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      • Hormone Receptor, HER2/NEU and EGFR Expression in Ovarian Carcinoma - is here a Prognostic Phenotype?

        Demir,,Lutfiye,Yigit,,Seyran,Sadullahoglu,,Canan,Akyol,,Murat,Cokmert,,Suna,Kucukzeybek,,Yuksel,Alacacioglu,,Ahmet,Cakalagaoglu,,Fulya,Tarhan,,Mustafa,Oktay Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.22

        Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effects of hormone receptor, HER2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) prognosis and investigate whether or not phenotypic subtypes might exist. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 82 patients who were diagnosed with EOC between 2003 and 2012 and treated by platinum-based chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Expression of EGFR, oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and cerbB2 (HER2) receptors were assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded tissues of these patients. Three phenotypic subtypes were defined according to ER, PR, and HER2 expression and associations of these with EGFR expression, clinicopathologic features, platinum sensitivity, and survival were investigated. Results: When we classified EOC patients into three subtypes, 63.4% had hormone receptor positive (HR(+)) (considering breast cancer subtypes, luminal A), 18.3% had triple negative, and 18.3% had HER2(+) disease. EGFR positivity was observed in 37 patients (45.1%) and was significantly more frequent with advanced disease (p=0.013). However, no significant association with other clinicopathologic features and platinum sensitivity was observed. HER2(+) patients had significantly poorer outcomes than HER2(-) counterparts (triple negative and HR positive patients) (p=0.019). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the strongest risk factor for death was residual disease after primary surgery. Conclusions: Triple negative EOC may not be an aggressive phenotype as in breast cancer. The HER2 positive EOC has more aggressive behaviour compared to triple negative and HR(+) phenotypes. EGFR expression is more frequent in advanced tumours, but is not related with poorer outcome. Additional ovarian cancer molecular subtyping using gene expression analysis may provide more reliable data.

      • Comparison of Myometrial Invasion and Tumor Free Distance from Uterine Serosa in Endometrial Cancer

        Ozbilen,,Ozlem,Sakarya,,Derya,Kilic,Bezircioglu,,Incim,Kasap,,Burcu,Yetimalar,,Hakan,Yigit,,Seyran Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.2

        Background: We aimed to investigate whether the tumor free distance (the distance between the uterine serosa and the tumor at its deepest point) is useful in surgical staging and in predicting prognosis. Materials and Methods: Data from patients who underwent complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer between January 2006 and June 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. All demographic findings, surgical stages, histological type and grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion as well as abdominal cytology, cervical, adnexal, and omental involvement, and lymph node metastasis were recorded. The relations between myometrial invasion and tumor free distance from uterine serosa with prognostic factors were investigated. Results: Seventy patients were included in the study. Sixty-four (91.5%) had endometrioid type cancers and forty-four (62.9%) were grade 1. The deepest myometrial invasion was less than 1/2 in 42 patients (60%). In 18 patients (25.8%) lymphovascular invasion was noted. Eight (11.4%) were found to have cervical involvement, five (7.1%) had adnexal involvement and in 4 cases (5.7%) the peritoneal washings included malignant cells. Four patients had pelvic and one para-aortic node metastasis. We recognized that an invasion of more than 1/2 was correlated significantly with lymphovascular space involvement, histological grade, positive abdominal washing cytology, nodal and cervical involvement, but not with adnexal involvement. Tumor-free myometrial thickness was negative and statistically significant correlated with surgical stage, histological grade, lymphovascular space involvement, positive abdominal washing cytology, cervical and adnexal involvement. The importance of tumor-free myometrial thickness in determinating the lymphovascular space invasion was found to be highest in terms of sensitivity and specificity when crossing the ROC curve at 11 millimeters. Conclusions: Depth of myometrial invasion is more valuable for predicting lymph node metastasis than tumor-free myometrial thickness. The tumor-free myometrial thickness provides a better prediction for adnexal involvement.

