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      • The Ca<sup>2+</sup> Channel TRPML3 Regulates Membrane Trafficking and Autophagy

        Kim, Hyun Jin,Soyombo, Abigail A.,Tjon-Kon-Sang, Sandra,So, Insuk,Muallem, Shmuel Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2009 Traffic Vol.10 No.8

        <P><B>TRPML3 is an inward rectifying Ca<SUP>2+</SUP> channel that is regulated by extracytosolic H<SUP>+</SUP>. Although gain-of-function mutation in TRPML3 causes the varitint-waddler phenotype, the role of TRPML3 in cellular physiology is not known. In this study, we report that TRPML3 is a prominent regulator of endocytosis, membrane trafficking and autophagy. Gradient fractionation and confocal localization reveal that TRPML3 is expressed in the plasma membrane and multiple intracellular compartments. However, expression of TRPML3 is dynamic, with accumulation of TRPML3 in the plasma membrane upon inhibition of endocytosis, and recruitment of TRPML3 to autophagosomes upon induction of autophagy. Accordingly, overexpression of TRPML3 leads to reduced constitutive and regulated endocytosis, increased autophagy and marked exacerbation of autophagy evoked by various cell stressors with nearly complete recruitment of TRPML3 into the autophagosomes. Importantly, both knockdown of TRPML3 by siRNA and expression of the channel-dead dominant negative TRPML3(D458K) have a reciprocal effect, reducing endocytosis and autophagy. These findings reveal a prominent role for TRPML3 in regulating endocytosis, membrane trafficking and autophagy, perhaps by controlling the Ca<SUP>2+</SUP> in the vicinity of cellular organelles that is necessary to regulate these cellular events.</B></P>

      • A novel mode of TRPML3 regulation by extracytosolic pH absent in the varitint-waddler phenotype

        Kim, Hyun Jin,Li, Qin,Tjon-Kon-Sang, Sandra,So, Insuk,Kiselyov, Kirill,Soyombo, Abigail A,Muallem, Shmuel Wiley (John WileySons) 2008 The EMBO journal Vol.27 No.8

        <P>TRPML3 belongs to the TRPML subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The A419P mutation in TRPML3 causes the varitint-waddler phenotype as a result of gain-of-function mutation (GOF). Regulation of the channels and the mechanism by which the A419P mutation leads to GOF are not known. We report here that TRPML3 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel with a unique form of regulation by extracytosolic (luminal) H(+) (H(+)(e-cyto)). Regulation by H(+)(e-cyto) is mediated by a string of three histidines (H252, H273, H283) in the large extracytosolic loop between transmembrane domains (TMD) 1 and 2. Each of the histidines has a unique role, whereby H252 and H273 retard access of H(+)(e-cyto) to the inhibitory H283. Notably, the H283A mutation has the same phenotype as A419P and locks the channel in an open state, whereas the H283R mutation inactivates the channel. Accordingly, A419P eliminates regulation of TRPML3 by H(+)(e-cyto), and confers full activation to TRPML3(H283R). Activation of TRPML3 and regulation by H(+)(e-cyto) are altered by both the alpha-helix-destabilizing A419G and the alpha-helix-favouring A419M and A419K. These findings suggest that regulation of TRPML3 by H(+)(e-cyto) is due to an effect of the large extracytosolic loop on the orientation of fifth TMD and thus pore opening and show that the GOF of TRPML3(A419P) is due to disruption of this communication.</P>

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