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Objective : Several modalities are available for volumetric measurement ofthe intracranial aneurysm. We discuss the challenges involved in manualsegmentation, and analyze the application of alternative methods usingautomatic segmentation and geometric formulae in measurement of aneurysmvolumes and coil packing density. Methods : The volumes and morphology of 38 aneurysms treated withendovascular coiling at a single center were measured using three-dimensionalrotational angiography (3DRA) reconstruction software using automaticsegmentation. Aneurysm volumes were also calculated from theirheight, width, depth, size of neck, and assumed shape in 3DRA imagesusing simple geometric formulae. The aneurysm volumes were dichotomizedas "small" or "large" using the median volume of the studied population(54 mm3) measured by automatic segmentation as the cut-off valuefor further statistical analysis. Results : A greater proportion of aneurysms were categorized as being"small" when geometric formulae were applied. The median aneurysm volumesobtained were 54.5 mm3 by 3DRA software, and 30.6 mm3 usingmathematical equations. An underestimation of aneurysm volume with aresultant overestimation in the calculated coil packing density (p = 0.002)was observed. Conclusion : Caution must be exercised in the application of simple geometricformulae in the management of intracranial aneurysms as volumesmay potentially be underestimated and packing densities falsely elevated. Future research should focus on validation of automatic segmentation involumetric measurement and improving its accuracy to enhance its applicationin clinical practice.
The first category of Affective Domain objectives in Bloom's Taxonomy is about "Receiving". In it, the first subdivision listed is "Awareness" (Krathwohl, Bloom & Masia, 1964). Since these categories are intended to be hierarchical in ascending order of internalization, it is important that young learners be given ample opportunities in their learning experiences in class to be aware of positive values and effective life skills. This paper reports a feasibility study on the adoption of an integrative cognitive-affective learning approach in a primary school science lesson. 37 primary six students in a Singapore primary school were taught the concept of centre of gravity, including a hands-on activity to find the centre of gravity of an irregularly shaped cardboard by using a plumbline. After reviewing how a plumbline works, their teacher then led them into a discussion on the question "Who is the plumbline in your life?" a reference to identifying positive role models in their lives. From the transcript of the students' in-class sharing and their written responses to the question, it is clear that the integrative cognitive-affective learning approach did enable students to present their ideas and learning experiences in the affective domain quite readily. This conclusion provides a valuable lead to a follow-up project on whether students who are exposed to such integrative learning approaches will be more capable and more aware of identifying important positive social habits or values. If so, then the teaching of values in schools could take on a whole new dimension, that of borrowing students' learning energy in the cognitive domain to learn values and life skills in the affective domain.
Background The mandible is an important structure that is located in the lower third of the face. Large mandibular defects after tumor resection cause loss of its function. This study assessed the outcomes and tumor recurrence after immediate mandibular reconstruction using a free fibula osteocutaneous flap following radical resection of ameloblastoma. Methods This is a retrospective non-randomized study of outcomes and tumor recurrence of all patients diagnosed with mandibular ameloblastoma from August 1997 until August 2017 (20 years) requiring free fibula osteocutaneous flap reconstruction at a single institution. The patients were identified through an electronic operative database; subsequently, their medical records and photo documentation were retrieved. Results Twenty-seven patients were included in this study. Eighteen patients were male, while nine were female. The majority of the patients (48.1%) were in their third decade of life when they were diagnosed with ameloblastoma. All of them underwent radical resection of the tumor with a surgical margin of 2 cm (hemimandibulectomy in cases with a large tumor) and immediate mandibular reconstruction with a free fibula osteocutaneous flap. Two patients required revision of a vascular anastomosis due to venous thrombosis postoperatively, while one patient developed a flap recipient site infection. The flap success rate was 100%. There was no tumor recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 5.6 years. Conclusions Mandibular ameloblastoma should be treated with segmental mandibulectomy (with a surgical margin of 2 cm) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Subsequent mandibular and adjacent soft tissue defects should be reconstructed immediately with a free fibula osteocutaneous flap.
Mammary Paget's disease is clinically defined as skin inflammation of the nipple area and is an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis of the nipple. The pathogenesis of mammary Paget's disease is relatively unknown; nonetheless, there are two popular theories that support the underlying carcinoma and de novo carcinogenesis. For the attend-ing medical practitioner, mammary Paget's disease poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, especially in the absence of a clinically palpable breast mass. We report a rare case of a 48-year-old Malay woman who presented at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia with the symptom of skin erosion on the left nipple and un-responsiveness to multiple topical treatments. A full evaluation and assessment of the patient were conducted, and mammary Paget's disease was diagnosed.
Optimization of Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Defatted Flax Seed Cake (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using Microwave-assisted and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Technologies with Response Surface Methodology
Use of microwave and pulsed electric field (PEF) technologies for optimization of polyphenol extraction from defatted flax seed cake was attempted using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Polyphenols were extracted after microwave or PEF treatments using ultrasound under fixed variables of 200 W of ultrasonic power, a 70℃ water bath, and 20 min of extraction time. Measured responses were total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power activities. Maximum yields of all responses were achieved under optimum conditions for microwave processing=5 min, a liquid to solid ratio=6, and at 644 W, and for PEF-assisted extraction for 30 V at 30 Hz with a 10% ethanol concentration, and a treatment time=10 s. Under optimized microwave or PEF processing conditions, yields of polyphenols from defatted seed cake were maximized.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) up to now are the most researched materials of the 21st century with an international intention of growing industrial quantities due to their superior properties for use in many applications. Thus far large quantities of carbon nanotube scan be grown in a continuous manner by both arc as well as chemical vapour deposition methods. In this paper, an innovative approach of feeding gases, a carbon precursor (solid or gases) and a catalyst into the reaction zone is reviewed. This is followed by a study of the reaction process concerning how the method is initiated, the effect of growth environment and catalyst on CNTs as well as the dischargingmechanism for the final carbon products. A study of the arc method consists of a novel way of growing CNTs in a liquid solution from an arc discharge generated by carbon rods, by growing CNTs in a plasma zone using carbon gases or solid carbon and a more direct method of using carbon tape as the anode for the synthesized source are also reported. In the case of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, some use a horizontal reactor and some use a vertical reactor with all having different installed devices for use in continuous feeding and discharging of resources and products respectively. Additionally, problems regarding the CNT yield and some issues that have not been taken into consideration by others, are discussed. At the end of the review, an additional mechanism to integrate catalyst preparation and carbon nanotube purification into the current research synthesizing process for future study is proposed for a highly productive continuous CNT synthesis process.