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      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Buffalo Follicular Fluid Alone and in Combination with PMSG and M199 on in vitro Buffalo Oocyte Maturation

        Gupta,,P.S.P.,Nandi,,S.,Ravindranatha,,B.M.,Sarma,,P.V. 아세아태평양축산학회 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.5

        The effect of replacement of in vitro maturation medium completely with the buffalo follicular fluid (buFF) on in vitro oocyte maturation of buffalo oocytes was studied. 5 to 8 buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes were cultured in a single drop with each of the eight media studied i.e., M199+steer serum (10% v/v), M199+steer serum (10% v/v)+PMSG, M199+buFF (10% v/v), M199+buFF (10% v/v)+PMSG, M199+buFF (50% v/v), M199+buFF (50% v/v)+ PMSG, buFF (100%) and buFF+PMSG at $39^{\circ}C$ and 5% $CO_2$ in air for 24 h. Supplementation of M199 with Steer serum alone resulted in IVM rate of 35% only. When the above medium was supplemented with PMSG, the maturation rate rallied to 82%. Significant increase in the maturation rates were observed when M199 was supplemented with increasing levels of buFF. A further increase in the maturation rate was also obtained when PMSG was incorporated into the medium of M199 supplemented with buFF. The rate of maturation was to the tune of 91% when oocytes were matured in buFF alone which was increased non significantly on the addition of PMSG. Highest maturation rate (97%) obtained with M199+buFF (50%v/v)+PMSG did not differ significantly from that obtained by either M199+buFF (10%v/v)+PMSG or buFF+PMSG. It is suggested that buFF alone without any supplementation can form the effective in vitro maturation medium for buffalo oocytes.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Buffalo Calves Fed Urea-ammoniated Wheat Straw and Hydrochloric Acid plus Urea Treated Wheat Straw

        Nair,,P.V.,Verma,,A.K.,Dass,,R.S.,Mehra,,U.R. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.5

        Ten growing male buffalo calves (aged 6-8 months, average body weight $88.2{\pm}0.57$ kg were divided randomly into two groups. Animals in group I were fed on concentrate mixture A (CP 20.2%, TDN 77.4%) and urea- ammoniated wheat straw (UAWS) while the animals in group II were fed on concentrate mixture B (CP 17.9%, TDN 77.6%) and HCl plus urea treated wheat straw (HCl UAWS) to meet their nutrient requirement for 500 g gain/d as per Kearl (1982). This feeding practice lasted for 120 days, during which fortnightly body weight were recorded to assess their growth rate. A metabolism trial was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding to compare the digestibility of nutrients, their balance, plane of nutrition and relative cost of feeding in two groups of animals. Results revealed a significant increase in the CP content of ammoniated wheat straw due to addition of HCl viz 12.1% from 7.5%. There was a decrease in the intake of DM (p<0.05), OM (p<0.05), EE (p<0.05), NDF (p<0.01), ADF (p<0.01), cellulose (p<0.01) and hemicellulose (p<0.01) in group II as compared to group I. The digestibility (%) of DM, OM and CP was significantly (p<0.01) more in group II, whereas the digestibility (%) was significantly more for NDF (p<0.05) and hemicellulose (p<0.01) in group I than group II. There was no significant difference in the N, Ca and P balance in two groups. Intake of total DM (g/d) or (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was significantly (p<0.01) more in group I as compared to group II, whereas the intake of DCP and TDN (g/d or g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was alike in two groups. The total body weight gain (kg), average daily gain (g/d) and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (p<0.01) more in UAWS fed group as compared to HCl UAWS fed group. Feeding cost (Rs./kg. weight gain) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group II as compared to group I. It is concluded that HCl UAWS is not suitable for the feeding of growing buffalo calves as it reduced the growth rate in comparison to UAWS fed buffalo calves.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Feeding Different Protein Supplements on Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance and Calcium and Phosphorus Utilization in Sheep

        T.V.,Viswanathan,J.P.,Fontenot 아세아·태평양축산학회 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.5

