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The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
Due to the development of the medical and science technology, people’s life expectancy has increased and accordingly, people’s interest in physical activity and health promotion is steadily increasing. However, modern people are too busy that most of them have difficulties in having separate time to exercise. Therefore, an environment must be prepared which induces people’s physical activity naturally and substainably. Meanwhile, New York City in the U.S. presented Active Design Guidelines that suggests urban and building design strategies which resulted in reducing the rate of obesity and adult diseases of the citizens. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze domestic urban parks based on the NYC ‘Active Design Guidelines’ and to suggest more effective ways of active design to our domestic urban parks. The importance of health promotion activities for modern people and the NYC ‘Active Design Guidelines’ were analyzed. Among the checklist of active design guidelines in NYC, category items that are suitable for domestic urban parks were extracted and a checklist for domestic urban parks was derived. Based on the reorganized checklist, a field investigation was conducted on three domestic urban parks located in Mapo-gu: Haneul Park, Noeul Park, and Nanjicheon Park. Lastly, a conclusion was drawn through the analysis on the application of active design in domestic urban parks based on the checklist. The results are as follows. First, all the three domestic urban parks had convenient and various facilities. However, they should be supplied various places in order to increase the citizens accessibility and to increase the frequency or duration of visits to the parks. Second, the opening hours were different, and it was difficult to secure stability for pedestrians because the pedestrian roads and automobile roads were not physically separated. Therefore, the adjustment of the opening hours and the physical separation of roads are necessary to allow citizens to access to the parks safely at any time. Third, in the case of information provision, maps and signs existed in all three domestic urban parks, but were not giving detailed information. Bicycle roads were provided around the park making people accessible to the park, but were not well provided inside the park. Therefore, more specific and diverse information should be given to pedestrians and bicyclists using parks. If active design guidelines for Seoul and Seoul citizens are presented in the future, domestic urban parks will be reformed which will eventually help citizens to improve their health.
박재혁(朴載赫)은 1895년 5월 17일 범일동 183번지에서 독자로 태어났다. 15세되던 해에 아버지를 여의고 어머니, 여동생과 생활했다. 1911년 3월 22일 부산진사립육영학교를 졸업하고, 1915년 3월 22일 부산공립상업학교를 제4회로 졸업했다. 박재혁은 부산공립상업학교 재학 중에 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규 등과 함께 『동국역사』를 비밀리에 등사하여 배포했다. 3학년 때에는 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규, 오재영 등과 구세단(救世團)을 결성하고, 민족의식을 고취하는 단보를 발행하여 부산과 경상남도 일대에 배포했다. 박재혁은 1917년 6월 부산을 떠나 3년 이상 상해와 싱가포르 등지를 왕래하면서 인삼 등의 무역업에 종사했다. 동시에 동지들과 교류하면서 독립운동에 기여할 방법을 찾고 있었다. 그러던 중 3.1운동을 계기로 독립운동에 대한 신심을 다져 투신하기로 결심했다. 부산경찰서가 타격대상으로 지목된 것은 당시 의열단이 3.1운동 이후 기존의 독립운동노선에 방향전환을 선언하고 조직됐는데, 제1차 국내기관총공격 계획이 1920년 6월에 발각되어 실패하고 관련자 전원이 체포됐다. 이에 의열단에서는 빠른 시간 내에 성과를 거두어 이를 반전시켜야 할 필요성 요구됐기 때문이다. 또한 부산은 일본에서 조선으로 가는 관문이며 전형적인 식민도시로 개발됐으며, 제2의 오사카로 불렸기 때문에 상징성이 컸다. 거사 준비 과정에서 박재혁은 부산경찰서장 하시모토(橋本秀平)가 고서적을 좋아한다는 정보를 입수하고, 무역업을 하던 경험을 살려 중국 고서 상인으로 위장했다. 1920년 9월 14일 오후 2시 30분 경 부산경찰서에 들어가 공무가 있는 것처럼 가장하고, 하시모토 서장의 오른쪽 가까이 접근하자, 서장이 집무를 멈추고 그쪽으로 몸을 돌리려는 찰나, 자신이 의열단임을 밝히고 투탄했다. 당시 하시모토 서장은 경상을 입었다. 박재혁도 부상을 입어 탈출하지 못하고 현장에서 체포됐다. 박재혁은 부산지법의 1심부터 1921년 3월 31일 진행된 경성고법의 3심까지 일관되게 ‘살인미수죄’가 적용됐다. 박재혁은 부산지방법원에서 무기징역을 선고받았다. 그러나 검사의 공소로 대구복심법원에서 진행된 재판에서는 원심이 파기되고 박재혁은 사형을 선고받았다. 결국 박재혁은 1921년 3월 31일 3심인 경성 고등법원에서 사형이 확정됐다. 박재혁은 체포된 후 고문과 폭탄 투척 당시의 상처로 고통을 겪는 와중에 폐병까지 얻게 되었지만 기개는 꺾이지 않았다. 1921년 5월 11일 오전 11시 20분에 대구 감옥에서 사망했다. Jae-hyuk Park was born as the only son in 183 Beomil-dong on May 17, 1895. At the age of 15, his father passed away and he lived with his mother and sister. On March 22, 1911, he graduated from Busanjin Primary School, and on March 22, 1915, he was the fourth graduate of Busan Public Commercial School. While attending Busan Public Commercial School, Jae-hyuk Park secretly reproduced and distributed 『Dongguk History』 with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim and Hong-gyu Park. In his third grade, he formed Gusedan(救世團) with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim, Hong-gyu Park, and Jae-young Oh, and issued a noticed to promote national identity in Busan and the whole region of Gyeongsangnam-do Province. Jae-hyuk Park left Busan in June 1917 to Shanghai and Singapore for more than three years to work in the trade industry. At the same time, he was seeking ways to contribute to the independence movement while interacting with his companions. He then decided to devote himself to the independence movement after the March 1 Independence Movement. Busan Police Station was targeted as the attack after the March 1 Independence Movement when Euiyeoldan had