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      • DJ-1/park7 modulates vasorelaxation and blood pressure via epigenetic modification of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

        Won, Kyung Jong,Jung, Seung Hyo,Jung, Soo Hyun,Lee, Kang Pa,Lee, Hwan Myung,Lee, Dong-Youb,Park, Eun-Seok,Kim, Junghwan,Kim, Bokyung Oxford University Press 2014 Cardiovascular research Vol.101 No.3

        <P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        저전력 주차 안내 시스템 설계

        박주용(Ju-Yong Park),임형규(Hyeong-giu Lim) 한국엔터테인먼트산업학회 2011 한국엔터테인먼트산업학회논문지 Vol.5 No.1

        주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.

      • 도시공원의 이용후 평가에 기초한 공원의 개발지표 설정 : 부산광역시 암남공원을 사례로 Case Study of Amnam Park in Busan City

        박승범,김승환,남정칠,강영조,이기철,김석규 동아대학교 환경문제연구소 1999 硏究報告 Vol.22 No.2

        The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.

      • KCI등재

        A Study of the Carrying Capacity and Management of Mountainous National Park

        Park, Bong Woo 한국임학회 1986 한국산림과학회지 Vol.72 No.1

        The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.

      • 서구 공원 녹지 배치 계획 이론의 초기 발전 과정과 특성

        박구원 ( Koo Won Park ) 한국녹지환경디자인학회 2006 녹지환경학회지 Vol.2 No.2

        In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.

      • 상용차 기반에 대한 주차보조시스템 사용자 감성 평가

        전재석(Jaeseok Jeon),박현배(Hyunbae Park),문희석(Heeseok Moon),곽수진(Sujin Kwag) 한국자동차공학회 2013 한국자동차공학회 부문종합 학술대회 Vol.2013 No.5

        In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.

