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``역사적 기억``의 연속은 청말 사상 변천을 구성하는 중요한 상징이다. 이 글에서는 청말 사람들이 ``역사의 의미``를 어떻게 탐색했는지 논하고자 한다. 주로 청말의 과거제도 개혁에서 ``역사``가 왜 시험의 주요 내용을 구성하였는지에 관심을 기울이면서, 과거시험 응시자의 답안에서 ``역사``를 어떻게 해석했는지를 구체적으로 분석할 것이다. 두 문명이 만날 때에는 본래 ``너는 어디에서 왔는가?``, ``어떻게 오늘에까지 왔는가?``라는 질문이 제기될 수 있다. 이는 곧 공간과 시간이라는 축에 근거해서 ``타자``를 상상·이해하고 자신의 ``정체성``을 확립하는 작업이다. 이런 배경 아래 ``역사``가 중국과 서양의 소통에서 특별한 역할을 수행했다. 청말 중국에서 ``역사적 기억``의 연속은 분명 상이한 기준으로 구분되는데, 역사 해석자의 ``입장``이 결정적인 역할을 했다. 과거제도를 개혁하는 과정에서 ``역사``에는 여전히 관변 이데올로기의 흔적이 남아 있었다. 똑같이 ``서양적 요소``에 의해 환기되고 똑같이 역사를 새롭게 해석했지만, ``자기개혁``의 입장에 서서 역사에서 배울 만한 경험을 발굴하려 하였고, 여기서 중요한 것은 역사에서 자신의 영광을 유지하게 하는 자원을 찾으려는 것이었다. 그러나 어떤 입장에 서든 ``역사문화``를 중시했다는 점은 아주 분명하다. 이른바 ``역사의 의미``는 청말 중국에서 충분히 드러났다. 그것은 중국에 이미 역사인식에 대한 유구한 학술적 전통이 있었는데 ``역사 읽기``가 독서인의 독서생활에서 중요한 부분이 되었다는 사실에서 구체적으로 표출되었다. 바로 이런 배경 아래 ``역사``가 중국과 서양의 소통에서 특별한 역할을 했다. 그 영향으로 ``역사``에서 부강의 길을 찾고 문명의 우월감을 유지했으며, ``역사``를 통해 ``경세치용``을 하고, 과거시험과 신식학교 교육에서 관련 내용을 배치한 것도 출제에서 마땅히 있어야 할 의미였다. 물론 ``역사``에 대한 이런 입장은 결코 한번 정해지고 나면 변하지 않는 것이 아니어서, 청말 중국에서 ``역사적 기억``의 연속이 드러낸 또 다른 장면은 ``역사의 의미``에 대한 탐색이 또 다른 방식으로 전개될 수 있다는 것을 보여 준다. "What`s the use of history?" Marc Bloch, the founder of the Annals School raised this question from a child in the beginning of his Historian`s Craft. In China`s case, we will find problems of this kind from time, and they are dissimilar as they appeared in different times. In the late Qing Dynasty, when China was faced with a "seismic situation that never happened in the previous three thousand years", such problems were even more conspicuous. The question was not only "What`s the use of history?" but also how to awaken the "memory of history" to deal with all manner of changes. It was certain that the awakening of the "memory of history" in late Qing was obviously guided by two factors: one was the recovering of the Hans` collective memory stimulated by "anti-Manchuria"; the other was the memory about China, which was activated by foreign factors. This leads us to focus on how the scholars in the late Qing Dynasty thought about "what history has told us" and how to explore the "significance of history". Needless to say, the encounter of the two civilizations would naturally give rise to questions like "where do you come from?" and "how do we come here?" which were based on the dimensions of space and time in order to imagine "the other". Accordingly, incorporating Chinese history and foreign histories into the framework of "Universal History" to achieve historical "harmony" and to seek mutual understanding also constituted the core of communication between Chinese history and foreign histories. Moreover, such "harmony" represents not only the significance of time but also the judgment on historical process. In this context, "history" also played a special "role" in Sino-foreign communication. Its influence was to seek a way to wealth and power in "history" and to maintain the superiority in civilization. With the assignment of relevant topics, the intention of the imperial examinations was to "study Confucianism for statecraft" through "history". This treatise attempts to outline this situation, which occurred in the late Qing Dynasty, in order to explore "the significance of history" in this period.
