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'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Mekong delta is the largest delta in Vietnam with an area of 39000㎢, or 12% of the country’s. Therefore, the delta, together with Hochiminh City, has been and will be playing a very crucial role in Vietnam’s cultural-economic development strategies. Yet, while Mekong delta is a fairly new land in comparison with our nation’s long history, it has been a “promise land” or a “land of hope” to many migrants who have migrated to and resided over the delta in their pursuing of wealth and happiness. Many generations of the Vietnamese, side by side with other ethnic peoples, have exploited and protected the region which resulted in several magical achievements during wars against foreign invaders as well as in peace time. Mekong Delta is resided by multi-ethnic peoples. These peoples, who are different in terms of economic development level, social structure and religion, have come to existence over the land at different time points. However, through long history of co-residence, due to cultural exchange and acculturation, among the peoples there have emerged many common cultural features and this process is currently still on progress under proactive influences of modern circumstance. As a result, there have been many religions in the delta; besides world religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, there have existed local religions. Obviously, these religions contribute greatly to the cultural diversity of the whole southern part of the country. The Vietnamese is a majority people in the region. The culture of the Vietnamese in Mekong delta has selectively inherited cultural values of Vietnamese tradition. During their residing in the delta, the people has also adopted and created cultural features that are adaptative to natural and social environment of the region. For instance, at the end of 19^(th) century and early 20^(th) century, the Vietnamese in Mekong delta created several religions with ubiquitous local identities. In general, local religions have played very crucial roles in the life of the Vietnamese in the delta; however, their impacts have seldom spread out of the Vietnamese communities. In this paper, by viewing religion as both a social phenomenon and a cultural one, I concentrate on proposing the reasons for the birth of local religions of the Vietnamese in Southern Vietnam at the end of 19^(th) and early 20^(th) century. Also, I want to take a look at these religions’ impacts over cultural life of the people in the region. Assumedly, they were born under specific conditions of the South and only have impacts upon the life of the people. Furthermore, the paper proposes that, on one hand, the Vietnamese in the South have selectively inherited traditional cultural values which have created Vietnamese cultural values as the whole; on the other hand, they have made their own ones within the context of their new living conditions.
랜덤계수 a_(j) (w) (j=0, 1, …, n)가 종속적 Gaussian 랜덤변수인 랜덤 다항식 F_(n) (z, w)= a_(0) (w)+a₁(w)z+…+ a_(n)(w)zⁿ에서 랜덤 대수방정식 F_(n)(z, w)=0의 양의 근의 수 N_(n)( R^(+) , w)의 상계를 연구하여, Ω가 R^(+) 를 포함하고 F_(n)(z, w)의 정의역에 포함되는 영역일 때 정수 n_(0)와 Borel 집합 Ω_(0)⊂Ω가 존재하여 임의 n>n_(0)와 임의의 w∈Ω- Ω_(0)에 대하여 N_(n)(R^(+), w) ≤α(log lon n)²log n이 성립함을 보였다. 여기서 α는 절대상수이다.
<P>An analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines (n-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], n-nitrosoethylmethylamine [NMEA], n-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA], n-nitrosodipropylamine [NDPA], n-nitrosodibutylamine [NDBA], n-nitrosopiperidine [NPIP], and n-nitrosopyrrolidine [NPYRD]) in water insoluble cream type cosmetics. It was found that the head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was suitable for extraction, clean up, and pre-concentration of n-nitrosamines in the cream type samples so its optimal conditions were investigated. Identification and quantification of n-nitrosamines using single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode were carried out with accurate mass measurements. Their accurate masses of protonated molecular ions were obtained within 10 mDa of the theoretical masses when sufficiently high signal was acquired from the unique calibration method using mass and isotope accuracy. For the method validation of quantification, spiking experiments were carried out to determine the linearity, recovery, and method detection limit (MDL) using three deuterated internal standards. The average recovery was 79% within 20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the concentration of 50 ng/g. MDLs ranged from 0.46 ng/g to 36.54 ng/g, which was satisfactory for the directive limit of 50 ng/g proposed by the European Commission (EC). As a result, it was concluded that the method could be provided for the accurate mass screening, confirmation, and quantification of n-nitrosamines when applied to cosmetic inspection. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
