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      • ROLLOVER SIMULATION OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES

        M. RAM PRABHU(M. RAM PRABHU), N.S. ANDRES(N.S. ANDRES), 엄용균(Y.G. Eom), 장봉춘(B.C. JANG) 한국자동차공학회 2005 한국자동차공학회 춘 추계 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2005 No.5_2

        The simulations on dynamic stability of Sports Utility Vehicles using Carsim/Vehsim software are presented on this paper with the aim of studying the rollover process occurring in such vehicles. Carsim/Vehsim is an integrated simulation package that has been developed for chassis dynamics controls and integration. The simulation procedure makes use of dynamic testing maneuvers (Fishhook tests, J-Turn test and Double Lane Change test) recommended by NHTSA to evaluate the antirollover propensities of SUVs on road. The simulation results emphasize the need for better understanding of SUV rollover performance and characteristics that are very essential in enhancing vehicle design. Furthermore, the simulation dramatically shows less development time and cost reduction compared to field testing. This paper, in general, investigates the dynamic rollover characteristics of 4 SUVs in 2 different road conditions.

      • KCI등재

        연구논문 : 한국형 재해평가모형(RAM)의 초기입력자료 적합성 평가

        박종길 ( Jong Kil Park ), 이보람 ( Bo Ram Lee ), 정우식 ( Woo Sik Jung ) 한국환경과학회 2015 한국환경과학회지 Vol.24 No.7

        This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the distribution chart and input data of the predicted 3-second gust and damage cost, by using the forecast field and analysis field of Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System (RDAPS) as initial input data of Korea risk assessment model (RAM) developed in the preceding study. In this study the cases of typhoon Rusa which caused occurred great damage to the Korean peninsula was analyzed to assess the suitability of initial input data. As a result, this study has found out that the distribution chart from the forecast field and analysis field predicted from the point where the effect due to the typhoon began had similarity in both 3-second gust and damage cost with the course of time. As a result of examining the correlation, the 3-second gust had over 0.8, and it means that the forecast field and analysis field show similar results. This study has shown that utilizing the forecast field as initial input data of Korea RAM could suit the purpose of pre-disaster prevention.

      • Site Directed Mutagenesis, Molecular Cloning and Expression of interleukin-17E to Generate Structural Variant with Enhanced Specific Activity Using Industrial Friendly Salt Inducible Escherichia coli GJ1158

        Jaya,Lakshmi,G,K,Seetha,Ram,G,Ram,Mohan,T,Anand,P,Narindra,Kumar,BK,Sreenivas,Prasad,PVD,Soujanya,Kumari,P,Balakota,Reddy,JB,Peravali,KRSS,Rao 보안공학연구지원센터 2015 International Journal of Advanced Science and Tech Vol.75 No.-

        The newly discovered Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-17E belongs to the member of IL-17 family. In this study, bioactive recombinant mutated human IL–17E (rhIL–25) was synthesized using overlapping PCR strategy and amino acid mutations were carried out using site directed mutagenesis. Four cysteins at 78th, 83rd, 136th and 138th positions were involved in disulphide bond formation and were responsible for biological activity of mature protein. These four cysteins were replaced with serine using nucleotide substitution and the desired outcome was cloned into expression vector pRSET-A followed by expressed in a salt inducible Escherichia coli GJ1158. The transformants were selected by ampicillin resistance marker and also by DNA sequencing. SDS–PAGE analysis confirms 17.06 kDa purified protein against low molecular weight protein marker. Protein quantification was carried out using Lowry's method. Approximately 104 mg/L of recombinant IL-17E was produced at 37 ℃. Biological activity of protein was determined by the release of IL–6 from PBMC cells using rhIL–17E. This is the first report on production of interleukin-17E structural variant with enhanced specific activity without compromising the biological activity.

