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          Revising the Sign of "America" : The Postcolonial Humanism of America Is in the Heart

          Roe,,Jae,H. 한국영어영문학회 2003 영어 영문학 Vol.49 No.4

          Carlos Bulosan's autobiographical novel .America Is in the Heart revises American history from the perspective of a Filipino immigrant. After the Philippines became a U.S. colony following the Spanish-American War in 1898, there was continued resistance against the U.S. and the ruling classes of the Philippines. The peasants were the leaders of this resistance, and Bulosan, as the son of a poor peasant, experienced this history of oppression and struggle. Part One records this experience, and reveals the disparity between the American ideals of freedom and democracy and the reality of colonial domination. Such disparity between the ideals and reality of the U.S. becomes the central theme of the novel. In the U.S., Bulosan becomes a migrant worker and later participates in movements against economic exploitation and racial discrimination. Through this process, he comes to believe that the gap between the ideals of freedom and democracy and the reality of the U.S. is caused by capitalism and racism, and that the ideals of America can only be realized through class struggle. The "America" to which the title refers is not the reality of America but this radical ideal that America represents for Bulosan. In other words, the America in his heart is a sign of an ideal that does not exist in reality but must be realized. From Part Two to Part Four, Bulosan records the pain and suffering experienced by the Filipinos in the U.S., but maintains his hope that the ideals represented by America can be realized. The claim that America is in the heart is an expression of this hope. In order to discuss the historical and political context of America Is in the Heart, this essay quotes from various sources that deal with the history of the Philippines, the relationship between the Philippines and the U.S., the history of Filipino immigrants, the oppression and struggles of migrant workers in California, and so on.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          The Late Transcripts of SV40

          Roe,,Jung,Hye,Park,,Joo,Sang 한국유전학회 1988 Genes & Genomics Vol.10 No.4

          We have examined the structures and cellulardistributions of the SV40 late RNAs present in monkey cells at late times after infection. One particular RNA species, spliced at residue 373 (373-RNA), was found to be as abundant as the major late 16S RNAs. This result was unexpected since previous reports showed that the molecular ratio of the 373-spliced 19S RNA to 16S RNA is approximately 0.1 among either cytoplasmic polyadenylated or polysomal viral RNAs. Both sedimentation and electrophoretic analyses indicated that the 373-RNA was approximately 16S to 19S in size. Analysis of the structure of this novel RNA species by S1 mapping and primer extension showed that its 5′ end mapped to the major cap site at nucleotide residue 325 and that nucleotide residue 373 was joined covalently to nucleotide residue 558 as is the case with the majority of the cytoplasmic polyadenylated SV40 late 19S RNAs. However, whereas most SV40 late 16S RNA is polyadenylated and located in the cytoplasm, the majority of 373-RNA was found to lack polyA, exhibit sequence heterogeneity at its 3′ end and be located in the nucleus. The cellular distribution is reversed when the remaining 3′ splice region (around residue 1463) is deleted from this RNA. This implies that the 3' splice region, in the absence of its 5′ splice pair, inhibits the nuclear transport of this 19S spliced RNA, possibly by forming a splicing complex which is an intermediate for the formation of a complete spliceosome.

        • KCI등재

          Memory and "Scraps of Truth" : Tim O`Brien`s Vietnam War Narratives 팀 오브라이언의 베트남전쟁 내러티브

