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Chronic GVHD was recognized as a complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation more than 30 years ago, but progress has been slowed by the limited insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and the mechanisms that lead to development of immunological tolerance. Only 6 randomized phase III treatment studies have been reported. Results of retrospective studies and prospective phase II clinical trials suggested overall benefit from treatment with mycophenolate mofetil or thalidomide, but these results were not substantiated by phase III studies of initial systemic treatment for chronic GVHD. A comprehensive review of published reports showed numerous deficiencies in studies of secondary treatment for chronic GVHD. Fewer than 10% of reports documented an effort to minimize patient selection bias, used a consistent treatment regimen, or tested a formal statistical hypothesis that was based on a contemporaneous or historical benchmark. In order to enable valid comparison of the results from different studies, eligibility criteria, definitions of individual organ and overall response, and time of assessment should be standardized. Improved treatments are more likely to emerge if reviewers and journal editors hold authors to higher standards in evaluating manuscripts for publication.
Most of today's nation-states experienced colonial rule at some point during the last two centuries, with well-studied economic, political, and social consequences after decolonization. This study examines a different form of the colonial legacy, involving the stability of the territorial status quo. We lay out a number of different forms that colonial legacies might take with respect to territorial claims, focusing both on relations between two former colonies and on relations between a former colony and its former colonial ruler. We then present and test hypotheses about the impact of these legacies on territorial claims. Our preliminary results show strong evidence that colonial legacies affect territorial conflict after independence, with conflict more likely after violent decolonization and in relations between former colonies of the same colonizer, although more detailed followup research is called for. Paper presented at the conference "National Territory and Sovereignty: Sixty Years Since the Founding of the Nation," Seoul, August 2008. This paper is based on original research by Paul R. Hensel, Michael E. Allison, and Ahmed Khanani. This research was supported by a 2008-2009 grant from the Northeast Asian History Foundation, although the authors retain full responsibility for all content herein; this paper's analyses and conclusions may not necessarily represent the views of the Foundation, the conference organizers, or any other organization.
In this paper, I offer reflections on contemporary popular culture in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to consider a common metaphor in everyday parlance that pits the objectifying formally urbanized city, called “asphalt,” against the informal “communities” of its favelas. With nods to Paul Gilroy's understanding of the Black Atlantic world, Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue and psychiatric theories of attachment, I explore this contrasting word pairing to locate both a critique of conventional Eurocentric rationalist notions of space, time, knowledge, being and power and an affirmation of an alternative, Afro-Atlantic relational impulse regarding those same categories.
In this paper are reviewed the current status of nuclear fuel management and reactor operational aid tools. In addition, we indicate deficiencies in current capabilities and what future research is judged warranted. For the nuclear fuel management review the focus is on light water reactors and the utilization of stochastic optimization methods applied to the lattice, fuel bundle, core loading pattern, and for BWRs the control rod pattern/core flow design decision making problems. Significant progress in addressing separately each of these design problems on a single cycle basis is noted; however, the outstanding challenge of addressing the integrated design problem over multiple cycles under conditions of uncertainty remains to be addressed. For the reactor operational aid tools review the focus is on core simulators, used to both process core instrumentation signals and as an operator aid to predict future core behaviors under various operational strategies. After briefly reviewing the current status of capabilities, a more in depth review of adaptive core simulation capabilities, where core simulator input data are adjusted within their known uncertainties to improved agreement between prediction and measurement, is presented. This is done in support of the belief that further development of adaptive core simulation capabilities is required to further significantly advance the utility of core simulators in support of reactor operational aid tools.