        Two metabolism trials were conducted with 24 wether lambs to investigate the effects of feeding crab meal and other protein supplements on N utilization, digestibility and Ca and P balance in sheep. The lambs (avg. BW, 25 kg) were randomly allotted to eight diets in each of two trials. The supplements were: i) none, negative control (NC); ii) soybean meal (SBM), control; iii) supplement based on industrial byproducts of both plant and animal origin (IPA); iv) experimental supplement based on byproducts of animal origin (ESA); v) hydrolyzed supplement No 4. (HESA); vi) commercial supplement based on animal protein (CS), Pro-LakⓇ ; vii) crab meal (CM); and viii) urea (U). The supplements supplied 33% of the total dietary N (CP, 9.8%; DM basis). Lambs fed the NC diet had lower (p<0.05) DM and OM digestibility. Lower (p<0.05) apparent absorption of N was recorded for the lambs fed the HESA and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had lower Ca absorption compared to SBM. Highest (p<0.05) P absorption was observed for lambs fed CS and CM and lowest for U and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had higher (p<0.05) total VFA concentration (65.7 μmol/ml), compared to those fed ESA, CS, and NC diets (47.3, 49.8, and 49.5 μmol/ml, respectively). Highest (p<0.05) ruminal NH3 N (29.6 mg/dl) was observed in lambs fed the U diet, while those fed the NC diet had the lowest (p<0.05) average value (7.66 mg/dl). Lambs fed the U diet had the highest (p<0.05) blood urea N (10.67 mg/dl). The present study showed that N utilization of diets supplemented with experimental supplements based on feather meal and blood meal; commercial supplement based on animal protein, ProlakⓇ; supplement based on plant protein and blood meal; and crab meal are comparable with that of soybean meal. Two metabolism trials were conducted with 24 wether lambs to investigate the effects of feeding crab meal and other protein supplements on N utilization, digestibility and Ca and P balance in sheep. The lambs (avg. BW, 25 kg) were randomly allotted to eight diets in each of two trials. The supplements were: i) none, negative control (NC); ii) soybean meal (SBM), control; iii) supplement based on industrial byproducts of both plant and animal origin (IPA); iv) experimental supplement based on byproducts of animal origin (ESA); v) hydrolyzed supplement No 4. (HESA); vi) commercial supplement based on animal protein (CS), Pro-LakⓇ ; vii) crab meal (CM); and viii) urea (U). The supplements supplied 33% of the total dietary N (CP, 9.8%; DM basis). Lambs fed the NC diet had lower (p<0.05) DM and OM digestibility. Lower (p<0.05) apparent absorption of N was recorded for the lambs fed the HESA and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had lower Ca absorption compared to SBM. Highest (p<0.05) P absorption was observed for lambs fed CS and CM and lowest for U and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had higher (p<0.05) total VFA concentration (65.7 μmol/ml), compared to those fed ESA, CS, and NC diets (47.3, 49.8, and 49.5 μmol/ml, respectively). Highest (p<0.05) ruminal NH3 N (29.6 mg/dl) was observed in lambs fed the U diet, while those fed the NC diet had the lowest (p<0.05) average value (7.66 mg/dl). Lambs fed the U diet had the highest (p<0.05) blood urea N (10.67 mg/dl). The present study showed that N utilization of diets supplemented with experimental supplements based on feather meal and blood meal; commercial supplement based on animal protein, ProlakⓇ; supplement based on plant protein and blood meal; and crab meal are comparable with that of soybean meal.

      • KCI등재

        Implantable Thin-film Porous Microelectrode Array (P-MEA) for Electrical Stimulation of Engineered Cardiac Tissues

        Hiren,V.,Trada,Venkat,Vendra,Joseph,P.,Tinney,Fangping,Yuan,Douglas,J.,Jackson,Kevin,M.,Walsh,Bradley,B.,Keller 한국바이오칩학회 2015 BioChip Journal Vol.9 No.2