      • KCI등재

        한반도에 영향을 미친 태풍 경로별 재해평가모형의 활용도 분석

        박종길 ( Jong-kil Park ), 이보람 ( Bo-ram Lee ), 정우식 ( Woo-sik Jung ) 한국환경과학회 2016 한국환경과학회지 Vol.25 No.11

        As a result of dividing typhoon that affected Korean Peninsular between 1999 and 2012 into 7 types of path and entering forecast field and analysis field of RDAPS, until 36 hours from the time of forecast, it is reliable to use the forecast field of RDAPS to predict typhoon and for each typhoon path, the difference between the forecast and the analysis shows normal distribution, which is usable for weather forecast until the 36<sup>th</sup> hour. In the 48<sup>th</sup> hour from the time of forecast, the difference of result depending on each typhoon path increased, which was analyzed to be due to errors in the forecast. It was expected that relatively reasonable results should be shown if the 36<sup>th</sup> hour forecast is used to predict the strength and distribution of strong wind. As a result of using Korean RAM and observing the difference of the maximum damage, reliability was secured up to 36 hours and after 48hours, it was expected that the fluctuation of results may become more severe.

      • KCI등재

        Remittances and Household Expenditure Patterns of Selected Families in Kathmandu Valley

        ( Ram Kumar Phuyal ), ( Ram Chandra Dhakal ), ( Anju Koirala ) 전남대학교 지역개발연구소 2016 지역개발연구 Vol.48 No.2

        This paper made an attempt to study the household expenditure patterns of remittance receiving families in Kathmandu. A field survey was conducted in order to see the contribution of remittance for improving the livelihood of the respondents` family. The factors incorporated in the study were; basic consumption, education, health, entertainment, saving pattern, building a new house and repayment of loan expenses. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used and a structured questionnaire was distributed to collect the information from the respondents in Kathmandu. The study depicted that the highest portion of the remittance was used on purchasing food expenses and for the education expenses of the children. Other portion of it was used for health expenses, saving; repayment of the loan and etc. The analysis predicts that remittance-recipient households experienced a significant effect of remittance on the household`s consumption, education and health expenses as well as saving which leads to improve the wellbeing of the family.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Active Disturbance Rejection Control of the Inertia Wheel Pendulum through a Tangent Linearization Approach

        Mario,Ramírez-Neria,Hebertt,Sira-Ramírez,Rubén,Garrido-Moctezuma,Alberto,Luviano-Juárez 제어·로봇·시스템학회 2019 International Journal of Control, Automation, and Vol.17 No.1

        A flatness based approach is proposed for the linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) stabilizationof a nonlinear inertia wheel pendulum (IWP) around its unstable equilibrium point, subject to unmodelleddynamics and disturbances. The approach exploits the cascade structure, provided by the flatness property, of thetangent linearization of the underactuated system which allows designing a high gain linear cascaded Extended StateObserver (ESO) of the Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) type. This class of linear observers is employed tobuild an Active Disturbance Rejection Control controller with a lower order of complexity regarding other ADRCclassic schemes. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach, aswell as a better behavior with respect to a classic control technique in the presence of disturbances.

      • KCI등재

        2013년 세법개정안에 대한 소고

        최보람(Choi, Bo-Ram) 한국전산회계학회 2013 電算會計硏究 Vol.11 No.2

        본 연구는 2013년 8월 기획재정부에서 발표한 세법개정안 중 소득세법과 관련한 사항에 대하여 분석하였다. 금번 세법개정은 근로소득자의 특별공제 부분의 상당부분을 세액공제로 전환하는 획기적인 개정이다. 소득공제는 세율이 반영되기 전에 소득금액을 감소시켜 고세율자일수록 높은 세액 감소효과가 있다. 반면 세액공제는 모든 소득분위에서 일정률의 세액이 공제되기 때문에 저소득자나 고소득자 모두 세액공제의 효과가 동일하다. 2013년 세법개정안을 통해 분석한 결과 총 증세효과가 4조 6,200억원 이상인 것으로 추정되었다. 또한 소득구간별로는 3천만원 이하의 소득자까지는 현재의 지출이 유지된다고 가정할때 평균적으로는 세액부담이 없는 것으로 확인되었다. 반면 4천만원 이하의 소득자부터는 증세효과가 있는 것이 확인되었는데 약 18%~52%의 증세효과가 있었다. 증세효과는 4천만원이하부터 6천만원이하의 소득자가 40% 이상으로 가장 증세율이 컸고 8천만원 이하부터 2억이하 소득자는 26%~36%의 증세효과가 있었다. 반면 2억을 초과하는 초고소득 근로자의 경우 18%~20%의 증세효과가 있었다. 본 연구의 결과를 통하여 2013년 세법개정안 뿐 아니라 향후 소득세 개편시에 정책 입안자들에게 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다. This research investigates Income Tax Act of 2013 Tax reform(draft) of MOFE which was made public made in August, 2013. This 2013 income tax draft is a major development involving transition from tax deduction to tax credit. Tax deduction is favorable to high income tax payers, for tax effect from tax deduction increases as tax rate goes up. On the contrary, tax credit is neutral for all tax payers, for tax effect from tax credit is equal for all tax payers. As a result of analysis, it was estimated that there was a total tax revenue increase of 4,620 billion won through tax reform draft in 2013. In each tax bracket, under 30 million won- income tax payers were not effected by the tax reform. However, over 30 million won- income tax payers were thought to undergo increasing tax burden. The taxpayers in tax bracket from 40 million to 60 million won expect the most increased tax burden. It is expected that the results of this research will be useful to policy makers who are responsible for revising future Income Tax Act.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Correction to: Simulation of Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs on a Triangular-Flapped Wing with Flap-Tip Free Vortex Modeling