      • KCI등재

        박두진 시인의 유년기와 시력(詩歷)의 상관성 연구

        박홍배(Park, Hong-Bae) 한국시학회 2018 한국시학연구 Vol.- No.54

        본 연구는 박두진의 유년시절의 의식이 박두진의 성장기는 물론이고 청년기와 장년기, 나아가 노년기에 이르기까지 영향을 미친다는 관점을 보이고 있다. 박두진의 특수한 경험에 해당되는 유년기의 가난은 박두진을 좌절시키기보다는 오히려 박두진의 일생에 걸쳐 박두진을 곧고 강한 인물이 되도록 할 수 있었던 요인이 되었던 것이다. 물론 유년기의 불우했던 환경이 모든 이에게 긍정적인 방향으로 귀결되지는 않았을 것이나 박두진은 이러한 조건에 굴복한 것이 아니라 이를 딛고 자신의 인생을 개척했음을 알 수 있다. 이는 박두진의 강직하고도 자의식 강한 성품을 말해주는바, 본고를 통해 박두진의 유년기의 정신적 풍경을 살펴봄으로써 그의 어떠한 요인이 그의 삶을 바르고 곧은 길로 이끌었는지 확인하고자 하였다. 지독한 가난으로 잦은 이사를 다니면서 동네 아이들로부터 심한 따돌림으로 고통 받아야 했던 박두진에게 산과의 인연은 절대적인 요인으로 다가왔다. 가난의 고통과 텃세로 인해 죽음을 생각할 만큼 열등감에 시달렸던 박두진에게 산은 놀이 공간이자 안식처였고 구원의 지대였다. 또한 산은 박두진에게 하나의 공동체였고 삶의 터전이었다. 박두진은 온갖 생명이 생기가 넘쳐나는 산을 통해 자유와 평등과 사랑으로 공동체를 이루고 살아가는 모습을 보게 되었고 생의 의욕을 다지게 된다. 산을 오르내리면서 얻게 되었던 이러한 체험은 소년 박두진을 좌절로부터 일으켜 세움으로써 그의 이상과 의지와 꿈을 형성하게 한 계기가 되었다. 이는 박두진이 에릭슨이 말한 바 유아 남성성의 단계를 슬기롭게 겪음으로써 ‘유능함’의 삶의 과정을 거치게 되었음을 말해준다. 유년기 산에서의 체험에 힘입어 박두진은 인생의 매 시기 강건하고 올곧은 선택을 할 수 있었고 이는 박두진의 시력의 세 단계로 나타나게 되었다. 그것은 첫째 산에서의 행복했던 체험에 바탕을 둔 초기 자연시와 관련되며 둘째 산에서 발견한 공동체의 모습에 의지하여 중기에 보여주었던 사회참여시와 관련되고, 셋째 산에서 얻게 된 이상적 공간에 대한 감각에 따른 후기의 신앙시와 관련된다. 산에서 외로움과 고통으로부터 벗어날 수 있었던 박두진에게 산은 안식의 공간이었을 뿐만 아니라 이상적인 공동체였으며 바른 삶을 살 수 있도록 하는 안내자였던 것이다. 이는 산에서 겪었던 유년기의 체험이 그의 시력에 결정적인 영향력으로 작용했음을 말해준다. 즉 소년 박두진은 산을 오르내리면서 많은 생각을 하게 되었고 이때 다져진 그의 굳은 의지는 박두진의 가슴에 화석처럼 쌓여 일생 동안 길잡이가 되었던 것이다. 박두진의 초기, 중기, 후기의 시들이 모두 변함없이 일관되게 강직하고도 완전한 형태로 이루어질 수 있었던 것도 이러한 사정에 기인한다. This study shows that Park’s childhood consciousness influences Park’s growing years, youth, and even the first years of life. The childhood poverty, which is equivalent to Park Doo-Jin’s special experience, could have made Park Doo-Jin a straight and strong character over her lifetime rather than let Park Doo-Jin be frustrated. Of course, the poor childhood environment may not have resulted in a positive one for everyone, but Park Doo-Jin overcame these conditions to learn about it. It shows Park’s strong and self-conscious character, and reveals what factors led Park in his life to the mental landscape. For Park Doo-Jin, who had to suffer from severe bullying by local children after moving around a lot due to extreme poverty, the bond with the mountain has become an essential factor. For Park Doo-Jin, who suffered from poverty and inferiority complex that made him think about his death, the mountain was a playground, a haven, and a land of salvation. The mountain was also a community for Park Doo-Jin and a place to live. Park Doo-Jin saw all kinds of lives forming a community of freedom, equality and love through the lively mountain, and he became more passionate about his life. The experience, which was gained from climbing the mountain, helped raise the boy Park Doo-Jin from frustration, forming his ideals, will, and dreams. It tells us that Park Doo-Jin has gone through what Erickson calls the “capable” lifestyle process by going through the smart phase of infant manhood. Thanks to his experiences in the mountain, he was able to make strong, straight choices during each phase of his life, which appeared to be three stages of Park’s vision. First, it is related to the early natural poetry based on the mountain experience, second, it is associated with the social participation in the latter phase of the year, depending on the appearance of the community found. Third, it is related with the latter faithful poetry. For Park Doo-Jin, who was able to escape from loneliness and suffering in the mountain, it was not only a place of rest, but also an ideal community and a guide to a just life. It suggests that his childhood experiences in the mountain served as a decisive factor in his vision. The boy, Park Doo-Jin, came up with many thoughts as he traveled around the mountain, and his strong will was wrapped up in Park’s chest like a fossil, making him a guide throughout his life. It is also due to these circumstances that Park Doo-Jin’s early, mid-and-after and later-the-day poems could all be performed consistently and in a complete form.

