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To analyze dialy meal of royal meal, studied Jook Soora Sang (Rice Gruel), Mieum Sang (Thin Gruel) and Bankwa Sang, Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won were on record Wonheng Ulmyo Jungri Euigwae (1795). Historic book "Jungri Euigwae" described the king's visit to his father's royal tomb "Hyun Neung Won", during the domain of Cheung Jo, the 22nd king of Choson Dynasty. The results obtained from this study are as follows. Rice Gruel (Jook Soora Sang), taken before breakfast, was arranged the same as the Soora Sang. The table for thin gruel (Mieum) was arranged in three kinds of sets; one for thin gruel, the others for stewed meat (Goem) and sugared fruit (Jeong Kwa). The diet seems to have been quit scientific and restorative. Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won was arranged the same as the other Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang. Therefore setting the table of royal meal had a rule.
This paper is to reconsider the interpretation of Yi Sang’s “Ogamdo”(烏瞰圖) in 1934 as 烏 being a crow. I think O(烏) is a mythical bird, as the messenger bird, Samjogo’(三足烏) in the Korean myth about traveling from the sun to the earth. Although previous researchers have expressed 烏 in 「烏瞰圖」 as a crow, what Yi Sang described in “Ogamdo” relates to the map of painting for looking down on the earth from the sky. In the 1930s, Yi Sang probably lived in severe violence and under tight Japaness rule and policy. During this period, he potentially thought the Korean myth had disappeared from Korean history into a Japanese myth caused by Japan’s colonial policy. Yi Sang became the last member of Guinhoi(九人會) and acted in various roles late in life. Through Guinhoe, he came to know a large amount of Western literary thoughts from abroad and created a variety of works, especially “Ogamdo”according to Joyce’s mythical narrative. In interpreting Ogamdo, a lot of studies have produced two problems: First, researchers do not take into account the confusion of the interpretation of “Ogamdo,” thinking 烏 to be a crow. Second, each poem of Ogamdo was published separately from the first to the last poem(15th). Therefore, researchers have interpreted them separately, not as a complete poem. I believe this is the major problem, As Kim, Ki-rim called Yi Sang “Jupiter,” Kim, Yun-sik asked for researchers “Why did Kim, Ki-rim call him “Jupiter”? This question is very important to know since both Kim, Ki-rim and Yi sang were Korean modernists in the 1930s. As we think of Yi Sang, we must consider Kim, Ki-rim’s “The Weather Chart”(氣象圖) written in 1935. As researchers have observed, this work, as an abortive imitor of Eliot, is a consequent failure in its making. However, Kim, Ki-rim was a pioneer for importing Western modernism in Korean Literature. This addition to Korean Literature affected Yi Sang as described in the urban life of “Ogamdo.” Jo Yong-man, a member of Guinhoe with Yi Sang, called the 1930s “the Age of Yi Sang.” Accordingly, we can understand the meaning of O(烏) in “Ogamdo” as not being a crow, but simply a Korean myth, Samjogo. And it also is truly necessary to interpret Ogamdo as a complete literary work, not as 15 individual poems.
This thesis studied literary criticism in 1960's by focusing on "Sang-hwang". It was taken as a link to re-establish the pedigree of criticism in realism. It aimed to diachronic study the ideal of criticism of "Sang-hwang "(1969) which presented overcoming the partition of korea and the invasion of foreign power as a task of national literary, differing from "Chang-Bi" in 1960's, the time it founded. Preferentially, We observes the criticisms of "Sang-hwang" in the latter half of 1960's to the early's of 1970's and the criticisms of 'Im Heon-young','Goo Joong- seo','Kim Byoung-geol', who were coteries of "Sang-hwang" as main-task of this thesis. We are also necessary to focus on the reason why they found "Sang-hwang" individually without including into ecole of "Chang-Bi" in spite of having the same propensity with "Chang-Bi" as they unfolded their literary criticism by focusing on the relation between literature and reality. It could be an important clue to understand the process of formation of criticism in 1970's which based on differentiation of realism-criticism in the latter half of 1960's. In other words, this process of differentiation of criticism could be an external power to systematize and organize the ideology and practice of realism-criticism. The ideal of criticism of "Han-Yang" and "Cheong-Maek" in the early's of 1960's has strong side to inherit national-literature in 1950's which was presented by 'Choi Il-soo','Jeong Tae-yong'. Strictly speaking, "Sang-hwang", which founded in the latter of 1960's, is also hard to prescribe criticism in 1960's as most of publication, except the first edition, was published in the early's of 1970's. The reason why I debate criticism in 1960's with "Sang-hwang" in spite of those thing is that these mediums based on not only concrete reality which overcomes idealism of the national literature in 1950's but also having chance-continuity to develop and deepen the national literature in 1970's. In other words, even if Sang-hwang, except the first edition, was published in 1970's, it re write-down the critical disputed issue such as the 'national-literature' , the 'realism-literature' which were presented from the latter half of 1960's importantly as introduction of materials, so it is reasonable to say that it stands in the extended line of the ideal of criticism in 1960's. It is true that "Sang-hwang" has an important position in history of Korean criticism to prepare important moment that the engagement deepen to realism by making realism as a concrete practical way of national-literature and being issue.