      • Clinicopathologic and Demographic Evaluation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients among a Turkish Patient Population: a Single Center Experience

        Somali,,Isil,Ustaoglu,,Bahar,Yakut,Tarhan,,Mustafa,Oktay,Yigit,,Seyran,Ceri,Demir,,Lutfiye,Ellidokuz,,Hulya,Erten,,Cigdem,Alacacioglu,,Ahmet Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.10

        Background: To evaluate the clinicopathologic and demographic characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and to determine differences from non-triple-negative cases. Materials and Methods: A detailed review of the medical records of 882 breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted to obtain information regarding age, menopausal status, height and weight at the time of diagnosis, presence of diabetes or hypertension, and pathologic characteristics of the tumor (tumor size, lymph node status, histologic grade, ER status, PR status, HER2 status, p53 mutation). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and a value of ${\geq}30$ was considered as indicative of obesity. Results: 14.9% (n=132) of the patients had TNBC. There was no difference among the patients in terms of median age, comorbid conditions and menopausal status. The proportion of medullary, tubular and mucinous carcinomas was significantly higher (15.9%) in the triple-negative (TN) group, while invasive lobular histology was more frequent (8.2%) among non-triple negative (NTN) cases (p<0.001). Grade 3 (G3) tumors were more frequent in the triple-negative group (p<0.001). The rate of p53 mutation was 44.3% in TN tumors versus 28.2% in the NTN group (p<0.001). The two groups were similar in terms of LN metastasis. In the NTN group, the rate of patients with BMI ${\geq}30$ was 53% among postmenopausal patients, while it was 36% among premenopausal women, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in terms of BMI between postmenopausal and premenopausal patients in the TN group (p=0.08). Conclusions: TNBC rates and clinicopathologic characteristics of the Turkish patient population were consistent with the data from Europe and America. However, no relationship between obesity and TNBC was observed in our study. The association between TNBC and obesity needs to be evaluated in a larger patient population.

      • Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells and Serum CA15-3 Levels in Metastatic Breast Cancer, Single Center Experience, Preliminary Results

        Tarhan,,Mustafa,Oktay,Gonel,,Ataman,Kucukzeybek,,Yuksel,Erten,,Cigdem,Cuhadar,,Serap,Yigit,,Seyran,Ceri,Atay,,Aysenur,Somali,,Isil,Dirican,,Ahmet,Demir,,Lutfiye,Koseoglu,,Mehmet Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.3

        Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cancer causing death in women. Circulating tumor cells are among the prognostic factors while tumor markers are of diagnostic value and can be used for follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the prognostic significance of the serum CA15-3 levels, number of circulating tumor cells and histopathological tumor factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer were included in the study. Number of circulating tumor cells and serum CA15-3 level were assessed when metastasis was detected and diagnostic value was assessed. Presence of associations with estrogen and progesterone receptors, c-erbB2, Ki-67 proliferation index and histological grade were also evaluated. Results: Median overall survival of the patients with serum CA15-3 levels of >108 ng/dl was 19 months whereas for those with a low serum level it was 62 months. Median overall survival for CTC ${\geq}5$ vs CTC<5 patients was 19 months and 40 months respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusions: Prognostic significance of the CTC count and CA15-3 levels in metastatic breast cancer patients was demonstrated.

      • Comparison between Radiological and Invasive Diagnostic Modalities in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

        Onur,,Gulcin,Ozkan,Tarcan,,Ercument,Onur,,Asim,Can,,Huseyin,Atahan,,Murat,Kemal,Yigit,,Seyran,Ceri,Cakalagaoglu,,Fulya Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.10

        Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of deaths of cancer in women. Nowadays, following completion of imaging methods, mainly fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core biopsy methods have been used for establishing cytopathological diagnosis although discussions regarding superiority continue. Materials and Methods: Those with a complaint of "mass in breast" along with those diagnosed to have a mass as a result of routine physical examination among all patients applying to our clinic between 01.01.2009 and 31.12.2011 were retrospectively assessed. Totals of 146 and 64 patients with complete radiological observation who had undergone FNAB and core biopsies, respectively, were evaluated. Postoperative pathological results of patients of both groups receiving surgery were also taken into consideration. All results were compared in terms of false positivity/negativity, sensitivity/specifity, surgery types and distribution of postoperative results with regard to diagnoses along with those of malignant/benign masses with regard to quadrants determined. Results: Diagnostic malignancy power of mammographic BIRADS classification was 87.3%. However, the value was 75% in the core biopsy group. Sensitivity and specifity following comparison of FNAB and postoperative pathology results of those receiving surgery were 85.4% and 92.9% while they were 93.5% and 100% in the core biopsy group. Diagnostic malignancy power, calculated by determining AUC in ROC analysis, of FNAB was 89.1% while that of core biopsy was 96.7%. Conclusions: It was shown that core biopsy is superior to FNAB in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accurate histopathological classification. However; quick, cheap and basic diagnosis by means of FNAB should not be ignored. Sensitivity of FNAB is rather high in experienced hands and furthermore it would be expected to be lower than with core biopsy.

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