      • KCI등재

        국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크의 현황 및 시장전략에 관한 기초연구

        박성식(Park, Seongsik) 한국만화애니메이션학회 2012 만화애니메이션연구 Vol.- No.28

        본 연구는 문화콘텐츠 비즈니스의 한 분야인 테마파크 비즈니스와 관련하여, 기존의 대규모 야외 복합 테마파크 중심의 접근에서 벋어나 소규모?소자본 전략의 실내 테마파크를 지향하는 흐름에 주목하고 있다. 기존의 대규모 야외 복합 테마파크가 수천억 원 규모의 자본과 고난이도의 기술력, 최신 운영 노하우 등을 필요로 함으로써 큰 리스크와 함께 높은 신규 진입장벽을 가지고 있는 것에 반해, 최근의 실내 테마파크들은 효율적인 리스크 관리와 탄력적인 시장전략으로 시장진입에 성공하고 있기 때문이다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 실내 테마파크들 가운데 새로운 시장인 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 시장의 현황을 살펴보고, 국산 캐릭터의 프로퍼티 가치 확장과 국내 테마파크 시장의 확산이라는 두 가지 확장의 측면에서 이 시장의 시장전략을 살펴보고자 한다. 이를 위해 테마파크에 관한 선행연구들을 검토하여 공간적 분류와 테마별 분류, 주 사용자층에 따른 분류 등을 기준으로 국내에 존재하는 테마파크의 유형을 나누어보았다. 또한 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 가운데 수도권 소재 5개소를 직접 방문하여 현황조사를 실시하였고, 수도권 소재 2개소와 지방 4개소는 업체 담당자를 통해 현황자료를 입수하여 분석하였다. 또 올 4월 25일 신규 개관한 ‘디보빌리지’ 청계천점을 방문한 관람객을 대상으로 만족도 조사를 시행하여 분석하였다. 이를 통해 현재 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 비즈니스의 구조를 분석하고 수행중인 시장전략의 유효성을 분석할 수 있는 토대를 제시하여 보았다. 본 연구를 통하여 테마파크 비즈니스의 틈새시장이라 할 수 있는 실내 테마파크 비즈니스에 대한 체계적이고 심도 있는 논의의 단초를 마련하여 소규모 지역밀착형 실내 테마파크들이 국내 테마파크 산업의 유력한 비즈니스 모델로 연구될 수 있기를 기대한다. 또한 캐릭터 비즈니스의 측면에서도 국산 애니메이션 캐릭터들의 프로퍼티 가치의 공간적?스토리텔링적 확장의 새로운 모델을 정립하는 계기가 될 수 있기를 바란다. Regarding the theme park business as an area of cultural content business, this study focuses on the trend of pursuing indoor theme parks as a small-scale?small capital strategy escaped from the existing approach oriented to large-scale outdoor complex theme parks. It is because although existing large-scale outdoor complex theme parks require the capital with the scale of hundreds of billion won and also high-level technique and the latest operational know-how that they have a great barrier for new entry as well as enormous risk, the rent indoor theme parks succeed in market entry with efficient risk management and flexible market strategies. Thereupon, this study examines the current status of the children’s indoor theme park market with Korean characters as their theme as a new market among the indoor theme parks and also investigates the market strategies of this market in the two aspects of expansion: the expansion of Korean characters’ property value and the expansion of the local theme park market. For that, this article reviewed the advanced researches on theme parks and divided the types of theme parks existing in Korea with the criteria of classification by space and theme or classification by main users. Also, among the children’s indoor theme parks with Korean characters as their theme, this study visited five ones located in the capital area to examine the current status. And about two located in the capital area and also four in the local area, the current data were received from the persons in charge of the companies for analysis. Also, with the subjects of spectators visiting the ‘DIBO VILLAGE, Cheonggye-cheon’ newly opened on April 25th, 2012, the research on satisfaction was conducted for analysis. Through that, this study analyzed the structure of the existing children’s indoor theme park business with Korean characters as their theme and suggested the ground to analyze the effectiveness of market strategies being implemented. It is expected that this study will establish the clues of systematic and profound discussion for the indoor theme park business that can be said to be the niche market of the theme park business and allow the small-scale areal indoor theme parks to be examined as a significant business model for the local theme park industry. In the aspect of character business as well, it is expected that this will give a chance to establish a new model of spatial?storytelling expansion in terms of the property value of Korean animation characters.

      • KCI등재

        노인의 공원이용 활성화를 위한 공원환경 평가지표 선정 및 환경 인식 분석-대구광역시를 중심으로-

        박영은 ( Park Youngeun ),이우성 ( Lee Woosung ) 한국공간디자인학회 2021 한국공간디자인학회논문집 Vol.16 No.4