        Woo-Ram,Kang,Se,Hwan,Park,이덕주 한국항공우주학회 2018 International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sc Vol.19 No.4

        The article “Simulation of Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs on a Triangular-Flapped Wing with Flap-Tip Free Vortex Modeling”, written by Woo-Ram Kang, Se Hwan Park and Duck-Joo Lee, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 08 September 2018 with open access. With the author(s)' decision to step back from Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on 24 October 2018 to © The Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of copyright. The original article has been corrected.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Diet-induced obese mice exhibit altered immune responses to early Salmonella Typhimurium oral infection

        Ricardo,Ernesto,Ramírez-Orozco,Elena,Franco,Robles,Victoriano,Pérez,Vázquez,Joel,Ramírez,Emiliano,Marco,Antonio,Hernández,Luna,Sergio,López,Briones 한국미생물학회 2018 The journal of microbiology Vol.56 No.9

        Obesity is a chronic disease associated with different metabolic diseases as well as alterations in immune cell function. It is characterized by a chronic systemic low grade inflammation. There are several studies demonstrating the influence of obesity on the impaired immune response to infection. However, it is not completely clear whether the obese environment influences the development or maintenance of the immune response against infections. The aim of this study was to determine how obesity induced by a high-fat diet affects the immune response to an early oral Salmonella infection. Four groups of mice were kept in separate cages. Two of these designated as controls, fed with a normal diet; whereas other two groups were fed with a high fat diet for 10 weeks. Some mice were used for Salmonella oral infection. After 7 days of oral infection with S. Thypimurium the proportions of spleen cell subsets expressing activation markers in normal diet and HFD obese mice were stained with monoclonal antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, mRNA levels of different cytokines were quantified by RT-PCR. It was found that obesity affects the function of the immune system against an early oral Salmonella infection, decreasing NK cells, altering the expression of activation molecules as well as cytokines mRNA levels. Interestingly, the expression some activation molecules on T lymphocytes was reestablished after Salmonella infection, but not the CD25 expression. Immune alterations could lead to immunosuppression or increased susceptibility to infections in HFD obese mice.

      • KCI등재

        PLASMON RESONANCE AND RAMAN MODES IN Pb NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED IN EXTRACT OF OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA PLANT

        L.,P.,RAMÍREZ-RODRÍGUEZ,M.,CORTEZ-VALADEZ,H.,ARIZPE-CH,AVEZ,J.-G.,BOCARANDO-CHACON,R.,RAMÍREZ-BON,S.,VELUMANI,M.,FLORES-ACOSTA 성균관대학교(자연과학캠퍼스) 성균나노과학기술원 2014 NANO Vol.9 No.6

        Colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by green synthesis, embedded in the Opuntia ¯cus-indicaplant extract. Optical measurements allowed us to detect two absorption bands centered in230 nm and 298 nm. Agglomerates of Pb nanoparticles have size in the range 2 – 8 nm. The ef-fective absorption cross section of spherical Pb nanoparticles was calculated by applying the Mietheory for colloidal systems and compared to optical absorption measurements of Pb nano-particles. The Raman spectrum of the samples after the reduction of Pb, shows a band at lowwavenumbers centered at 116 cm? 1 . Similar bands have been assigned to small Pb and Agclusters in other experimental results. Additionally, we used the density functional theory (DFT)as well as semi-empirical methods to assign this band to radial breathing modes of Pb metalnanoparticles.

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