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      • THE INFLUENCE OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON PURCHASE INTENTION WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO APPAREL FITTING

        A.,Rashid,L.,Barnes 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2018 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2018 No.07

        Introduction: Country of origin has long been of interest to many researchers (e.g. Phao, 1993; Kalicharan, 2014; Yunus and Rashid, 2016). In part, this is because consumers evaluated the quality of a product based on where it was manufactured, and this became an important issue with the majority of fashion product production taking place in developing countries. Consequently, country of origin as a branding tool became an important factor in the fashion industry (Lee et al., 2013). Previously, numerous studies have suggested that consumers' perception of, and association with, country of origin are influenced by different factors, such as social, environmental and political factors and the workmanship of the country in question (e.g. Insch and McBride, 2004; Jiménez and Martín, 2012; Lee et al., 2013; Mostafa, 2015). For example, Rashid and Barnes (2017) identified the influence the media industry has on the perception of a country's image, i.e. the influence of a factory collapse in Bangladesh in 2013 (Bolle, 2014). In the same vein, studies on the country of origin effect have also found the influence that the halo and summary effects have on the product evaluation. For example, if consumers were less familiar with fashion products made in Indonesia, they would naturally infer the product attributes using the general image of Indonesian-made products, and thus rate the product based on their perception of the country as a whole (see also Kotabe and Helsen, 2009). In contrast, when consumers are familiar with a country's products (i.e. fashion designers in Paris), a summary construct model operates in which consumers develop a country's image from its product information, which then indirectly influences product perception (Han, 1989). In other words, a product naturally receives a positive attitude because of the perception of a country's products. Moreover, studies have also examined the impact of patriotism and ethnocentric behaviour on association with country image. More recently, authors, e.g. Rashid et al. (2016) and Barnes and Rashid (2017), have also made a contribution towards managerial perspectives and issues relating to the country of origin impact on the fashion industry. However, no research to date has examined the influence of country of origin on purchase intention with specific reference to apparel fitting. Apparel fitting: Over the past two decades, authors have shown increasing interest towards the fit of apparel (e.g. Otieno et al., 2005; Apeagyei et al., 2007; Holmlund et al., 2011). For example, Shim and Bickle (1993) examined women 55 years and older as catalogue shoppers and their differences in satisfaction with the fit of apparel purchased through catalogues and found that the satisfaction level was relatively low for the entire sample of 872 respondents. Some of the key issues identified were that garment fits did not accommodate body proportions for the older market, especially those who did not fit sizes that were tailored for petit or plus sizes. Consequently, it is evident that age is an important factor in apparel fitting. Furthermore, Alexander et al. (2007) pointed out the issue of personal judgement on how a garment looks on the body. Finally, other factors have also been raised, such as fit association with comfort, body-cathexis (feelings about one's body) and symbolic meanings in social interactions. Adding to this, Rahman et al. (2017) has also added how consumers often evaluate the product on the basis of descriptive, inferential, informational and/or visual cues, and these can be classified as extrinsic or intrinsic cues. “Extrinsic cues” are a product's physical structure or appearance, such as price, brand name and country of origin, whereas intrinsic cues are inherent to the physical composition of a product such as fabric, fit, colour and style. Moreover, authors have very recently also looked at apparel fitting issues in online fashion retailing (Miell et al., 2017) and technologies linked to fitting, such as 3D body scanners in a retail store (Lewis and Loker, 2016). However, the apparel fit and size association with country of origin remains an under-researched area. Research design: As this study aims to explore country of origin association from an apparel fitting perspective, a qualitative interpretivist approach is adopted (Creswell, 2007; Welch et al., 2011). This is a significant contribution to the country of origin study, as previous country of origin studies from consumer perspectives have prominently been quantitative in nature (e.g. Insch and McBride, 2004; Jiménez and Martín, 2012). Participants for study will be chosen using a judgemental approach, in particular female shoppers who consider fitting an important factor when deciding on the brand from which to purchase a product. To carry out the study, the project will use face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The semi-structured interview questions derive from the country of origin literature and are influenced by theory planned behaviour model (TBP) (Azjan, 1991), taking into account both individual and social factors that may influence customer intention and attitude towards apparel fitting and its association and or perception of a country. Interviews will last between 60 and 90 minutes and will be conducted by the researchers from March 2018 to September 2018. To analyse the data, a thematic analysis approach will be utilised to develop an understanding of the meaning, as interpreted by participants. Discussion and conclusion: The data collection for this study will help address the gap regarding how consumers deem fit as one of the important factors influencing purchasing behaviour, but also their perception of how they associate a fit of a product with the country of origin of different fashion brands. The findings will make a contribution to the literature on country of origin, fashion branding and product management. The study may also introduce practical implications on how to make the service better in a fashion retail setting, where apparel fit is becoming an issue. Thus, the study may also add knowledge to the literature on service marketing.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        7Effects on Thermal and Ablative Properties of Phenolic Resin (Novolac) Blended Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