        We have designed, fabricated, and validated a novel porous, multielectrode array (P-MEA) device capable of low-voltage electrical stimulation of engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs). The primary advantage of this device is the ability to successfully function at a very low voltage thus minimizing any undesirable oxidative by-products in the culture environment or cell injury. Major features of our P-MEA include dimensions of 10 mm width and 82 mm length, four arms to allow movement of the individual pads within ECTs, each embedded electrode arm incorporates eight 100 μm×200 μm rectangular pores surrounding a 950 μm×340 μm exposed electrode, large pads on either side of the porous embedded device to function as current return electrodes, suture holes to aid in vivo suturing and stabilization, and an eight electrode connector pads. Average thickness of the Ni/Au electrodes was 20 nm of nickel and 400 nm of old, an average electrode film thickness of 0.4 μm, and a double polyimide layer thickness of 16 μm. Electrode resistance ranged from 69.45 Ω to 78.52 Ω. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the P-MEA operates in the 0.01 V to 1.0 V range with favorable charge transfer characteristics. Proof of principle experiments confirmed the ability of the P-MEA to effectively embed within ECT and electricallystimulate ECT during chronic, in vitro culture. Histology imaging shows that the embedding of the device has no adverse effects on the ECT and the cardiomyocytes are aligned within the tissue. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate the role of electrical stimulation on the maturation and function of ECTs. We have designed, fabricated, and validated a novel porous, multielectrode array (P-MEA) device capable of low-voltage electrical stimulation of engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs). The primary advantage of this device is the ability to successfully function at a very low voltage thus minimizing any undesirable oxidative by-products in the culture environment or cell injury. Major features of our P-MEA include dimensions of 10 mm width and 82 mm length, four arms to allow movement of the individual pads within ECTs, each embedded electrode arm incorporates eight 100 μm×200 μm rectangular pores surrounding a 950 μm×340 μm exposed electrode, large pads on either side of the porous embedded device to function as current return electrodes, suture holes to aid in vivo suturing and stabilization, and an eight electrode connector pads. Average thickness of the Ni/Au electrodes was 20 nm of nickel and 400 nm of gold, an average electrode film thickness of 0.4 μm, and a double polyimide layer thickness of 16 μm. Electrode resistance ranged from 69.45 Ω to 78.52 Ω. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the P-MEA operates in the 0.01 V to 1.0 V range with favorable charge transfer characteristics. Proof of principle experiments confirmed the ability of the P-MEA to effectively embed within ECT and electrically stimulate ECT during chronic, in vitro culture. Histology imaging shows that the embedding of the device has no adverse effects on the ECT and the cardiomyocytes are aligned within the tissue. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate the role of electrical stimulation on the maturation and function of ECTs.

      • KCI등재

        Comparative antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Origanum majorana extracts in NIDDM rats

        Pimple,,B.P.,Kadam,,P.V.,Patil,,M.J. 경희한의학연구센터 2012 Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine Vol.12 No.1

        Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder prevailing throughout the world irrespective of age, sex and race. The present study deals with phytochemical, antioxidant, antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Origanum majorana (OM) leaves. Various extracts of OM were used for the study such as, hydrodistilled volatile oil (OMO), petroleum ether extract (OMPE), methanolic extract (OMM) and aqueous extract (OMW). Three doses of each extract viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were used for the study. Streptozotocin, STZ (65 mg/Kg, i.p.) along with nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. Various biochemical markers of blood and tissue origin were estimated. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. Glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug, was used as a standard. Volatile oil (OMO, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and methanolic extract (OMM, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited dose dependent significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycaemic activity. The aqueous (OMW, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) had moderate (p<0.05) effect on blood sugar level. The volatile oil (OMO, 100 mg/kg p.o.) was less significant (p<0.05) in lowering the elevated triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Whereas; methanolic (OMM, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and aqueous (OMW, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) extracts substantially (p<0.01) showed antihyperlipidemic effect. From this study, it was concluded that the volatile oil and methanolic extract of Origanum majorana leaves could prove to be beneficial in management of NIDDM and its associated lipid imbalance.