이 논문은 이상 작품의 서구문학사조와의 관계에 초점을 맞춰 이상이 1936년에 발표한 「街外街傳」(가외가전)을 T. S. 엘리엇(T. S. Eliot)의 「황무지」(The Waste Land)와 비교하여 그 의미를 살펴보았다. 한국이 일본의 식민지로 있을 때 서구에서는 제임스 조이스가 ?율리시즈?를 창작하여 T.S. 엘리엇이 조이스의 작품이 신화기법으로 창작되었음을 밝혀 내 모더니즘의 중심과제로 등장해 있었다. 이러한 서구문학은 일본을 경유하여 유학파인 김기림, 정지용 등이 한국에 들여와 이상과 같은 한국 문인들에게 자극을 주었다. 엘리엇의 ‘신화기법’은 현대적인 것과 고대적인 것을 작품 속에 공존시킴으로서 흩어진 사건을 통합하는 방법이었지만, 이상은 한국의 신화와 동양사상에 대한 그의 지속적인 관심을 표현해 냈다. 이상은 식민지 치하에서 살지 않으면 안 되는 상황에서 편안한 대륙으로 암시된 고대 중국을 회상하면서 식민지 치하의 답답한 상황을 벗어나고자 하며, “손자(係子)도 탑재한 객차가 방을 피하나보다.”로 표현하여 중국을 원망하면서 한국의 삼족오 신화가 일본의 신화에 편입된 것을 일깨워 한국의 고유의 전통의식을 자극하고 있다. 엘리엇이 「황무지」에서 신화기법으로 현대문명의 위기를 그려낸 것처럼 이상은 「가외가전」에서 사라진 한국의 신화와 동양사상을 은유적으로 사용하여 한국의 식민지 상황을 그려냈다. 한국의 모더니즘을 주도했던 김기림이 이상을 한국의 ‘최후의 모더니스트’라고 지칭한 바와 같이 그의 ?가외가전?은 식민지 통치가 극에 달하고 있을 때 ‘서울의 모습’을 공개적으로는 말할 수 없어 ‘거리 밖의 이야기’로 그려낸 ‘폭로’적인 작품임을 알 수 있다. This paper is to examine an affiliation of Yi Sang and T. S. Eliot in Gawoigajeon(?街外街傳?) and The Waste Land written by them. For a Korean modernist Yi Sang, during the colonial period, potentially thought that the Korean myth had disappeared from Korean history into a Japanese myth caused by Japan’s colonial policy. He knew T. S. Eliot’s mythic narrative through Guinhoi and other sources. He became the last member of Guinhoi(九人會) and acted in various roles late in life. Through Guinhoi, he came to know a large amount of Western literary thoughts from abroad and created a variety of works, especially according to T. S. Eliot's mythic narrative explaining writing techniques of Joyce’s Ulysses. As Kim, Ki-rim called Yi Sang “Jupiter,” Kim, Yun-sik asked for researchers “Why did Kim, Ki-rim call him “Jupiter”? This question is very important to know Yi Sang, since both Kim, Ki-rim and Yi sang were Korean modernists in the1930s. I think it that both writers created their poems by Eliot’s mythic narrative technique. However, after Yi Sang’s death Kim Ki-rim called him Jupiter, the gratest god of the Greek-Roman myths. As we think of Yi Sang, we must consider Kim, Ki-rim’s The Weather Chart(氣象圖) written in 1935 with Yi Sang’s Gawoigajeon in 1936. ThoughKim was a pioneer for importing Western modernism in Korean Literature, Yi Sang was a representative practice writer written Gawoigajeon depicted the urbanSeoul by the Joycean mythic narrative in the colonial period.