been organized by declaring the change of direction to the existing independence movement, and it was when everyone involved was arrested upon failure of the first national full-scale attack plan in June 1920. As a result, Euiyeoldan needed to achieve results and reverse the situation in a short time. Busan was also a gateway from Japan to Joseon and was developed as the typical colonial city, and had its symbolism as it was called as the second Osaka. In preparation for the rebellion, Jae-hyuk Park obtained information that Hashimoto, the Busan police chief, liked ancient books and disguised himself as the Chinese ancient book dealer by taking advantage of his experience in trade business. At about 2:30p.m. on September 14, 1920, he entered the Busan Police Station pretending to be on duty, approached chief Hashimoto from the right side and threw a bomb after declaring himself as a member of Euiyeoldan when the chief turned his body towards him. At that time, chief Hashimoto was slightly injured. Jae-hyuk Park was arrested at the scene after failing to escape due to his injury. Jae-hyuk Park was consistently charged with 'attempted murder' from the first trial of the Busan District Court to the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court on March 31, 1921. Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to life imprisonment at the Busan District Court. However, the appeal by the prosecution annulled the original decision at the trial at the Daegu High Court, and Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death. Eventually, Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death as his final judgment on March 31, 1921 after the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court. Jae-hyuk Park suffered from lung diseases due to tortures after arrest and injuries from the bomb, but his spirit was never thwarted. He died in Daegu prison at 11:20a.m. on May 11, 1921 before the execution.
마곡중앙공원 조성계획은 기존 마곡워터프론트 계획이 백지화 된 이후 다양한 논의를 거쳐 보타닉가든으로 방향성이 결정되었으며, 식물원과 공원이 결합되는 새로운 타입의 도시공원으로 방향이 제시되었다. 마곡이 가지고 있는 지형적 특성과 역사적 의의, 그리고 도시공간에서의 입지특성은 공원조성을 위한 기본 철학과 조성원칙으로 발전하였으며, 공간계획으로 구체화 되었다. 이와 같은 개념은 식물원, 호수공원, 열린숲공원, 생태천이원 등 4개의 존으로 영역화하여 세부공간계획으로 구체화 된다. 특히 식물원 부분은 핵심적인 공간으로 약 128,000㎡의 규모로 조성되어 새로운 명소가 될 것으로 기대하며, 도시공원에서 경험할 수 있는 호수와 잔디마당은 도시민들이 쉴 수 있는 여가의 공간으로 조성될 것이다. 또한 마곡중앙공원은 내ㆍ외적 성장의 개념을 바탕으로 조성될 것이며, 100년의 시간을 통해 성장하게 될 것이다. 이와 같은 종합적인 계획은 기존 선행하여 연구되었던 현대공원설계의 특성에서 제안한 여섯 가지 전략과 밀접하게 연관성을 갖고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. After the Magok Waterfront Plan was annulled, discussions led to the decision to develop Magok Central Park as a botanical garden. It was proposed that the botanical garden and park be combined to create a new type of city park. The geographical characteristics and historical implications of Magok and the location’s urban spatial characteristics were developed into a basic philosophy and a composition principle for a park design and then shaped into a spatial plan. The concept divides the space into four zones, including a botanical garden, a lake park, an open forest park, and an ecological succession area, which are given shape through a detailed spatial plan. The botanical garden, in particular, as a core space that occupies 128,000㎡, is expected to become a new attraction. A lake and a lawn in the city park will become a leisure area where citizens can relax. Moreover, Magok Central Park will be built based on the concept of internal and external growth, and it will grow over 100 years. It was identified that this comprehensive plan is closely related to six strategies for modern park design as delineated in existing studies.
Before constructing parks, it's necessary to formulate plans in the direction of preventing crimes in advance, and follow-up management must be done after constructing the parks completely. If citizens are reluctant to use the parks because public safety is not guaranteed, the reason for being disappears. If the parks do not protect citizens from crimes, it would rather not exist than do harm to them. Rather, it is good policy. In this respect, the current system must be improved, which has no manual for crime prevention being confined to policy of increasing the number of parks. Through the government's expressing its firm will to secure public safety of parks by enacting clear provisions so that the original good will is not distorted to make resting places for citizens, a recognition that illegal acts which make others anxious are punished necessarily must be instilled into park users while taking a sound rest is protected thoroughly. In addition, the police should do the patrols actively in order to prevent crimes in the parks and try to increase street lamps and security CCTV installation in collaboration with the agencies concerned including gu offices. However, it can be said the most important thing to prevent damage of the crimes in the parks is the very civic consciousness. We should keep it in mind that along with continuous efforts by the police and public organizations, a sense of ownership that 'I am the owner of the park' and mature civic consciousness to ‘care for the park like my house’ will make the parks safe without crimes.