ulceration, lymph node invasion, visceral organ metastasis, and overall survival were evaluated. Results: Of the 206 cases, the most common type was acral melanoma (n=94, 45.6%), followed by nonchronic sun damage-induced melanoma (n=43, 20.9%), and mucosal melanoma (n=40, 19.4%). Twenty-one patients (10.2%) had the chronic sun-damaged type, whereas eight patients (3.9%) had tumors of unknown primary origin. Lentigo maligna melanoma was newly classified as the chronic sun-damaged type, and acral lentiginous melanoma as the acral type. More than half of the superficial spreading melanomas were newly grouped as nonchronic sun-damaged melanomas, whereas nodular melanoma was rather evenly distributed. Conclusion: The distribution of melanomas was largely similar in both the morphology-based and sun exposure-based classifications, and in both classifications, mucosal melanoma had the worst 5-year survival owing to its tumor thickness and advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. (Ann Dermatol 26(4) 485~490, 2014)

      • KCI등재SSCISCOPUS

        Brief Screening for Four Mental Illnesses of the Elderly in Community Mental Health Services: the BS4MI-Elderly

        Yun,Kyeong,Seon,Moon,Bong-Goon,Park,Miae,Kim,Seong-Ju,Shin,Yunmi,Cho,Sun,Mi,Noh,Jai,Sung,Lim,Ki-Young,Chung,Young-Ki,Son,Sang,Joon,Roh,Hyun,Woong,Hong,Chang,Hyung 대한신경정신의학회 2020 PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION Vol.17 No.5

        Objective Early detection and proper management of mental illness can help to prevent severe deterioration. However, with limited financial and human resources of community mental health services, it is not practical to carry out all conventional screening tools simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a brief but comprehensive screening questionnaire for four common mental illnesses of the elderly. Methods The brief screening for four mental illnesses of elderly (BS4MI-elderly) is a 14-item binary response questionnaire that covers dementia, depressive disorder, sleep disorder, and hwa-byung. To test validity, we compared conventional scale scores for three groups of participants classified using the BS4MI-elderly. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive test, likelihood ratio of positive test and internal consistency of the BS4MI-elderly were assessed. Finally, a correlation analysis between the BS4MI-elderly and general mental health scales was conducted. Results A total of 254 participants aged over 65 years were recruited. The BS4MI-elderly showed moderate to high sensitivity for the test that distinguishes the normal group from the risk and disorder groups (dementia: 0.61, depressive disorder: 0.88, sleep disorder: 0.85, hwa-byung: 0.94) and high specificity for the test that distinguishes the disorder group from the normal and risk groups (dementia: 0.91, depressive disorder: 0.93, hwa-byung: 0.84, sleep disorder: 0.84). The BS4MI-elderly also exhibited good internal consistency and significant correlations with general mental health scales. Conclusion The BS4MI-elderly, a brief but comprehensive screening tool, could be a useful instrument for screening the elderly in community mental health services.

      • SCIESSCISCOPUSKCI등재

        Brief Screening for Four Mental Illnesses of the Elderly in Community Mental Health Services: the BS4MI-Elderly

        Kyeong,Seon,Yun,Bong-Goon,Moon,Miae,Park,Seong-Ju,Kim,Yunmi,Shin,Sun,Mi,Cho,Jai,Sung,Noh,Ki-Young,Lim,Young-Ki,Chung,Sang,Joon,Son,Hyun,Woong,Roh,Chang,Hyung,Hong 대한신경정신의학회 2020 PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION Vol.17 No.5

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Objective Early detection and proper management of mental illness can help to prevent severe deterioration. However, with limited financial and human resources of community mental health services, it is not practical to carry out all conventional screening tools simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a brief but comprehensive screening questionnaire for four common mental illnesses of the elderly. Methods The brief screening for four mental illnesses of elderly (BS4MI-elderly) is a 14-item binary response questionnaire that covers dementia, depressive disorder, sleep disorder, and hwa-byung. To test validity, we compared conventional scale scores for three groups of participants classified using the BS4MI-elderly. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive test, likelihood ratio of positive test and internal consistency of the BS4MI-elderly were assessed. Finally, a correlation analysis between the BS4MI-elderly and general mental health scales was conducted. Results A total of 254 participants aged over 65 years were recruited. The BS4MI-elderly showed moderate to high sensitivity for the test that distinguishes the normal group from the risk and disorder groups (dementia: 0.61, depressive disorder: 0.88, sleep disorder: 0.85, hwa-byung: 0.94) and high specificity for the test that distinguishes the disorder group from the normal and risk groups (dementia: 0.91, depressive disorder: 0.93, hwa-byung: 0.84, sleep disorder: 0.84). The BS4MI-elderly also exhibited good internal consistency and significant correlations with general mental health scales. Conclusion The BS4MI-elderly, a brief but comprehensive screening tool, could be a useful instrument for screening the elderly in community mental health services.

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