Magic is one of the important themes in Chinese ancient novels, it is imported from the Western Region in Han dynasty, and it stems from the magical power story of the classics of Buddhism. The eminent monks those come from India and the Western Regions start from preaching utility, demonstrate magic on the spot, and promote magic spread in China greatly. After magic being transported into China, it combines with local original sorcery faith, thoughts of the five elements and yin-yang theory, and is gradually influenced by Buddhism Esoteric and the folk secret religion White Lotus sect of Ming and Qing dynasty, at last forms the magic pattern with unique characteristics. The popular novels of Ming and Qing dynasty absorb nutriments of traditional magic motif, greatly expend magic scope of expression, and form new surmount features. This text combs the relation between magic motif and popular novels of Ming and Qing dynasty, investigate its some characteristics of happening, developing and surmounting on the base of differentiating origin of magic motif. Magic is mysterious and unreal, but it expands content of expression of the ancient novels, brings illusion and amusement of the complicated and confusing to people, and has certain value of exist and social sense.
On The Anthology of Forty Poets in the Late Period of Qing Dynasty in three volumes, was completed by Wu Kaisheng in 1925. Volume 1 and Volume 2 were excerptions of the works written by the pivotal poets in TongCheng school in its terminal period, and Volume 3 collected the poems from some other poets of the WanTang style school, the TongGuang style school, the HanWei LiuChao style school, etc. By constructing a frame of strength combination in the terminal TongCheng school which had Wu Rulun as the core in a quite length, the anthology had great value as reference that it explored the collation and summarize of the genesis of the TongCheng school's esthetics in a certain profundity, and what more, it also re expatiated the aesthetic worth whose pith was the poetics of Du Fu and Huang Tingjian.
Rotor initial position is an important factor affecting the control performance of electrically excited synchronous motors. This study presents a novel method for estimating rotor initial position based on sliding discrete Fourier transform (sDFT). By injecting an ac excitation into the rotor winding, an induced voltage is generated in stator windings. Through this voltage, the stator flux can be obtained using a pure integral voltage model. Considering the influence from a dc bias and an integral initial value, we adopt the sDFT to extract the fundamental flux component. A quadrant identification model is designed to realize the accurate estimation of the rotor initial position. The sDFT and high-pass filter, DFT, are compared in detail, and the contrast between dc excitation and ac injection is determined. Simulation and experimental results verify that this type of novel method can eliminate the influence of dc bias and other adverse factors, as well as provide a basis for the control of motor drives.
Rhopalosiphum padi is a sap-sucking aphid and an important pest of wheat that causes considerable yield loss. Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, has a broad insecticide spectrum and is considered effective for aphid control, while its residual concentrations may have sublethal effects on R. padi. Here, the sublethal effects of beta-cypermethrin on R. padi were conducted under laboratory conditions. The acute toxicity test showed that LC 10 , LC 20 , and LC 25 of beta-cypermethrin to R. padi adults were 0.003, 0.031 and 0.079 mg L −1 , respectively. The pre-adult survival rate was significantly reduced by all three concentrations. LC 20 significantly extended the development duration of 1st instar nymphs, pre-oviposition period, and oviposition period of R. padi. The adult longevity was also reduced by LC 25 . However, the fecundity did not differ between the betacypermethrin treatment and control. For life table parameters, both the finite rate (λ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) decreased at LC 10 and LC 20 , as well as the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) reduced at LC 10 and LC 25 , while mean generation time (T) increased at LC 20 . Thus, at the concentrations of beta-cypermethrin tested here, there were negative impacts on R. padi fitness by decreased pre-adult survival rate, λ, r, and R 0 , and delayed the development of some stages and increased T.
Three-level PWM rectifiers applied in medium voltage applications usually operate at low switching frequency to keep the dynamic losses under permitted level. However, low switching frequency brings a heavy cross-coupling between the current components id and iq with a poor dynamic system performance and a harmonic distortion in the grid-connecting current. To overcome these problems, a mathematical model based on complex variables of the three-level voltage source PWM rectifier is firstly established, and the reasons of above issues resulted from low switching frequency have been analyzed using modern control theory. Then, a novel control strategy suitable for the current decoupling control based on the complex variables for id and iq is designed here. The comparisons between this kind of control strategy and the normal PI method have been carried out. MATLAB and experimental results are given in detail.