      • KCI등재

        Seasonal and geographical toxicity of Indoxacarb against Helicoverpa armigera and influence of different host plants against Indoxacarb in India, 2005–2007

        Basweshwar,S.,GHODKI,Shivcharan,M.,THAKARE,Mangesh,P.,MOHARIL,Nagarjuna,G.,V.,RAO 한국곤충학회 2009 Entomological Research Vol.39 No.1

        Indoxacarb, an oxadiazine insecticide, was evaluated for its effectiveness against Helicoverpa armigera collected from selected locations in India. Determination of Indoxacarb efficacy was done using a log-dose probit (LDP) bioassay against third instars collected from cotton (Gossypium arborium) fields near Akola, India. Monthly levels of toxicity of Indoxacarb were determined from July 2005 to March 2007. The maximum tolerance level of Indoxacarb was reported for the Amaravati strain (5.09 p.p.m.) and the minimum tolerance level for the Fatehbad strain (0.22 p.p.m.). Seasonal monitoring of Indoxacarb toxicity revealed an increased trend in tolerance from July 2005 to February 2006, which decreased from March 2006. The LC50 of Indoxacarb was 2.71 p.p.m. in July 2005 and 17.14 p.p.m. in February 2006. During 2006–007, the LC50 was 3.84 p.p.m. at the start of the season and in March 2007 it was 13.51 p.p.m. The minimum LC50 of Indoxacarb was reported for H. armigera larvae fed on Legasca spp. (1.62 p.p.m.) and the maximum LC50 was reported for H. armigera reared on chickpea (Cicer arietium) (8.45 p.p.m.). LC50 of 2.73 and 4.56 p.p.m. were reported for H. armigera fed on cotton (Gossypium arborium) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), respectively.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Modification of Schottky Barrier Properties of Ti/p-type InP Schottky Diode by Polyaniline (PANI) Organic Interlayer

        P.,R.,Sekhar,Reddy,V.,Janardhanam,I.,Jyothi,Shim-Hoon,Yuk,V.,Rajagopal,Reddy,Jae-Chan,Jeong,Sung-Nam,Lee,Chel-Jong,Choi 대한전자공학회 2016 Journal of semiconductor technology and science Vol.16 No.5

        The electrical properties of Ti/p-type InP Schottky diodes with and without polyaniline (PANI) interlayer was investigated using current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements. The barrier height of Ti/p-type InP Schottky diode with PANI interlayer was higher than that of the conventional Ti/p-type InP Schottky diode, implying that the organic interlayer influenced the space-charge region of the Ti/p-type InP Schottky junction. At higher voltages, the current transport was dominated by the trap free space-charge-limited current and trap-filled space-charge-limited current in Ti/p-type InP Schottky diode without and with PANI interlayer, respectively. The domination of trap filled space-charge-limited current in Ti/p-type InP Schottky diode with PANI interlayer could be associated with the traps originated from structural defects prevailing in organic PANI interlayer.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Modeling Nutrient Supply to Ruminants: Frost-damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

        P.,Yu,V.,Racz 아세아·태평양축산학회 2010 Animal Bioscience Vol.23 No.3

        The objectives of this study were to use the NRC-2001 model and DVE/OEB system to model potential nutrient supply to ruminants and to compare frost damaged (also called “frozen”) wheat with normal wheat. Quantitative predictions were made in terms of: i) Truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; ii) Truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; iii) Endogenous protein in the digestive tract; iv). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and v). Protein degraded balance. The overall yield losses of the frozen wheat were 24%. Results showed that using the DVE/OEB system to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (65 vs. 66 g/㎏ DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (39 vs. 53 g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had higher endogenous protein (14 vs. 9 g/㎏ DM; p<0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (89 vs. 110 g/㎏ DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was similar and both were negative (-2 vs. -1 g/㎏ DM). Using the NRC-2001 model to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat also had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (average 56 g/㎏ DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (35 vs. 48, g/㎏ DM; p<0.10) and had similar endogenous protein (average 4 g/㎏ DM; p>0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (95 vs. 108 g/㎏ DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was not significantly different and both were negative (-16 vs. -19 g/㎏ DM). In conclusion, both models predict lower protein value and negative protein degraded balance in the frozen wheat. The frost damage to the wheat reduced nutrient content and availability and thus reduced nutrient supply to ruminants by around 12 to 19%.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Phytase Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Maize and Wheat Based Diets with Different Levels of Non-phytate Phosphorus

        Singh,,P.K.,Khatta,,V.K.,Thakur,,R.S.,Dey,,S.,Sangwan,,M.L. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2003 Animal Bioscience Vol.16 No.11