        (연구배경 및 목적) 근린공원은 노인이 경제적 부담 없이 손쉽게 접근하여 다양한 신체활동을 실행할 수 있는 장소이며, 체력 증진 및 건강 유지가 이루어지는 도시시설이다. 그러나 우리나라의 많은 공원은 설계자의 주관적이고 일률적인 공원설계 기준에 의해 조성되어 있어 노인들이 이용하기에는 많은 불편함이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 노인들의 건강 유지 장소로서의 근린공원 이용 활성화를 위해 공원환경 평가지표를 선정하고, 대구광역시의 근린공원을 대상으로 평가지표를 적용하여 노인의 공원환경에 대한 인식을 분석하였으며, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 탐색하였다. (연구방법) 연구대상지는 노인인구비율이 14% 이상인 대구광역시 중구, 동구, 남구, 서구를 대상으로 하였으며, 연구 대상공원은 행정구별 1개의 근린공원을 선정하였다. 공원환경 평가지표의 선정은 총 10편의 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 이루어졌으며, 설문조사는 노인들을 대상으로 2차에 걸쳐 진행되었다. 설문데이터의 분석에는 기술통계 및 빈도분석, T-검정 및 F-검정(Scheffe 검증)이 활용되었다. (결과) 노인의 관점에서 공원환경 관련 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 ‘다양한 운동시설’, ‘운동시설의 안전성’, ‘충분한 휴게시설’, ‘휴게시설의 안락함’ 등 총 20개 지표가 선정되었다. 설문에 의해 수집된 290개 데이터를 통해 노인의 공원환경 인식을 분석한 결과, ‘공원까지의 거리’, ‘충분한 녹지면적’, ‘충분한 그늘’, ‘이동의 무장애성’ 등의 지표가 4.0점 이상으로 높은 환경 수준을 가지는 것으로 분석되었다. 반면, ‘원예활동지원 공간’, ‘다양한 볼거리’, ‘복지시설과의 연계’ 등의 지표는 3.2점 이하의 낮은 환경 수준으로 평가되었다. 또한, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 분석한 결과, 성별, 연령대, 교육수준, 소득수준에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이가 통계적으로 유의하게 분석되었다. 남성보다 여성이 전반적인 공원환경을 긍정적으로 평가하였으며, 60대는 동적 시설에 대한 인식이, 80대는 정적 시설에 대한 인식이 높게 나타났다. (결론) 본 연구에서 도출된 결과들은 노인인구 밀집지역의 근린공원 리모델링 사업, 주변 환경 개선 사업 등을 진행코자 할 경우 의미 있는 기초자료가 될 것으로 판단된다. (Background and Purpose) Neighborhood parks are places where the elderly can easily access and perform various physical activities without without financial burden and are urban facilities where they can improve physical strength and maintain health. However, many parks in Korea are built according to the subjective and uniform design standards of the landscape designers, so there are many inconveniences for the elderly to use them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to select the assessment indicators in order promote park use the elderly as a place for maintaining health, to analyze the perception of park environment by applying the indicators targeting the neighborhood parks of Daegu Metropolitan City, and to explore the differences in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics. (Method) The study areas were Jung-gu, Dong-gu, Nam-gu, and Seo-gu of Daegu, where the ratio of the elderly population was 14% or more and one neighborhood park was selected for each administrative district. The assessment indicators of park environment were selected based on 10 previous studies and brainstorming and the questionnaire survey was conducted in two rounds for the elderly. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, T-test, and F-test (Scheffe’s method) were used to analyze the questionnaire data. (Results) Through the review and brainstorming related to the park environment from the perspective of the elderly, a total of 20 indicators were selected such as 'various exercise facilities', 'safety of exercise facilities', 'enough resting facilities', and 'convenience of resting facilities'. As a result of analyzing the perception of the elderly's park environment based on the 290 survey data, the indicators such as 'distance to the park', 'area of green space', 'shade by trees', and 'convenience of walk' had a high environmental level of 4.0 or more. On the other hand, the indicators such as 'horticultural support space', 'various attractions', and 'linkage with welfare facilities' were evaluated at a low environmental level of 3.2 points or less. In addition, as a result of analyzing the difference in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics of the elderly, the differences according to gender, age group, education level, and income level were analyzed statistically significant. Women rather than men perceived the overall park environment more positively. Those in their 60s had positive perceptions of dynamic facilities and those in their 80s had positive perceptions of static facilities. (Conclusions) The findings from this study will be meaningful basic data to carry out a remodeling for a neighborhood park or a project for improving the neighborhood environment in the elderly concentration area.

      • KCI등재

        의열단원 박재혁(朴載赫)의 생애와 부산경찰서 투탄(投彈)

