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          The gep oncogenes, Gα<sub>12</sub> and Gα<sub>13</sub>, upregulate the transforming growth factor-β1 gene

          Lee, S J,Yang, J W,Cho, I J,Kim, W D,Cho, M K,Lee, C H,Kim, S G Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009 Oncogene Vol.28 No.9

          Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) plays a role in neoplastic transformation and transdifferentiation. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB>, referred to as the gep oncogenes, stimulate mitogenic pathways. Nonetheless, no information is available regarding their roles in the regulation of the TGFβ1 gene and the molecules linking them to gene transcription. Knockdown or knockout experiments using murine embryonic fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells indicated that a Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> deficiency reduced constitutive, auto-stimulatory or thrombin-inducible TGFβ1 gene expression. In contrast, transfection of activated mutants of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> enabled the knockout cells to promote TGFβ1 induction. A promoter deletion analysis suggested that activating protein 1 (AP-1) plays a role in TGFβ1 gene transactivation, which was corroborated by the observation that a deficiency of the G-proteins decreased the AP-1 activity, whereas their activation enhanced it. Moreover, mutation of the AP-1-binding site abrogated the ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> to induce the TGFβ1 gene. Transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of Rho or Rac, but not Cdc42, prevented gene transactivation and decreased AP-1 activity downstream of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB>. In summary, Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> regulate the expression of the TGFβ1 gene through an increase in Rho/Rac-dependent AP-1 activity, implying that the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-Gα<SUB>12</SUB> pathway is involved in the TGFβ1-mediated transdifferentiation process.Oncogene (2009) 28, 1230–1240; doi:10.1038/onc.2008.488; published online 19 January 2009

        • KCI등재

          세관 양광주 방전에서 플라즈마 확산의 완전 해

          김동준,정종문,김정현,황하청,정재윤,조윤희,임현교,구제환,최은하,조광섭,Jin, D.J.,Jeong, J.M.,Kim, J.H.,Hwang, H.C.,Chung, J.Y.,Cho, Y.H.,Lim, H.K.,Koo, J.H.,Choi, E.H.,Cho, G.S. 한국진공학회 2010 Applied Science and Convergence Technology Vol.19 No.1

          관경이 수 mm인 세관 램프 내부에서 플라즈마의 확산을 조사하기 위하여 이극성(ambipolar) 확산방정식을 해하였다. 반경 방향의 확산에 의한 유리관 벽에서의 플라즈마 소멸 특성시간은 $\tau_r\;=\;(r_0/2.4)^2/D_a$로 주어진다. 반경 $r_0{\sim}1\;mm$이고 이극성 확산계수 $D_a{\sim}0.01\;m^2/s$ 이면, $\tau_r{\sim}17\;{\mu}s$이다. 이는 램프의 교류전원 구동에서 플라즈마를 유지하기 위한 구동 최소 주파수 ~30 kHz에 해당한다. 고전압이 인가되는 전극부에 발생한 고밀도의 플라즈마가 양광주로 확산되는 특성시간은 $\tau_z{\sim}0.1\;s$이다. 고밀도 플라즈마 경계에서의 시간에 대한 확산속도는 $t{\sim}10^{-6}\;s$일 때 $u_D{\sim}10^2\;m/s$이고, $t{\sim}10^{-3}\;s$이면 그 속도는 $u_D{\sim}1\;m/s$로 느려진다. 따라서 램프 길이 ~1 m에 대하여 전극부에서 생성된 고밀도 플라즈마가 양광주 전체로 확산되는 시간은 수 초가 걸린다. The ambipolar diffusion equation has been solved in a fine-tube lamp of a few mm in diameter. In the diffusion of radial direction, the plasma diffuses and vanishes away at the glass wall by recombination with the characteristic time of plasma loss is given by $\tau_r\;=\;(r_0/2.4)^2/D_a$. With the radius $r_0{\sim}1\;mm$ and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient $D_a{\sim}0.01\;m^2/s$, the vanishing time is calculated $\tau_r{\sim}10\;{\mu}s$ which corresponds to the least value of frequency 30 kHz for the sustaining the plasma in the operation of high voltage AC-power. In the diffusion of longitudinal z-direction, a high density plasma generated at the area of a high voltage electrode, diffuses into the positive column with the characteristic time $\tau_z{\sim}0.1\;s$. The plasma diffusion velocity at the boundary of high density plasma is $u_D{\sim}10^2\;m/s$ at the time $t{\sim}10^{-6}$ s and the diffusion velocity becomes slow as $u_D{\sim}1\;m/s$ at $t{\sim}10^{-3}\;s$. Therefore, for the long lamp of 1 m, it takes about several seconds for the high density plasma at the area of electrode to diffuse through the whole positive column space.

