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이 글은 새로 발굴한 필자 소장본 『여창가요록』을 소개, 고찰한 논문이다. 『여창가요록』 양승민본은 1853년도에 雲谷先生이라는 사람이 鶴仙娘子라는 京妓에게 필사해준 가집이다. 현전 『여창가요록』 중 最古本에 해당하는 이본이다. 늦어도 1853년 이전에 편찬되었기에, 『가곡원류』의 초창기 형성 과정을 보여주는 자료이다. 양승민본 『여창가요록』은 후대 『가곡원류』가 갖춘 기본적 체재를 두루 구비한 이본이다. 따라서 여창 중심으로 편찬된 책이긴 하나 『가곡원류』의 한 이본으로 평가할 수 있다. 적어도 박효관 주변에서 필사된 책이며, 박효관이 직접 엮고 필사한 책일 가능성도 높다. 편찬 시기가 늦어도 1853년이므로, 『가곡원류』와 같은 가집의 체재가 이미 19세기 전반기에 완성되었음을 알 수 있다. 또한 『여창가요록』은 이후의 집대성 완성본 『가곡원류』에서 별도로 파생된 것이 아니라 오히려 먼저 이루어졌다. 여창 중심의 기방 유행본 『가곡원류』가 이미 초기본의 형태로 존재했다. 이후 안민영과의 공동 작업으로 국악원본 『가곡원류』와 같은 증보 완성본이 편찬된 것으로 파악할 수 있다. 양승민본은 『가곡원류』의 형성 시기가 사실상 19세기 전반기임을 보여준다. 이 초기본의 발견으로 『가곡원류』의 형성기 모습 자체에 대한 연구가 구체적으로 가능해졌다. 『가 곡원류』라는 가집은 일시에 완성된 것이 아니라 19세기 가단의 움직임 속에서 다양하고 점진적인 형성 과정이 있었고, 여러 형태의 이본들이 당대의 시대적, 상황적 수요에 따라 유통되었다. This paper presents an introduction and examination of "Yeochanggayorok" of the Yang Seung-min version that had been newly excavated. The Yang Seung-min version of "Yeochanggayorok" was an anthology transcribed and provided by Master Woongok to a Gyeonggi gisaeng called Maiden Hakseon in 1853. It is an early version that is the oldest of the different remaining versions of "Yeochanggayorok." Since it was published before 1853 at the latest, it offers important materials to show the early formation process of "Gagokwonryu." First, the Yang Seung-min version of "Yeochanggayorok" is widely equipped with the formal framework of "Gagokwonryu" and accordingly another version of its in spite of the fact that it was published with a focus on Yeochang. Second, it is estimated that Park Hyo-gwan himself compiled and transcribed the Yang Seung-min version and published it in 1853. Such Yeochang-centric anthologies as the version must have been published before the completion of "Gagokwonryu" and in vogue around gisaengs`` saloons. Third, the version claims its worth as a material to advance the formation time of "Gagokwonryu" to the former half of the 19th century at the latest. The discovery of this early version of "Yeochanggayorok" made it possible to conduct concrete research on the aspects of "Gagokwonryu" themselves during its formation period. Finally, it is estimated that the anthology of "Gagokwonryu" was not completed at a time but went through various gradual formation processes in the middle of the movements of Gadan in the 19th century. As a matter of fact, there was no certain complete version of "Gagokwonryu"; instead, its versions of many different forms were widely distributed according to the demands of the times and situations those days.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Started from a small size Seung-Jik Park Shop, one of the oldest in Korean modern history of commerce, and grown with traditional Korean spirit of politeness and perseverance, Doosan Group today has become one of the largest groups of companies including such a gigantic company as Doosan Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. This study aims to explore the courses of growth and development of Doosan Group from historical and functional point of view and extract the characteristics of growth and the modes of behavior in order to define the growth factors. The method adopted for the study is based on the management history with particular focus on entrepreneurs involved. In 1896, the year classified in this study as embryo period of Doosan Group, ‘Maeheon’ Seung-Jik Park opened Seung-Jik Park Shop selling drapery. Then he established Kwang Jang Co, and Kong Ik Sa, a trading house, developed cosmetic product Parkabun and ventured into beer industry through the acquisition of Sohwa Kirin Beer. In this embryo period, the factor that enabled his companies to grow and develop was the management philosophy based on harmony, thrifty, honesty and trust that formed the company motto and enhanced the image of the companIes. The focus was rather on specialization of organizations for growth than diversification of activities for expansion. In the beginning his business was mainly on drapery with major focus on quality and reliability. By the time he ventured into such commodity business as cosmetics and beer, the quality of products be came the prime target to pursue and achieve. This period could be seen as initial stage of the group to accumulate the capital required for further growth. From the year 1951 when ‘Yonkang’ Doo-Byung Park began to lead the group, the formation period set in place. In such time of Rehabilitation followed by social chaos, Sohwa Kirin Beer was transformed into Oriental Brewery Co., Ltd. and Doosan Group began to be formed. This formation period marked the dawn of Doosan Group pioneering the beer market, launching construction and machinery industries and exploring the overseas markets. This period was the time when the need for the management to be separated from the capital was strongly felt in order to maximize the management philosophy carried forward from the initial stage of the Doosan Group. The growth factor from the management point of view was the corporate philosophy based on harmony, honesty and public service spirit. In 1974, a new era began with the appointment of management expert Soo-Chang Jung