          Roe,,Jae,H 한국현대영미소설학회 2001 현대영미소설 Vol.8 No.1

          본 논문은 베트남전쟁을 다룬Tim O'Brien의 작품들 - If I Die in a Combat Zone, Going After Cacciato, The Things They Carried - 에서 나타나는 베트남전쟁의 현실과 실험적인 서술방식을 논의한다. O'Brien의 작품들에는 내러티브의 형태와 베트남전쟁에 대한 작가의 시각이 불가분의 관계를 이루고있다. 전쟁당시 보병으로서의 경험을 재조명하는 과정에서, O'Brien은 미국인들이 잊어서는 안될 역사적인 교훈을 강조한다. Edward Herman과 Noam Chomsky는 베트남전쟁의 역사를 미국 제국주의와 민족학살의 역사로 설명한다. 또한, 이러한 역사가 미국매스미디어에 의해 의도적으로 변경되어서 미국인들이 베트남전쟁에 대해 잘못된 인식을 가지게 되었다고 주장한다. Jim Neilson은 이러한 잘못된 역사의식이 베트남전쟁문학에서도 나타난다고 주장한다. 이러한 현상은 문학작품들보다도 문학비평을 통해서 이루어졌다는 논지이다. 평론가와 학자들이 베트남전쟁 문학을 비역사적인, 미학적인 관점에서 분석해왔으며, 특히 역사적 현실을 불투명하게 만드는 postmodernism적인 이론에 의존하는 경향이 문제라고 지적한다. O'Brien의 작품들도 이러한 관점에서 분석되어왔는데, 본 논문은 이 작품들의 미학적, 문학이론적 측면보다는 역사적, 정치적 측면을 강조한다. 소설과 논픽션의 구분이 불투명한 O'Brien의 작품들에서 볼 수 있는 서술방식은 단지 문학적인 실험이 아니라 작가의 경험을 통해 베트남전쟁의 역사를 재조명하는 정치적인 의도가 있다는 것이 본 논문의 논지이다.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          The Characterization of an Abundant SV40 Late RNA Species in the Nucleus of the Infected Monkey Cell

          Roe,,Jung,Hye 한국유전학회 1986 Genes & Genomics Vol.8 No.4

          Late in the lytic cycle of infection of monkey cells SV40 produces two classes of late RNAs, 16S and 19S in size, which encode the virion proteins VP1 and VP2/3, respectively. These RNAs are made by differential splicing of the primary nuclear transcripts and exhibit heterogeneity in their 5'ends as well as splice sites utilized in processing. The mechanism of selection is not yet known. The relative abundances of the various species of spliced late RNAs present in the cytoplasm of SV40-infected monkey cells has been determined for both polysomal and polyadenylated RNA. The ratio of 16S to 19S cytoplasmic, polyadenylated RNA is approximately four. I have examined the structures and cellular distributions of the SV40 late RNAs present in monkey cells at late times after infection (48 hours after infection). One particular RNA species, spliced at residue 373 (373-RNA), was found to be as abundant as the major late 16S RNAs. This result was unexpected since previous reports showed that the molecular ratio of the 373-spliced 19S RNA to 16S RNA is approximately 0.1 among either cytoplasmic polyadenylated or polysomal viral RNAs. Both sedimentation and electrophoretic analyses indicated that the 373-RNA was approximately 16S to 19S in size. Therefore, it was not a splicing intermediate or the product of premature termination of transcription within the late leader region. Analysis of the structure of this RNA by S1 mapping and primer extension showed that its 5'end mapped to the major cap site (at nt. 325) and that nucleotide residue 373 was joined to residue 558 as is found in the majority of the cytoplasmic, polyadenylated SV40 late 19S RNAs. However, as judged by the oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography, whereas most SV40 late 16S RNA is polyadenylated and located in the cytoplasm, the majority of 373-RNA was found to lack poly A tail, exhibit heterogeneity at its 3'end and be located in the nucleus. It is probable that the lack of poly A caused the preferential distribution of 373-RNA in the nucleus, thus regulating the amount of the functional mRNA in the cytoplasm. The structure of the 3'end of this RNA is currently under investigation. This will tell whether the 3'end is generated by transcriptional termination or by random degradation. Whether this RNA has ever been polyadenylated will be determined by the pulse-chase type of experiments.

        • p53 STABILIZATION AND TRANSACTIVATION BY A VON HIPPEL-LINDAU PROTEIN

          Roe,,Jae-Seok,Kim,,Hyungsoo,Lee,,Soon-Min,Youn,,Hong-Duk 이화여자대학교 세포신호전달연구센터 2006 고사리 세포신호전달 심포지움 Vol. No.8

          von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. Although hypoxia inducible factor-α(HIF-α) is a well-documented substrate of a von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein(pVHL), it remains controversial as to whether the dysregulation of HIF is sufficient for de novo tumorigenesis in VHL-deleted cells, which suggests that pVHL may have HIF-independent tumor suppressor functions. Here we found that pVHL directly associates with and stabilizes p53 by suppressing the mdm2-mediated ubiquitination and nuclear export of p53. Moreover, upon genotoxic stress, pVHL invoked a synergistic interaction between p53 and p300, and thus the acetylation of p53, which ultimately led to increasing p53 transcriptional activity and p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This mechanism suggests that the tumor suppressor pVHL has an unexpected function to upregulate another tumor suppressor p53.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          The Late Transcripts of SV40 Accumulated in The Nucleus of Infected Monkey Cells