        박철규 ( Park Chul-kyu ) 부산광역시 시사편찬위원회 2019 항도부산 Vol.37 No.-

        박재혁(朴載赫)은 1895년 5월 17일 범일동 183번지에서 독자로 태어났다. 15세되던 해에 아버지를 여의고 어머니, 여동생과 생활했다. 1911년 3월 22일 부산진사립육영학교를 졸업하고, 1915년 3월 22일 부산공립상업학교를 제4회로 졸업했다. 박재혁은 부산공립상업학교 재학 중에 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규 등과 함께 『동국역사』를 비밀리에 등사하여 배포했다. 3학년 때에는 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규, 오재영 등과 구세단(救世團)을 결성하고, 민족의식을 고취하는 단보를 발행하여 부산과 경상남도 일대에 배포했다. 박재혁은 1917년 6월 부산을 떠나 3년 이상 상해와 싱가포르 등지를 왕래하면서 인삼 등의 무역업에 종사했다. 동시에 동지들과 교류하면서 독립운동에 기여할 방법을 찾고 있었다. 그러던 중 3.1운동을 계기로 독립운동에 대한 신심을 다져 투신하기로 결심했다. 부산경찰서가 타격대상으로 지목된 것은 당시 의열단이 3.1운동 이후 기존의 독립운동노선에 방향전환을 선언하고 조직됐는데, 제1차 국내기관총공격 계획이 1920년 6월에 발각되어 실패하고 관련자 전원이 체포됐다. 이에 의열단에서는 빠른 시간 내에 성과를 거두어 이를 반전시켜야 할 필요성 요구됐기 때문이다. 또한 부산은 일본에서 조선으로 가는 관문이며 전형적인 식민도시로 개발됐으며, 제2의 오사카로 불렸기 때문에 상징성이 컸다. 거사 준비 과정에서 박재혁은 부산경찰서장 하시모토(橋本秀平)가 고서적을 좋아한다는 정보를 입수하고, 무역업을 하던 경험을 살려 중국 고서 상인으로 위장했다. 1920년 9월 14일 오후 2시 30분 경 부산경찰서에 들어가 공무가 있는 것처럼 가장하고, 하시모토 서장의 오른쪽 가까이 접근하자, 서장이 집무를 멈추고 그쪽으로 몸을 돌리려는 찰나, 자신이 의열단임을 밝히고 투탄했다. 당시 하시모토 서장은 경상을 입었다. 박재혁도 부상을 입어 탈출하지 못하고 현장에서 체포됐다. 박재혁은 부산지법의 1심부터 1921년 3월 31일 진행된 경성고법의 3심까지 일관되게 ‘살인미수죄’가 적용됐다. 박재혁은 부산지방법원에서 무기징역을 선고받았다. 그러나 검사의 공소로 대구복심법원에서 진행된 재판에서는 원심이 파기되고 박재혁은 사형을 선고받았다. 결국 박재혁은 1921년 3월 31일 3심인 경성 고등법원에서 사형이 확정됐다. 박재혁은 체포된 후 고문과 폭탄 투척 당시의 상처로 고통을 겪는 와중에 폐병까지 얻게 되었지만 기개는 꺾이지 않았다. 1921년 5월 11일 오전 11시 20분에 대구 감옥에서 사망했다. Jae-hyuk Park was born as the only son in 183 Beomil-dong on May 17, 1895. At the age of 15, his father passed away and he lived with his mother and sister. On March 22, 1911, he graduated from Busanjin Primary School, and on March 22, 1915, he was the fourth graduate of Busan Public Commercial School. While attending Busan Public Commercial School, Jae-hyuk Park secretly reproduced and distributed 『Dongguk History』 with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim and Hong-gyu Park. In his third grade, he formed Gusedan(救世團) with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim, Hong-gyu Park, and Jae-young Oh, and issued a noticed to promote national identity in Busan and the whole region of Gyeongsangnam-do Province. Jae-hyuk Park left Busan in June 1917 to Shanghai and Singapore for more than three years to work in the trade industry. At the same time, he was seeking ways to contribute to the independence movement while interacting with his companions. He then decided to devote himself to the independence movement after the March 1 Independence Movement. Busan Police Station was targeted as the attack after the March 1 Independence Movement when Euiyeoldan had been organized by declaring the change of direction to the existing independence movement, and it was when everyone involved was arrested upon failure of the first national full-scale attack plan in June 1920. As a result, Euiyeoldan needed to achieve results and reverse the situation in a short time. Busan was also a gateway from Japan to Joseon and was developed as the typical colonial city, and had its symbolism as it was called as the second Osaka. In preparation for the rebellion, Jae-hyuk Park obtained information that Hashimoto, the Busan police chief, liked ancient books and disguised himself as the Chinese ancient book dealer by taking advantage of his experience in trade business. At about 2:30p.m. on September 14, 1920, he entered the Busan Police Station pretending to be on duty, approached chief Hashimoto from the right side and threw a bomb after declaring himself as a member of Euiyeoldan when the chief turned his body towards him. At that time, chief Hashimoto was slightly injured. Jae-hyuk Park was arrested at the scene after failing to escape due to his injury. Jae-hyuk Park was consistently charged with 'attempted murder' from the first trial of the Busan District Court to the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court on March 31, 1921. Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to life imprisonment at the Busan District Court. However, the appeal by the prosecution annulled the original decision at the trial at the Daegu High Court, and Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death. Eventually, Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death as his final judgment on March 31, 1921 after the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court. Jae-hyuk Park suffered from lung diseases due to tortures after arrest and injuries from the bomb, but his spirit was never thwarted. He died in Daegu prison at 11:20a.m. on May 11, 1921 before the execution.

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