        Rashid,Nawaz,Naghmana,Rashid,Zulfiqar,Ali,Asad,U.,Khan,M.,Shahid,Nazir,Noaman,Ul-Haq 한국섬유공학회 2018 Fibers and polymers Vol.19 No.6

        In this work we investigated the ablative response and thermal properties of phenolic resin (PR) blended acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) composites. PR was added to NBR in the proportion of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 phr by means of two-roll laboratory mill. PR remarkably improved ablation resistance and thermal properties of NBR/PR composite. The linear and mass ablation rates reduced to 21.3 % and 26.1 % respectively. The char content deposition increased from 0.19 to 26.8 %. Char layer produced by PR, obviously reduced the erosion rate of the NBR/PR composite relative to neat NBR (without PR). Detailed morphological studies of the composite and post-test (ablation) microstructure of char revealed that higher loading of PR in the rubber composite produced dense char layer firmly intact to the substrate. Furthermore, thermal stability of the composite improved by 22-23 ºC, however, thermal conductivity of the composite slightly increased by 0.115 W/mK for 50 Phr of PR loading as compared to the neat.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Fuzzy logic model for the prediction of concrete compressive strength by incorporating green foundry sand

        Khuram,Rashid,Tabasam,Rashid 사단법인 한국계산역학회 2017 Computers and Concrete, An International Journal Vol.19 No.6

        This work is conducted with the aim of using waste material to reserve the natural resources. The objective is accomplished by conducting experimentation and verify by modeling based on fuzzy logic. In experimentation, concrete is casted by using natural/river sand as fine aggregate and termed as control specimen. Natural sand is conserved by replacing it with used foundry sand (UFS) by an amount of 10, 20 and 30% by weight. Fresh and hardened properties of concrete are investigated at different ages. It is observed that compressive strength and modulus of elasticity reduced with the increase in amount of UFS. Furthermore, concrete compressive strength is predicted by using fuzzy logic model and verified at different replacement ratio and age with experimental observations.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        A dynamic oppositional biogeography-based optimization approach for time-varying electrical impedance tomography

        Rashid,,A,Kim,,S,Liu,,D,Kim,,K,Y IOP 2016 PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT Vol.37 No.6

        <P>Dynamic electrical impedance tomography-based image reconstruction using conventional algorithms such as the extended Kalman filter often exhibits inferior performance due to the presence of measurement noise, the inherent ill-posed nature of the problem and its critical dependence on the selection of the initial guess as well as the state evolution model. Moreover, many of these conventional algorithms require the calculation of a Jacobian matrix. This paper proposes a dynamic oppositional biogeography-based optimization (OBBO) technique to estimate the shape, size and location of the non-stationary region boundaries, expressed as coefficients of truncated Fourier series, inside an object domain using electrical impedance tomography. The conductivity of the object domain is assumed to be known <I>a priori</I>. Dynamic OBBO is a novel addition to the family of dynamic evolutionary algorithms. Moreover, it is the first such study on the application of dynamic evolutionary algorithms for dynamic electrical impedance tomography-based image reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm is tested through numerical simulations and experimental study and is compared with state-of-the-art gradient-based extended Kalman filter. The dynamic OBBO is shown to be far superior compared to the extended Kalman filter. It is found to be robust to measurement noise as well as the initial guess, and does not rely on <I>a priori</I> knowledge of the state evolution model.</P>

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Ectopic expression of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ in tobacco: alteration of cell fate in root tip region and shoot organogenesis in cultured segments

        Rashid,,Syeda,Zinia,Kyo,,Masaharu The Korean Society of Plant Biotechnology 2010 Plant biotechnology reports Vol.4 No.1