          Roe,,Jung,Hye,Park,,Joo,Sang 한국유전학회 1988 Genes & Genomics Vol.10 No.4

          We have examined the structures and cellular distributions of the SV40 late RNAs present in monkey cells at late times after infection. One particular RNA species, spliced at residue 373 (373-RNA), was found to be as abundant as the major late 16S RNAs. This result was unexpected since previous reports showed that the molecular ratio of the 373-spliced 19S RNA to 16S RNA is approximately 0.1 among either cytoplasmic polyadenylated or polysomal viral RNAs. Both sedimentation and electrophoretic analyses indicated that the 373-RNA was approximately 16S to 19S in size. Analysis of the structure of this novel RNA species by S1 mapping and primer extension showed that its 5' end mapped to the major cap site at nucleotide residue 325 and that nucleotide residue 373 was joined covalently to nucleotide residue 558 as is the case with the majority of the cytoplasmic polyadenylated SV40 late 19S RNAs. However, whereas most SV40 late 16S RNA is polyadenylated and located in the cytoplasm, the majority of 373-RNA was found to lack polyA, exhibit sequence heterogeneity at its 3' end and be located in the nucleus. The cellular distribution is reversed when the remaining 3' splice region (around residue 1463) is deleted from this RNA. This implies that the 3' splice region, in the absence of its 5' splice pair, inhibits the nuclear transport of this 19S spliced RNA, possibly by forming a splicing complex which is an intermediate for the formation of a complete spliceosome.

        • KCI우수등재
        • p53 Stabilization and Transactivation by a von Hippel-Lindau Protein

          Roe,,Jae-Seok,Kim,,Hyungsoo,Lee,,Soon-Min,Kim,,Sung-Tae,Cho,,Eun-Jung,Youn,,Hong-Duk Elsevier 2006 Molecular cell Vol.22 No.3

          <P><B>Summary</B></P><P>von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. Although hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) is a well-documented substrate of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), it remains unclear whether the dysregulation of HIF is sufficient to account for de novo tumorigenesis in VHL-deleted cells. Here we found that pVHL directly associates with and stabilizes p53 by suppressing Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination and nuclear export of p53. Moreover, upon genotoxic stress, pVHL invoked an interaction between p53 and p300 and the acetylation of p53, which ultimately led to an increase in p53 transcriptional activity and p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor pVHL has an unexpected function to upregulate the tumor suppressor p53.</P>

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Biotin 표지 HBV DNA 를 이용한 Dot Hybridization 에 관한 연구

          노임환,이동후,노정혜 대한소화기학회 1988 대한소화기학회지 Vol.20 No.3

          A dot blot hybridization technique utilizing a biotin-labelled recombinant DNA probe was used to examine hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum. The lowest amount of HBV DNA in serum detectable by the color development of an avidin-biotin alkaline phosphatase complex was 40 picogram per 50 microliter. Validity of this method was confirmed by autoradiography using 32P-labelled and 3H-labelled HBV DNA probes. HBV DNA was found in 100% (34/34) of the HBsAg-positive and in 73.5% (25/34) of the HBsAg-negative subjects. In contrast, all nine cases showing negativity in HBV DNA were also HBsAg-negative. Correlation of Hbe antigen/antibody with HBV DNA was investigated in 19 sera of which HBsAg was negative but anti-HBc positive. Of 13 sera with anti-Hbe 10 (76.9%) cases revealed HBV DNA positivity, while four (66.7%) of six sera without anti-HBe were positive in HBV DNA. In conclusion, serum dot hybridization assay utilizing a birtinylated probe proved useful in the detection of a free form of HBV DNA regardless of the presence of HBsAg and irrespective of HBeAg-anti-HBe status. Also an anti-HBs does not always correspond to the clearance of HBV. And this indicates, in turn, that the potential infectivity of certain sera previously considered to be safe should be kept in mind. Moreover, it is emphasized that practical advantages in speed, reproducibility, and safety have made this alternative even more attractive than autoradiography using radioisotope-labelled probes.

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