        • SCISCIESCOPUS

          Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

          Cho, W.,Bae, Y.S.,Han, W.S.,Jeong, J.H.,Kim, J.S.,Park, H.T.,Yang, H.L.,Oh, Y.K.,Kwak, J.G. Elsevier 2015 Fusion engineering and design Vol.96 No.-

          <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120kV/70A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20kV, 30kV, and 50kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5kV/5A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to accelerator grid. This paper presents configuration and features of power supply system, main controller, and interlock system of KSTAR NBI.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. </LI> <LI> For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. </LI> <LI> The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. </LI> </UL> </P>

        • KCI등재후보

          Genetic Polymorphisms of the Bovine NOV Gene Are Significantly Associated with Carcass Traits in Korean Cattle

          B.S. Kim,S.C. Kim,C.M. Park,S.H. Lee,S.H. Cho,N.K. Kim,G.W. Jang,윤두학,B.S. Yang,S. K. Hong,H.H. Seong,최봉환 아세아·태평양축산학회 2013 Animal Bioscience Vol.26 No.6

          The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) gene and to evaluate whether these polymorphisms affect carcass traits in the Korean cattle population. We resequenced to detect SNPs from 24 unrelated individuals and identified 19 SNPs within the full 8.4-kb gene, including the 1.5-kb promoter region. Of these 19 SNPs, four were selected for genotyping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We genotyped 429 steers to assess the associations of these four SNPs with carcass traits. Statistical analysis revealed that g.7801T>C and g.8379A>C polymorphisms in the NOV gene were associated with carcass weight (p = 0.012 and 0.008, respectively), and the g.2005A>G polymorphism was associated with the back fat thickness (BF) trait (p = 0.0001). One haplotype of the four SNPs (GGTA) was significantly associated with BF (p = 0.0005). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the NOV gene may be among the important genetic factors affecting carcass yield in beef cattle.

        • KCI등재

          호흡재활프로그램이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 폐 기능에 미치는 효과 : 메타분석

          조성현(S. H. Cho),김태강(T. G. Kim) 한국재활복지공학회 2018 재활복지공학회논문지 Vol.12 No.4

          본 연구는 만성 뇌졸중 환자를 대상으로 호흡재활프로그램의 폐 기능에 대한 효과를 검증하기 위해 수행된 메타분석 연구이다. 그리고 호흡재활의 개발 및 적용을 위한 근거자료로 호흡재활 운동의 효과크기를 비교하고자 한다. 문헌은 국내 DB인 RISS, DBpia, KISS, NDSL 등을 통해 269편을 검색하였으며, 선택배제 과정을 거쳐 최종 16편의 문헌이 분석에 포함되었다. 뇌줄중 환자의 호흡재활프로그램의 평균효과크기를 산출하기 위해서 CMA프로그램을 사용하였다. 만성뇌졸중환자를 대상으로 호흡 재활프로그램에 대한 전체 폐기능의 효과크기는 Hedges’s g=0.606(95% CI: 0.420~0.792)로 통계학적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다. 폐 기능에 대한 4가지 하위 변인에 대한 효과 크기가 모두 유의하지만 각 결과 값이 변수에 따라 차이가 나는 것으로 나타났다. 이 중 최대날숨속도(PEF)의 효과크기가 .795로 가장 크게 나타났고 이어서 노력성 폐활량(FVC), 1초간 노력성 날숨량(FEV1), 1초간 노력성 날숨량의 노력성 폐활량에 대한 비(FEV1/FVC)의 순으로 나타났다. 본 메타분석결과에 의하면 호흡재활프로그램은 만성뇌졸중환자의 폐 기능에 중간 정도의 효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 이를 통해 호흡재활 프로그램의 효과에 대한 객관적인 증거를 제공한다. This study was a meta-analysis that evaluated the results of research on the pulmonary function effects of respiration rehabilitation programs for chronic stroke patients. In addition, we compare the effect sizes of respiration rehabilitation exercise to provide evidence for future development and application. 16 studies selection and exclusion criteria out of 269 potential studies obtained from the literature search via RISS, DBpia, KISS, NDSL, and Korean Academic Publication Database. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program was used to analyze the mean effect size of the respiration rehabilitation program on stroke patients’ pulmonary function. The effect size of pulmonary function for respiratory rehabilitation program was Hedges’s g=0.606(95% CI: 0.420~0.792). Subcategories of pulmonary function were also analyzed and compared and are shown in order of descending effect size: PEF(Hedges’s g=0.795), FVC(Hedges’s g=0.677), FEV1(Hedges’s g=0.656), and FEV1/FVC(Hedges’s g=0.274). This meta-analytic study found that respiration rehabilitation programs are moderately effective in pulmonary function in chronic stroke patients. This study provides objective evidence of the effectiveness of respiration rehabilitation programs.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Genetic Polymorphisms of the Bovine NOV Gene Are Significantly Associated with Carcass Traits in Korean Cattle

          Kim, B.S.,Kim, S.C.,Park, C.M.,Lee, S.H.,Cho, S.H.,Kim, N.K.,Jang, G.W.,Yoon, D.H.,Yang, B.S.,Hong, S.K.,Seong, H.H.,Choi, B.H. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2013 Animal Bioscience Vol.26 No.6