Lee Sang(1910-1937) practiced paintings, novels, poems and essays, when Korea was a colonial country. Especially he participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Circle) discussing literary topics, which introduced to the Western modernism to Korea. As Bulfinch said that mythology is the handmaid of literature, the traditional myths form the backbone of the world literature. Creating his works I think Lee Sang used Sam Jog O(三足烏), a kind of mythic birds as the messenger living in the sun in the Oriental and Korean myth. It is similar to Phoenix in the Western myth, and when the young Phoenix has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree which is its own cradle and its parent`s sepulchre and deposits it in the temple of the sun. As Joyce` novels are the immediate example of the reinvestment of mythology in modernistic art at the colonial period of Ireland, through Guinhoi in the colonial period of Korea, Lee Sang interested in Joyce`s mythic narrative and in the process of writing he recognized a Korean traditional myth, Sam Jog O, the crow with three legs living in the sun. This myth was disappeared in the colonial period, however, it is refreshing now. At the colonial period Choi Nam-Sun researched the old Korean myth with Northern Asian and he asserted its importance. Like him Lee Sang also probably knew it. Kim Ki Rim, a Korean modernist, called him "Jupiter" of Greek-Roman myth in a poem of reconsidering Lee Sang. Through the above we know that Lee Sang composed his works by bird images in myths.
『Gunbaba』, written by Kim Hye-sung, a rising writer of North Korea, is a historical long-novel which is remarkably highlighting the characteristic of the independence and nationality of our people by standing a Josun military officer as a hero with a historical background of Josun which was dotted with a long spell of national ordeal such like the residence of the Japanese supervising Agent in 1906, the dismission of the Korean army in 1907, the Special Envoys of Hague, and the deposition of King Gojong. 『Gunbaba』 has a framwork of latitude of longitude of supporting characters such like Jock-song, Kwon Ki-hong, Kim Hui-sook, Yang Seol-hee, and Lee around a hero, Nam Sang-duk, a main character. This work is, so to speak, based on ' the First People of Josun', the ideology of 'nationalism', which was stressed by Kim Jeong-il, the chairman of the defence committee after he came to the force. This ideology was functioned as the driving force that caused the writing tendency such like the realistic works of the historical theme that were in great vogue in the North Korean society. Especially in one point, this work gives fun to the readers that it focuses on the nationalism by describing the various types in the decadent stage to the Japanese colonialism of the various kinds of characters, who had collaborated with the Japanese Imperialists in many ways, such as Kim Tae-jin, Lee Wan-yong, and Park Young-hyo of the day it shows. First of all, Nam Sang-duk, the hero, is actually described as a person with many troubles in the work. Nam Sang-duk, who graduated first from the Senior Military Academy and got appointed to a platoon commander of the Josun army, was continually playing a role as a trouble-maker. Without regard to his soldiership, he is engaged into some trouble between 'Cheongcheon Pub' which is operated by Kwon Soon-sil, his friend Kwon Ki-hong's elder sister and 'Sakura Coffee Shop' which is operated by a Japanese, Yoshiko and he is behind bars and then is released. In fact, it seems that the writer has intention in his mind that Nam Sang-duk, his hero, kept his foot in the trouble to make him <a sensible person>. Besides, the hero, Nam Sang-duk, deeply impressed by the Drive for National Debt Compensation of Yang Ki-tak, organized the Danyeonhoe in his Josun army and raised money to participate in the Drive for National Debt Compensation. Moreover, going on his way, he found a boy dying hit by the new train which first showed in Seoul and hurry to the doctor's office carrying him on his back and gave some portion of the fund for the Drive. After all, these activities of him seem to include the writer's purpose not only to show the patriotism of Nam Sang-duk but also to reveal the falseness and the oppression of the Japanese Militarism through the victim by the train, which is propagandized as the symbol of modernization and the point of the modem civilization which is propagandized by the Japanese Imperialism. Another one, Park Sung-hwan, the battalion commander, heard the news of the painful outcries of Yang Sung-hwan who had known the reality of the dismission of Josun army ordered by the Emperor' false will