as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. It was a major turning point for Doosan Group. The efforts of the top management in this period could be characterized by its focus on creation of growth paths for electronic industries, accumulation of technologies through strategic alliance or merging with the companies of advanced countries, and expansion or realignment of existing businesses. The first growth factor in this period was the emphasis of creativity that provided the basis and momentum for healthy management and the second was organizational restructuring to be prepared for acquisition and merging and maintain the specialty of each business unit. Take-off period started with the arrival of Chairman Yong-Kon Park in 1981 and continued until 1995. In this period, development of overseas markets was reinforced in the areas of beer. construction, electronics, glass, machinery and trading while new businesses were actively explored. The Group was pressing forward with continuous expansion, horizontally as well as vertically. The growth factors from the management point of view were customer-satisfaction, priority on Quality, innovation, recruitment of talented people as well as organizational change aimed for diversification and specialization through the new system and mixed use of business divisions and teams. The year 1996 saw the beginning of innovation period of Doosan Group, As the external e
Backgrounds Exposure to a toxic stress environment leads to excessive inflammatory reactions and induces allergic asthma resulting in airway hyper-responsiveness. We investigated whether Rosa laevigata Michx. (RL) exhibits anti-inflammatory effects related allergic asthma in both an in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods To investigate the preventive effect of RL, A549 cells were pretreated with non-toxic doses of RL (500, 1000 μg/ mL) and induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 ng/mL). First, we evaluated cytotoxicity via a MTT assay. The inhibitory effects of NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression were confirmed by a western blot assay. In the in vivo study, BALB/c mice were challenged with regard to ovalbumin via an intraperitoneal injection of RL (50, 100 mg/kg) and were killed to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and blood serum. The number of inflammatory cells, the secretion of IgE and related cytokines were monitored by ELISA and multiplex assays. Results RL significantly suppressed NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression levels in EGF-induced A549 cells. In a chronic inflammation mice model, pretreatment of RL attenuated allergic airway inflammation by reducing inflammatory cells, the secretion of IgE and related cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The results of this study present the possibility of RL as a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma patients via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This paper has the purpose that is to detect the basic corporate culture of Dosanism. It is derived from the establishing spirit of the founder, Seung-Jik Park of Doosan Group, and the innovative entrepreneurship of his son, Doo-Byung Park. Doosan Group was founded by Seung-Jik Park in 1896, and has been brought up one of top business conglomerates and oldest outstanding enterprises in Korea. The founder’s establishing creeds is composed of the peace and amity among the people, responsibility, honesty, diligence and economy. And the managerial thoughts of 2nd founder, Doo-Byung Park, is as follows: (1) respect for the human value, (2) reliability, (3) diligence and economy, (4) craftmanship, (5) social responsibility, (6) rationalism and (7) patriotic spirit, etc. Doosan-spirit or Doosan-manship as common values of Doosan Group is involved in their philosophies. So, the basic corporate culture of Doosanism is based on their entrepreneurships and management thoughts. However, 3 top executives, Yong-Gon Park, Yong-Oh Park and Yong-Sung Park under the tricar business system of the group have created and developed the new management ideologies for new vision of 21st century. It is as follows: (1) customers, (2) quality, (3) innovation and (4) human resources. The new future-oriented corporate culture of Doosanism is derived from this creeds and based on the excellence-driven growth as new start vision. These new cultural values of Doosanism is composed of (1) the Harmonization of human-oriented management, (2) the customer-oriented commensalism, (3) the principles of ethical management, (4) the challenging doctrine of pioneer spirit and can-doism, (5) the result-principles of excellence-driven growth for long-term vision, (6) the management principles that corporations must contribute to the well being of the nation and society as patriotism. Therefore, we can find that the basic culture of Doosanism is deeply rooted in striving for excellence-driven growth and development through challenge and exploration of potential by business creeds of the group.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