          The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) gene and to evaluate whether these polymorphisms affect carcass traits in the Korean cattle population. We resequenced to detect SNPs from 24 unrelated individuals and identified 19 SNPs within the full 8.4-kb gene, including the 1.5-kb promoter region. Of these 19 SNPs, four were selected for genotyping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We genotyped 429 steers to assess the associations of these four SNPs with carcass traits. Statistical analysis revealed that g.7801T>C and g.8379A>C polymorphisms in the NOV gene were associated with carcass weight (p = 0.012 and 0.008, respectively), and the g.2005A>G polymorphism was associated with the back fat thickness (BF) trait (p = 0.0001). One haplotype of the four SNPs (GGTA) was significantly associated with BF (p = 0.0005). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the NOV gene may be among the important genetic factors affecting carcass yield in beef cattle.

        • In vitro antibacterial activity and major bioactive components of Cinnamomum verum essential oils against cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

          Choi, O.,Cho, S.K.,Kim, J.,Park, C.G.,Kim, J. China Humanity Technology Publishing House 2016 Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine Vol.6 No.4

          Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum verum (C. verum) from 32 different essential oils against cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). Methods: The antibacterial activities of each essential oil were individually investigated against S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The essential oil of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to determine the major constituents of C. verum essential oil. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of the most effective constituent was investigated. Results: The essential oil from C. verum exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major components of C. verum essential oil were cinnamaldehyde (56.3%), cinnamyl acetate (7.1%) and β-phellandrene (6.3%). The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was measured using broth dilution assays. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was 0.02% (v/v) against both bacterial strains tested. The minimum bactericidal concentration of cinnamaldehyde against S. mutans and S. sobrinus were 0.2% and 0.1% (v/v), respectively. Conclusions: The essential oil of C. verum and its major component cinnamaldehyde possessed considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against cariogenic bacteria, S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains. These results showed that the essential oil of C. verum and its bioactive component, cinnamaldehyde, have potential for application as natural agents for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

        • Modified Panax ginseng extract regulates autophagy by AMPK signaling in A549 human lung cancer cells

          Yoo, H.-S.,Kim, J. M.,Jo, E.,Cho, C.-K.,Lee, S.-Y.,Kang, H. S.,Lee, M.-G.,Yang, P.-Y.,Jang, I.-S. Spandidos Publications 2017 Oncology reports Vol.37 No.6

          <P>Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of MRGX, we performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in the A549 cells. Molecular mechanisms that were associated with the anticancer activity of MRGX were studied, with a special focus on the autophagy-related multiple signaling pathways in lung cancer cells. Microarray analyses elucidated autophagy-related genes affected by MRGX. Administration of MRGX at 100 mu g/ml induced punctate cytoplasmic expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and ATG5 and increased expression of endogenous LC3-II whereas 50 mu g/ml did not inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. Compared to the control cells, in cells treated with MRGX at 100 mu g/ml, the level of p-Akt was increased, while that of mTOR-4EBP1 was decreased. Downregulation of mTOR and 4EBP1 in the MRGX-treated cells was found not to be a p-Ulk (S757)-dependent pathway, but a p-Ulk (S317)-dependent autophagic pathway, using AMPK. These data suggest that MRGX regulates AMPK and induces autophagy in lung cancer cells.</P>

        • Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects

          Oh, M.J.,Hwang, H.H.,Kim, H.G.,Lee, G.H.,Cho, Y.S.,Lee, S.Y.,Kang, S.Y.,Cho, K.H.,Lee, Y.Y.,Lee, Y.J.,Jang, C.G.,Lee, S.Y. Excerpta Medica] ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2017 Clinical therapeutics Vol.39 No.7

          Purpose: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. Methods: A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the C<SUB>max</SUB> and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC<SUB>0-last</SUB>) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using C<SUB>max</SUB> and AUC<SUB>0-last</SUB> converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Findings: Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of C<SUB>max</SUB> and AUC<SUB>0-last</SUB> were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1.0407, respectively, for olmesartan. Hypotension was the most frequent AE, and it was observed in 4 volunteers with the test product and 7 volunteers with the reference product. Both the test and reference formulations were well tolerated. Implications: The present study demonstrates that the newly developed FDC product (test drug) and the conventional FDC product (reference drug) have comparable pharmacokinetic characteristics in healthy adult male volunteers. Both the test and reference products indicated good tolerance in this population, and no serious AEs were observed.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

          Lee, J.H.,Cho, S.,Paik, H.D.,Choi, C.W.,Nam, K.T.,Hwang, S.G.,Kim, Soo-Ki Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.10

          This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, $135{\mu}g/mL$. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of $306{\mu}g/mL$ and $183{\mu}g/mL$, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% ($EC_{50}$) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and $47.8{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was $22.5{\mu}g/mL$ and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria.

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