        A specific deleted version of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1 (ARR1) lacking the signal receiver domain (1.152 amino acids)-coding sequence, referred to as $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$, was amplified using Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prepared from adult leaves and transferred into the genome of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun under the transcriptional control of a ${\beta}$-estradiol-inducible expression system. The ectopic expression of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ affected the morphology of transgenic seedlings and their segments in vitro. In the presence of an inducer, ${\beta}$-estradiol, ectopic expression of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ induced only the formation of soft, pseudo-bulbous tissue in the root tip region of intact seedlings, which appeared similar to callus generated on a hypocotyl segment in the presence of 2,4-D and 6-benzyladenine (BA), both at $1\;{\mu}M$. Those callus tissues on the root tip region could not generate shoots unless $1\;{\mu}M$ BA was supplied. In segment culture, ectopic expression of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ induced calluslike tissue around the cut-end of cotyledon and hypocotyl segments with occasional shoot formation, suggesting that the expression of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ could substitute for the effects of cytokinin on these segments. Additionally, treatment with only ${\beta}$-estradiol induced NtWUS, a WUS ortholog in tobacco, which was detected during the process of callus tissue formation in the root tip region and also in cotyledon or hypocotyl segments. These findings suggest that the NtWUS might be associated in the transdifferentiation process caused by the functional regulation of $ARR1{\Delta}DDK$ in transgenic tobacco seedlings.

      • Is the Phone Call the Most Effective Method for Recall in Cervical Cancer Screening? - Results from a Randomised Control Trial

        Rashid,,Rima,Marhayu,Abdul,Mohamed,,Majdah,Hamid,,Zaleha,Abdul,Dahlui,,Maznah Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.10

        Objective: To compare the effectiveness of different methods of recall for repeat Pap smear among women who had normal smears in the previous screening. Design: Prospective randomized controlled study. Setting: All community clinics in Klang under the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Participants: Women of Klang who attended cervical screening and had a normal Pap smear in the previous year, and were due for a repeat smear were recruited and randomly assigned to four different methods of recall for repeat smear. Intervention: The recall methods given to the women to remind them for a repeat smear were either by postal letter, registered letter, short message by phone (SMS) or phone call. Main Outcome Measures: Number and percentage of women who responded to the recall within 8 weeks after they had received the recall, irrespective whether they had Pap test conducted. Also the numbers of women in each recall method that came for repeat Pap smear. Results: The rates of recall messages reaching the women when using letter, registered letter, SMS and phone calls were 79%, 87%, 66% and 68%, respectively. However, the positive responses to recall by letter, registered letter, phone messages and telephone call were 23.9%, 23.0%, 32.9% and 50.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, more women who received recall by phone call had been screened (p<0.05) compared to those who received recall by postal letter (OR=2.38, CI=1.56-3.62). Conclusion: Both the usual way of sending letters and registered letters had higher chances of reaching patients compared to using phone either for sending messages or calling. The response to the recall method and uptake of repeat smear, however, were highest via phone call, indicating the importance of direct communication.

      • KCI등재

        Fabrication of Pt-MWNT/Nafion Electrodes by Low-Temperature Decal Transfer Technique for Amperometric Hydrogen Detection

        Rashid,,Muhammad,Jun,,Tae-Sun,Kim,,Yong,Shin The Korean Electrochemical Society 2014 한국전기화학회지 Vol.17 No.1

        A Pt nanoparticle-decorated multiwall carbon nanotube (Pt-MWNT) electrode was prepared on Nafion by a hot-pressing at relatively low temperature. This electrode exhibited an intricate entangled, nanoporous structure as a result of gathering highly anisotropic Pt-MWNTs. Individual Pt nanoparticles were confirmed to have a polycrystalline face-centered cubic structure with an average crystal size of around 3.5 nm. From the cyclic voltammograms for hydrogen redox reactions, the Pt-MWNT electrode was found to have a similar electrochemical behavior to polycrystalline Pt, and a specific electrochemical surface area of $2170cm^2mg^{-1}$. Upon exposure to hydrogen analyte, the Pt-MWNT/Nafion electrode demon-strated a very high sensitivity of $3.60{\mu}A\;ppm^{-1}$ and an excellent linear response over the concentration range of 100-1000 ppm. Moreover, this electrode was also evaluated in terms of response and recovery times, reproducibility, and long-term stability. Obtained results revealed good sensing performance in hydrogen detection.

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