        An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytase supplementation on the growth performance, nutrients utilization and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n=480) were equally devided into eight treatment groups and fed maize or wheat based isocaloric, isonitrogenous and isocalcium diets having two non phytate phosphorus (NPP) concentrations (0.50% and 0.30%) and two phytase levels (0 and 500 phytase units/kg diet) in a 42 days growth trial. Maize based dietary treatments were MC (NPP 0.50%, MN (NPP 0.30%), MNP (MN+500 units of phytase) and MCP (MC+500 units of phytase), whereas wheat based experimental diets were WC (NPP 0.50%), WN (NPP 0.30%), WNP (WN+500 units of phytase) and WCP (WC+500 units of phytase). The NPP levels were maintained by dicalcium phosphate. Reduction in dietary NPP depressed live weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR). Phytase supplementation to low NPP (0.30%) diets significantly (p<0.05) improved the growth performances of broilers. The supplementation to low NPP diets allowed complete, safe and economic replacement of dietary inorganic P (dicalcium phosphate) to reduce feed cost per kg live weight gain of broilers. Reduction in dietary NPP did not affect retention of nutrients except phosphorus (P) but had a significant (p<0.05) depression in tibia ash and minerals (Ca, P) concentration in serum and tibia ash. Phytase supplementation at low NPP level was effective (p<0.05) in improving the retention of dry matter, Ca and P and Ca and P concentration in serum and tibia ash. However, the supplementation was not effective at high level of NPP (0.50%). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in carcass quality among dietary treatments. The response of phytase was greater in low NPP and maize based diets as compared with high NPP and wheat based diets, respectively. The results show that phytase supplementation to low NPP (0.30%) diets improved the growth performance, relative retention of nutrients (N, Ca and P) and minerals (Ca, P) status of blood and bone in broiler chickens, with a better efficacy in maize based diets.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Excretion in Broiler Starter Chicks Fed Varied Concentrations of Cholecalciferol

        S.V.,Rama,Rao,M.V.L.N.,Raju,G.,Shyam,Sunder,A.K.,Panda,P.,Pavani 아세아·태평양축산학회 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.2

        An experiment was conducted to study the growth performance, bone mineralization and mineral excretion in broiler starter chicks fed high levels of cholecalciferol (CC) at sub-optimal levels of calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Five hundred and sixty day-old Vencobb female broiler chicks were housed in raised wire floor stainless steel battery brooder pens (24????0????8?? at the rate of five chicks per pen. A maize-soyabean meal basal diet was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell powder and synthetic CC to arrive at two levels each of Ca (0.50 and 0.60%), and NPP (0.25 and 0.30%) and four levels of CC (200, 1,200, 2,400 and 3,600 ICU/kg) in a 2???? factorial design. Each diet was fed ad libitum to chicks in 7 pens from 2 to 21days of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and bone weight increased (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC at both the Ca and NPP levels tested. The CC levels required to obtain significant improvement in body weight gain and feed intake reduced (2,400 ICU/kg vs. 1,200 ICU/kg) with increase in levels of P in diet (0.25% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The feed conversion ratio was significantly improved (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC from 200 to 1,200 ICU/kg diet at 0.5% Ca, while at 0.6% Ca, the level of CC in diet did not influence the feed efficiency. Tibia mineralization (density, breaking strength and ash content) and Ca and P contents in serum increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in levels of CC in diet. The CC effect on these parameters was more pronounced at lower levels of Ca and NPP (0.5 and 0.25%, respectively). The data on body weight gain and feed intake indicated that NPP level in diet can be reduced from 0.30 to 0.25% by increasing CC from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg. Similarly, the bone mineralization (tibia weight, density and ash content) increased non-linearly (p<0.01) with increase in CC levels in diet. Concentrations of P and Mn in excreta decreased (p<0.01), by increasing CC level from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg diet. It can be concluded that dietary levels of Ca and NPP could be reduced to 0.50 and 0.25%, respectively by enhancing the levels of cholecalciferol from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg with out affecting body weight gain, feed efficiency and bone mineralization. Additionally, phosphorus and manganese excretion decreased with increase in levels of CC in broiler diet.

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