1 In the first paper “Determinants of Corporate Ownership Structure and their effects on Corporate Governance in South Korea” by Shin-Il Kang, Korea’s unique characteristics, specifically the ownership structure and corporate governance are examined. The author takes a broad perspective by incorporating corporate culture, business leadership, and ownership structure in Korean corporation. Furthermore, he discusses the substitutability of Korean specific features given the rapidly changing economic environment. Under the Korea’s Chaebol structure, controlling shareholders, who are the real owner of firms, have exercised ownership rights while having a large proportion of shares aided by cross shareholdings. This has been possible through the pyramid ownership control structure as well as cross-shareholding among subsidiaries. Market circumstances related to management costs are not favorable to the firm with a dispersed ownership structure. In Korea, that’s the reason why ownership is concentrated. Given such a structure, the owners minimize costs related to management’s risks. Furthermore it proposes that leadership(firm culture) and ownership are substitutes. Concentrated ownership is needed when the leadership is not mature like Korean Chaebol. 2 The second paper “Issues in Japanese Corporate Governance” by Peter Drysdale examines some of the major issues of Japanese corporate governance today. The role of that main bank in corporate governance and inter corporate shareholding has been well documented. Although Japanese banks have rigorously monitored firms and have had an enormous influence on firms’ decisions and strategies through the owning of shares, firm performance under such a main bank system has not always been positive. Opposing views and their rationale regarding the pessimism behind the performance of firms in the main bank system are also explained in this paper. 3 The paper “Corporate Governance in China” by In Kie Hong discusses the current status and the restructuring efforts of China’s corporate governance. In China, state shareholders possess strong control rights over listed companies allowing them to exercise control even beyond their proportion of shareholding. Various governmental organizations(under the Communist Party) acting as representatives of the state as shareholders have influenced firms enormously, particularly regarding matters of organizing the board of directors as well as electing management. However since they have little incentives to manage state(national) assets and have insufficient capacity to monitor a large number of firms of which they are in charge, the principal-agent problem tends to prevail, which adds to the difficulties in preserving the value of state assets as well. 4 The last paper “Ownership Concentration and Corporate Performances in the Northeast Asian Countries” by Seung-Rok Park compares the relationship between corporate governance structure and corporate performance in Korea, Japan, and China by empirically examining the accounting corporate performances and technical efficiency measures. In the case of Korea, ownership concentration was shown to have positively affected all corporate accounting performance variables such as profit margin, return on shareholders’ funds, return on total assets, and return on capital employed. Furthermore, it was also found that ownership concentration positively affected corporate performance by helping improve the technical efficiency of firms. Unlike Korea, in Japan, there was no sign of a positive effect of ownership concentration on the accounting corporate performance and technical efficiency. Moreover, in the case of China, ownership concentration positively affected profit margin and return on total assets, while no positive effects of ownership concentration were found on return on capital employed and return on shareholders’ funds. It is shown in this study that the difference in the rel
The purpose of this study was to inquire into whether characteristics of sports stars` images have positive effects on brand attitude, brand image and brand royalty, and to analyze their images which can be possessed by college students actively participating in sports activities, compared to other age-groups, corporate brand characteristics using sports stars and their correlation. In order to give basic information of sports stars` images and brand attitude, image and royalty to domestic preferred by college students, this research came to the fol-lowing conclusions by analyzing data from 393 Students of 3 colleges in “D” city and “G” province by applying descriptive analysis, factor, reliability analysis, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA with SPSS Win-dows 12.0. First, for appearance images of sports stars, male college students with the higher number in sports participation and higher average participation time showed high awareness of Park Tae-hwan, Lee Seung-yeop and Chu Seong-hun. Second, for their evaluation images, male junior and senior college students with the higher number of sports participation and the higher average participation time showed higher awareness of Lee Seung-yeop and Chu Seong-hun. Third, images of sports stars preferred by college students had posi-tive effects on brand characteristics, i.e., brand attitude, brand image and brand loyalty.