being forced by Lideungbakmun and his pro-Japanese Lee Wan-young, killed himself by a pistol. Nam Sang-duk, the hero, hearing the gun-sound and witnessing the scene of the suicide, dashed to the common soldiers, stimulated them, and resisted in arms. Nam Sang-duk, determined to die and with a bundle of explosive, rushed to the city gate where the Japanese machine-gun position and the fortress were lined up with and died a heroic death raising the morale of the rebel forces. These gallantry and intrepidity come to the victory in the end and they transfer to the esthetical category of 'heroism' and 'nobility' which the North Korean esthetics categorized. In 『Gunbaba』, there appears a peculiar assistant, Park jwa-su, who is set up a very
Through the theoretical study on Sa-sang constitutional medicine from a evolutionary point of view, the result was obtained as follows. 1. The system of Sa-Sim-Sin-Mul(事心身物) in Sa-sang constitutional medicine is similar to the theory of evolution of Teilhard de Chardin. 2. The concept of Yin and Yang in Sa-sang constitutional medicine can be set up by the demand and necessity in the progress of evolution and the time of the differentiation of functions. 3. The Sung-Jung(性情) of each Sa-sang constitution can be explained as the strategy and form survival. 4. The theory of physiology, pathology and therapy in Sa-sang constitutional medicine can be hypothesized by the evolutionary standards which are related with the thermo-metabolism and hematopoietic-immune system.
This study attempted to provide a spectrum analysis for quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality of singing students rather than the presence or absence of the singer's formant. The regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between ringing quality, SPR, and SPP of singing voice of college student subjects majoring in music. This study measured singing power ratio (SPR) in 41 singing students. Digital audio recordings were made in sung vowels for acoustic analyses. Each sample was judged by 1 experienced singing teacher and 4 voice pathologists on one semantic bipolar 7-point scales (ringing-dull). The results showed that the SPR and SPP had significant correlations with ringing Quality. The SPR had a significant relationship with ringing quality on singing voice in singing students. The SPR can be an important quantitative measurement for evaluating singing voice quality.
"Ogamdo", which means map viewed from crow, written by Lee Sang is a Korean modernist poem. Although many scholars have studied this work, they haven`t explained completely contents of it. When Korea was occupied from Japan and was become a colonial country, Lee Sang practiced painting, first, and then wrote his works, that is, novels, poems, and essays. Then he was participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Meeting) with Kim Ki-rim, Jeong Ji-Yong, etc. to talk and discuss a literary topics included the western modernism and others. That time, I think, he recognized Korean traditional myth related to the three legs crow in the old Korean myth. In the old myth the crow has lived in the sun and given the human bing help. When Lee Sang had composed Ogamdo, he used it as symbols to explain the various preassure from Japan in the colonial period. And so I think he was interested in the western modernism related to James Joyce`s mythic narrative included T. S. Eliot, and when wrote works he used this method. Now Lee Sang`s works have been studied till deconstruction theory, and in this sense I think scholars must review Lee Sang`s works by postcolonial theory.
This paper is to examine affiliation of Yisang and James Joyce in Yi Sang's “Dark Room of Map”. He wrote it in 1932, when Japan occupied forcedly Korea and governed her by colonial policy. In this work, he created a character, Lee Sang, using stars in sky appeared at night, especially seating at the rest room through his contemplation. This work is similar to James Joyce's Ulysses, who is the king of Ithaca, a main character in Homer's Odyssey. He created Leopold Bloom in Ulysses in Dublin when Ireland was occupied by United Kingdom by monologue. Like Joyce, Yi Sang used monologue in making his works. Said says in Secular Criticism that relationships of filiation and affiliation are plentiful in modern cultural history, and he suggested that Joyce's Ulysses and T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land are two especially well-known instances of filiation and affiliation. Like this, relationship of Yi Sang and Joyce is certain evidence in their works. Furthermore, we may study Yi Sang through relationship to more James Joyce's modernism with other Western modernism.