The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), can transfer Rice stripe virus (RSV) to host plants,which then develop rice stripe disease. Between vectors, there are two paths for RSV transmission. In currentstudy, we examined the horizontal, vertical and compound transmission rates (horizontal and vertical transmissionstogether) by L. striatellus from one non-epidemic area (Fuyang in Zhejiang province) and three epidemicareas (Yizheng and Peixian in Jiangsu province, and Donggang in Liaoning province). RSV acquisition rates fornaïve L. striatellus from the four populations were not significantly different. RSV transmission rate to healthyrice plants by viruliferous L. striatellus from Fuyang population was relatively lower than those of the otherthree populations. For example, RSV transmission rate in Fuyang population decreased by 1 fold compared tothat in Peixian population when the transmission times were 48 and 72 h. It indicated that horizontal transmissionability of Fuyang population was lower. Vertical transmission rate and the compound transmission abilitiesof infective L. striatellus in the first generation did not differ significantly among the four populations. However,the ratio of RSV-positive offspring of an infective mother in the fourth generation of Fuyang population (84.3 ±2.4%) was lowest, and decreased by 10% compared to that of Peixian population. It meant that compound transmissionability of Fuyang population was significantly lower than the other three populations. The reason for thedifference in transmission abilities of L. striatellus from different populations was discussed.
Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) plays an important role in ester biogenesis in ripening fruit. In apple, MdAAT2 is up-regulated in response to treatment with defense-related hormones. We cloned a novel MdAAT2 promoter via thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated the presence of salicylic acid (SA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsive elements in the promoter region. To examine further the operational mechanism for transcription factors (TFs) in regulating expression of the MdAAT2 promoter, we isolated and investigated six potential stress-induced TFs -- MdMYB1, MdMYB2, MdMYB6,MdERF1, MdERF2, and WRKY. These were monitored during various stages of fruit development as well as under several hormonal treatments. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that all of these TF genes, as well as MdAAT2, were detectable in the stigmas. Levels of expression by MdMYB1, MdMYB2, and MdERF1were significantly correlated with that by MdAAT2 during fruit ontogeny. Moreover, transcription of three TFs (MdMYB1,MdMYB6, and MdERF1) was significantly correlated with that of MdAAT2 upon exposure to ethephon, SA, or MeJA. Sequence analysis demonstrated that CAAT, CCAAT elements,and several MYB transcription factor binding sites (CNGTTmotif,AACCA, and CTAACCA elements) existed in the MdAAT2 promoter region. Using that analysis, we performed modeling of MdMYB1 and MdMYB6 based on PROTEINDNA complex1 and complex3 (PDB Accession Numbers 1H88 and 1H8A). There, similarities were found with the protein complex of CAAT or CCAAT consensus sequences. Thus, we propose that two TFs -- MdMYB1 and MdMYB6-- are directly or indirectly involved in the activation of MdAAT2 expression in apple fruit.
The switching frequency of the power electronic devices used in large synchronous motor drives is usually kept low (less than 1 kHz) to reduce the switching losses and to improve the converter power capability. However, this results in a couple of problems, e.g. an increase in the harmonic components of the stator current, and an undesired cross-coupling between the magnetization current component (im) and the torque component (it). In this paper, a novel complex matrix model of electrically excited synchronous motors (EESM) was established with a new control scheme for coping with the low switching frequency issues. First, a hybrid observer was proposed to identify the instantaneous fundamental component of the stator current, which results in an obvious reduction of both the total harmonic distortion (THD) and the low order harmonics. Then, a novel complex current controller was designed to realize the decoupling between im and it. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of this novel control system for EESM drives.
The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as drug carriers is limited by their poor dispersal in aqueous medium. This study aimed to prepare chitosan (CS)-modified SWCNTs (CS-SWCNTs) and to evaluate their physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity. Oxidized SWCNTs (O-SWCNTs) were prepared with the use of strong acid, and the effects of acidizing conditions on the oxidation degree of the O-SWCNTs were investigated. CS was then non-covalently modified on the surfaces of O-SWCNTs. O-SWCNTs and CS-SWCNTs were characterized through ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of the functionalized SWCNTs were determined through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. O-SWCNTs with relatively complete structure were successfully synthesized through 5 h of treatment with 5 M acid. The amine group of the CS and the carboxyl group of O-SWCNTs interacted in CS-SWCNTs. The functionalized SWCNTs did not aggregate or precipitate in water and exerted no cytotoxic effects on A549 and MCF-7 tumor cells. The CS-SWCNTs possess the advantages of a simple preparation process, excellent water dispersibility, and biocompatibility for drug loading.