이 논문은 일제강점기 창신학교의 설립과 민족교육, 그리고 폐교의 원인과 과정에 대해 밝힌 글이다. 창신학교는 1906년 5월 17일 마산포교회(문창교회)의 독서숙에서 시작해 1909년 8월 19일 대한제국의 인가를 받은 마산지역의 대표적인 근대교육 기관이다. 문창 교회를 중심으로 이승규, 이상소, 손덕우 등 지역 인사, 호주 선교부가 학교 설립을 주도했다. 이 학교의 설립 목적은 국권 회복을 위한 민족교육에 있었다. 그 내용은 설립자 이승규와 안확, 이윤재ㆍ김윤경 등 교사의 교육 활동, 학생의 항일 운동에서 알 수 있다. 그런데 일제는 사립학교령과 사립학교규칙 개정 등으로 성경ㆍ지리ㆍ역사 과목을 못 가르치게 했고, 일본인 교사의 채용ㆍ과도한 교육시설의 보강 등을 요구하면서 창신학교의 민족교육을 통제했다. 이런 일제의 식민지적 교육정책으로 창신학교 운영은 불가능한 상황이 됐고, 민족교육도 구현할 수 없는 정도가 되었다. 특히 1930년대 이후 일제가 신사참배뿐만 아니라 동방요배, 일장기 경례, 교육칙어 암송 등을 계속해서 강요하자, 종교와 민족 문제가 한계점에 도달하자 창신학교는 학교 교육을 포기하고 폐교로 맞섰다. 1939년 7월 14일 창신학교는 일제의 식민지적 교육지배에 맞서다가 끝내 극복하지 못하고 문을 닫고 말았다. 창신학교의 폐교는 마산지역의 근대 민족 교육의 좌절과 식민지 교육의 완전한 실현이라는 점에서 그 의미를 찾을 수 있다. This paper was writing expressed regarding the foundation, national education and shut-down school of changshin school during the Japanese colonial period. The changshin school was a representative of modern education institution of Masan region starting from the house seminary reading at Masan Port Church(the door window Church) on 5.17, 1906 and receiving formal accreditation of the Korean Empire on 8.19, 1909. Arounding Masan Port Church(the door window Church), A region person, Australia father, Lee seung Kyu, Lee sang so and Son Dek Wooand took lead to establish schools.The changshin school was built to take effect the nation education. It was confirmed by educational activity of Lee Yoon Jae, Kim Yoon-Kyung teachers etc, including founder Lee Seung-Kyu, Ann Hak and guessed also though the resistance to Japan coming from the changshin school. But, The national education of changshin school was controled by Japanese with private schools enforcement ordinance and rules revision of private schools. Japanese did not teach he Bible, geography, history the subjects and demanded on the excessive reinforcement of educational Facilities. In addition, the Japanese was forced to worship about Eastern ship, flag salute, recitation of the Rescript education as well as the shrine coming in 1930 and The changshin school become shut down school against forcing Shrine of the Japanese and giving school education. On 7.14, 1939, The Masan changshin school ultimately closed the door resisting colonial rule education of Japanese. The shut-down school of changshin school might look for its meaning in that the full realization of Japanese colonial education and the frustration of modern ethnic education in Masan region.
