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An electrochemical sensor for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Pb2+ was developed using polypyrrole-graphene (PPY-rGO) nanocomposite by electrochemical synthesis. The PPYrGO-modified electrode possessed a large effective area because of unique 3D porous architectures, and it displayed excellent selectivity for the determination of Pb2+. The response of Pb2+ on the nanocomposite-modified electrode was evaluated, and the relevant parameters were optimized by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The stripping response was highly linear (R2 = 0.987) over a Pb2+ concentration range of 5 X 10-9 mol/L to 7.5 X 10-7 mol/L, with a detection limit of 4.7 X 10-11 mol/L (3σ method). Furthermore, its applicability was validated for the determination of Pb2+ levels using spiked tap water at different concentrations. The polyporous structure, satisfactory reproducibility, long-term stability and simple synthesis endow the PPY-rGO nanocomposite a promising application in the determination of Pb2+.
본 논문은 중국 국유기업이 중국 지역의 성장과 효율성에 미치는 영향을 실증적으로 분석하였다. 이를 위해 1985년부터 2010년까지 중국 28개 성시(省市)의 패널자료를 이용하여 확률적변경생산함수를 추정하고, 이에 기초한 지역별 기술효율성을 추정하였다. 그리고 지역경제에서 차지하는 국유기업 비중을 포함한 기술효율성에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 회귀분석을 통해 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 주요 결과는 첫째, 국유기업 비중과 지역의 인당 소득 간에 정의 관계가 있는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 이는 과거 성장과정에서는 국유기업이 지역 성장에 중요한 영향을 미쳤음을 알 수 있다. 둘째, 중국의 경제체제는 2000년을 기준으로 생산구조가 변화된 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 국유기업 비중과 지역의 기술적 효율성과는 부(-)의 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 국유기업이 지역성장에 도움을 준 것은 사실이지만, 비효율적 성장이 이루어지도록 하였다는 것을 의미한다. 이러한 결과는 중국 경제가 양적 성장의 한계에 직면할 우려가 있는 상황에서 장기적이고 지속적인 고도성장을 위해서는 비효율적인 국유기업의 개혁이 무엇보다 중요함을 시사한다. The paper is to shed empirical light on the impact of state-owned enterprises on the economic growth and efficiency, employing data for a panel of 28 provinces in China from 1985 through 2010. The main findings are as followings; first, the ratio of employment by the SOEs to total employment of a province has been correlated positively with the per capita GRDP. This result implies that the SOEs has contributed to the regional economic growth. Secondly, the ratio of SOEs to the regional economy in terms of employment turns out a negative relation with technological efficiency measured by a Stochastic Frontier Model estimation. As a result, even though it is true that the SOEs have contributed to regional growth, the way of their contribution was of inefficient. The result suggests that inefficient SOEs be reformed for China`s long-term economic growth under the circumstance that China faces the difficulties for input-oriented economic development.
셀-튜브 열교환기는 산업분야에서 가장 널리 사용되는 열교환기이다. 열교환기의 열적 성능을 개선하기 위하여 셀-튜브 열교환기에 대해 배플의 배치, 배플의 방향, 배플의 표면의 돌기형상 등의 인자를 변경하였으며, 유동의 박리 및 경계층해석에 적절히 이용되는 SST 난류모델을 적용하여 열전달특성을 고찰하였다. CFD해석시 경계조건는 셀측의 입구온도를 344K로 일정하게 하고, 물의 유량을 6, 12, 18, 24 l/min로 변화시켰다. 그 결과로는 지그재그형 배치가 열전달률 및 압력강하가 향상되는 것으로 나타났으며, 배플의 방향은 기존형보다 수직형 및 각도 45°형이 열전달이 향상되는 것으로 나타났고, 압력강하는 거의 차이가 없었다. 또한 배플의 돌기형상은 열전달면적을 증가시킴으로써 열전달률 및 압력강하가 향상됨을 알 수 있었다. 해석결과를 통하여 열전달 증가가 유동의 박리, 유체의 체류시간, 튜브와의 접촉면적, 유량, 와류 등에 따라 크게 영향을 받는다는 것을 알 수 있었다. In numbers of kinds of heat exchanger, the shell-tube heat exchanger is the most commonly used type of heat exchanger in the industry field. In order to improve the thermal performance of the heat exchanger, this study was analyzed heat transfer characteristics according to arrangement of baffle and direction of baffle and bump phase of baffle about shell-tube heat exchanger using appropriate SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model for flow separation and boundary layer analysis. As the boundary condition for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, the inlet temperature of shell side was constantly 344 K and the variation of the water flow rate was 6, 12, 18 and 24 l/min. As the result of analysis, zigzag baffle arrangement enhances heat transfer rate and pressure drop. Furthermore, in the direction of the baffle, heat transfer rate is more improved with vertical type and angle 45° type than existing type, and pressure drop was little difference. Also, the bump shape of baffle surface contributes to heat transfer rate and pressure drop improvement due to the increased heat transfer area. Through analysis results, we knew that the increase of the heat transfer was influenced by flow separation, fluid residual time, contact area with the tube, flow rate, swirl and so on.
Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has shown various pharmacological and physiological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of oridonin on human ovarian cancer cell lines has not been determined. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed oridonin inhibited tumor growth of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) in vivo. We then assessed mechanisms and found that oridonin specifically abrogated the phosphorylation/activation of mTOR signaling. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin is a potential inhibitor of ovarian cancer by blocking the mTOR signaling pathway.
The purpose of this paper is to make a point that "poda" should be divided into ‘poda1' which indicates activity and ‘poda2' which indicates state. ‘poda1' has the features of activity, intention and duration, while ‘poda2' which expresses instantaneous visual contact has the features of fortuity, passivity and instantaneite. This semantic difference about ‘poda1' and "poda2" has a effect on their aspect. We can prove the necessity of distinguishing "poda1" from "poda2" by the combination of ‘poda' and some adverbs such as "ilbureo‘, 'kyesok‘, 'uyeonhi‘, temporal adverbs such as ‘T-tongan', ‘T-mane', endings such as ‘-ko issda', ‘-eo issda', imperative sentences, ‘-lyeogo hada' or negative sentences. Especially, "poida‘ can also be used to indicate state besides ‘poda2", and form corresponding relation with ‘poda2' only, but not ‘poda1'. Furthermore, according to the aspectual properties of ‘poda‘, ‘poda1‘ can be defined as an activity verb, while ‘poda2‘ can be defined as an achievement verb. Both the composition verbs including ‘poda' as a component and the comparison with Chinese can also be helpful to proving the rationality of distinguishing ‘poda1' and ‘poda2'.
Methods: woman in her 70s found lesion in pancreatic neck by ordinary physical examination and denied abdominal discomfort, vomiting, nausea, fever or backache. undergone a robotic distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection (Appleby). Surgeon: Rong Liu, Sai Chou Results: operation time94 mins blood loss: 50ml hospital stay: 5 days postoperative pathology: pancreatic adenocarcinoma R0 without lymph(-) No postoperative pancreas fistula
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning which accounts for high mortality. Accumulating evidence suggest adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine predominantly secreted by adipocytes, maybe a promising therapeutic option in fibrotic diseases. Here we aim to evaluate the potential effect and mechanism (s) of exogenous globular form of APN on PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Eighty BALB/C mice were divided into four groups (control group, PQ intoxication group, PQ + low dose APN group and PQ + high dose APN group) and sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21. Lung tissues were collected and analyzed histologically and biochemically. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into three groups (control group, PQ intoxication group and APN group) and collected for measurements at 24, 48 and 72 h after PQ stimulation. HE and Masson trichrome staining were used to observe the histological alterations of lungs. The Ashcroft score of lungs were also measured. Cell apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to detect intracellular O2-. The protein and mRNA expression level of TGF-β1, NF-κB p65,α -SMA and IL-1Ra were assessed by Western blot and Real-time quantitative flouorescence-PCR. APN administration significantly ameliorated PQ mediated fibrotic histological alterations and reduced the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and NF-κB p65 in lung tissues of mice in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Pretreated with APN down-regulated the expression of α -SMA, O2- and NF-κB p65 in WI-38 lung fibroblasts exposure to PQ, while up-regulated the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-1Ra. Taken together, this study reveals the beneficial effect of APN against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, which may through suppressing NF-κB dependent inflammatory and TGF-β1 mediated fibrotic events.