The purpose of this study is to probe into the meaning of space mentioned in the poetry of Ho-seung Jeong. In his poetic scenery, the space was full of the image of tragedy. The mountain, a place of the vertical connection between the two worlds, heavenly and earthly, would rather be a space of discontinuity and despair. The forest was a space of dead body while the ridge was that of separation, waiting, and prospect. The field was a place of poverty and loneliness. The road symbolized meeting and separation, thought and recollection, and labor and exploitation. The heaven, an ideal world(utopia), was the space of a will and comfort of life. The water, kept in by the Hoam reservoir, was an image of another hometown that would be neither changed nor developed. Theses tragic images of space(or place) indicated well the dark situation of our farming villages which had become impoverished and exhausted by the exploitation of Japanese imperialism in the 1930' s
『고본 수이전』은 9C 신라 때 편찬되었으며, 고려시대에는 박인량이 이를 증보한 것으로 확인된다. 또한 박인량의 『수이전』은 秘府에 간직하였다는『고금록』의 한 부분이었을 것으로 여겨진다. 그리고 이것이 계속 전해져 고려시대에는 각훈과 이승휴가, 조선시대에는 서거정과 성임이 열람하였다. 권문해는 『수이전』을 직접 열람한 것이 아니라 서거정과 성임의 저술에 반영된 내용을 재인용한 것으로 여겨진다. 『수이전』을 찬술하고 또 인용한 사람들은 유학자와 승려들이었다. 또한 그들은 史官으로서 혹은 관련된 사람으로서 역사서를 편찬하였다. 이런 때문에 『수이전』은 正史와 다른 역사적 사실과 奇異한 이야기의 두 가지 성격이 담겨있었다. 이는 역사가들이 正史에서 빠진 것을 모으고 버리지 않으려는 의도에서였다. 기이한 이야기를 담은 것은 성리학에 편중되면 통치자로서의 자격을 잃게 되는 것에 대한 경계였다. 『수이전』은 이후 여러 책에 인용되면서 사학사상으로 볼 때 많은 영향을 주었다. 『삼국유사』가 많은 내용을 반영한 것에서 보아 큰 영향을 받았는데, 그것은 遺事가 逸事를 모은 것이라는 점에서 그 성격을 사실상 계승하고 있기 때문이다. 『제왕운기』와 『해동고승전』에도 많이 참고되었다. 고려시대에는 정치사는 물론 불교사 서술에 지속적인 영향을 주었다. 조선시대에는『삼국사절요』에 정사와 다른 경우로서 역사적 사실이 존중되어 역사편찬에 남을 수 있었다. 또 이 시기에는 불교적 영험 요소가 대체로 배제되었지만, 다른 내용들이 전기문학의 잡기편찬에 반영되어 유학자들의 편벽성을 극복하는 요소로서 활용되었다. There are two compilations of Suijeon(『殊異傳』) remaining today: one is Gobon Suijeon(『古本 殊異傳』) written in the 9th century during Silla(新羅) and the other Sujieon compiled by Park In-ryang(朴寅亮) during Goryeo(高麗). The former was read by Il Yeon(一然), who made lots of quotations of some of its content in his Samgukyusa(『三國遺事』). The latter added stories about the Gaya(伽倻) region to the former and seems to have been part of Park In-ryang"s Gogeumrok(『古今錄』), which is considered to have been stored in a secret storage. It was read by Gak Hun(覺訓) and Lee Seung-hyu(李承休) during Goryeo and Seo Geo-jeong(徐居正) and Seong Im(成任) during Joseon(朝鮮), Gwon Mun-hae(權文海) seems to have re-quoted Suijeon instead of personally reading it. It was Confucian scholars and Buddhist priests that compiled or quoted Suijeon. They wrote history books as historiographers or figures related to history. Thus Suijeon contains two distinct parts: one is historical facts different from authentic history, and the other strange stories. It reflects the intention of historians that wanted to collect what was left out of authentic history and record it. They added strange stories too in order to warn themselves of an inclination toward Neo-Confucianism and accordingly loss of the ruler"s qualifications.
The current design codes discuss the effective compressive strengths of columns, which reflect a decrease in load transfer performance that can occur when columns and slabs have different concrete compressive strengths. The effective compressive strength of a column increases as it is confined by the slab, and the design codes mandate three different effective compressive strengths for interior columns (confinement on four sides), exterior columns(confinement on three sides), and corner columns (confinement on two sides). For both corner and exterior columns, the confinement effect of the slab is significantly smaller than that for the interior column, and there is a more marked decrease in load transfer performance. However, there is still a lack of theoretical studies investigating the effective compressive strengths of the corner and exterior columns. Therefore, based on the analysis model established in pre‑ vious research, this study has proposed an equation for calculating the effective compressive strengths of the corner, exterior and isolated columns without any confinement effects of the slab. In addition, axial loading tests of isolated columns were conducted and the proposed equation was verified.