DC saddle-field-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition(PECVD) 장치를 이용하여 상온에서 p-type Si (100) 기판위에 hydrogenated amorphous carbon nitride [a-C:H(N)]박막을 증착하였다. 원료가스인 CH₄과 N₂의 전체압력은 90 mTorr로 고정하고 N₂/CH₄비를 0에서 4까지 변화하면서 제작한 a-C:H(N) 박막의 미세 구조의 변화를 연구하였다. 진공조의 도달 진공도는 1×10^(-6) Torr이고, 본 실험시 CH₄+N₂가스의 유량은 5 sc㎝으로 고정하고 배기량을 조절하여 진공조의 가스 압력을 90 mTorr로 고정하였으며 기판에 200 V의 직류 bias 전압을 인가하였다. α-step과 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)를 이용한 분석결과 N₂/CH₄비가 0에서 0.5로 증가함에 따라 박막 두께는 4840 Å에서 2600 Å으로 급격히 감소하였으며, 박막내의 탄소에 대한 질소함유량(N/C비)는 N₂/CH₄비가 4일때 최대 0.25로 증가하는 것을 확인하였다. 또한 XPS 스펙트럼의 fitting 결과 N₂/CH₄비가 증가할수록 CN결합이 증가하였다. Fourier Transformation Infrared (FT-IR) 분석결과 N₂/CH₄비가 증가함에 따라 박막내의 C-H 결합은 감소하고, N-H, C≡N 결합은 증가하였다. Optical bandgap 측정 결 과 N₂/CH₄비가 0에서 4로 증가함에 따라 a-C:H(N)박막의 bandgap 에너지는 2.53 eV에서 2.3 eV로 감소하는 것을 확인하였다. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon nitride[a-C:H(N)] films were deposited on p-type Si(100) at room temperature with substrate bias voltage of 200 V by DC saddle-field plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Effects of the ratio of N₂to CH₄(N₂/CH₄), in the range of 0 and 4 on such properties as optical properties, microstucture, relative fraction of nitrogen and carbon, etc. of the films have been investigated. The thickness of the a-C:H(N) film was abruptly decreased with the addition of nitrogen, but at N₂/CH₄> 0.5, the thickness of the film gradually decreased with the increase of the N₂/CH₄. The ratio of N to C(N/C) of the films was saturated at 0.25 with the increase of N₂/CH₄. N-H, C≡N bonds of the films increased but C-H bond decreased with the increase of N₂/CH₄. Optical band gap energy of the film decreased from 2.53 eV deposited with pure methane to 2.3 eV at the ratio of N₂/CH₄=4.
With the rising cooperation and exchange relationships between Vietnam and Korea in many fields including politics, economy, culture, society, education… the number of Koreans studying Vietnamese has also been steadily increasing. However, compared to the rising, researches that could aid in the development of teaching materials or method are yet to catch up. In particular, the research on the use of audiovisual materials in foreign language teaching, while already having taken significant stride in the field of English, Japanese and Korean language education, has not been yet sufficiently explored in Vietnamese language education, as evidenced by the lack any outstanding research on this topic. This study aims to look into how certain materials could be selected and incorporated into a Vietnamese language lesson plan for foreigners, the Vietnamese drama ‘Family is the best’ – that attracted a huge number of viewers on both on TV and in the internet – will be utilized in this research. The primary goal of this undertaking is to contribute in the creation of innovative teaching and learning interesting and effective at the same time.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
After giving a brief review of the different ideas of the Vietnamese linguists about the word THI, the author presents his judgment about this word as the followings: 1. First as all, the word THI is a conjunction in the structure of the complex sentences which indicates the relationship between condition and result. This structure is a kind of cause - effect one which reflects structure of logic statement “a ⇒ b”. So, we could apply the inferences of prepositional logic to recognize the implication of the sentences which includes the word thi. The most useful inferences are: - The inference by Modus ponens (sufficient condition): (MP) ((x ⇒ y) & x) ⇒ y - The inference by Modus tollens (necessery condition): (MP) ((x ⇒ y) & ~y) ⇒ ~x - The inference by Hypothetical Syllogisms: (HS) ((x ⇒ y) & (y ⇒ z)) ⇒ (x ⇒ z) There is a specific inference in some cases of natural languages in general and Vietnamese language in particular: a sufficient condition may be used as a necessary one. Considering this inference as MV, we have: (MV) ((x ⇒ y) & ~x) ⇒ ~y There are modal inferences for MT and MV. That is: (MT₁) ((x ⇒ y) & muốn ~y) ⇒ đừng ~x / không nên x (MT₂) ((x ⇒ y) & cần ~y) ⇒ phải ~x / không thể x (MV₁) ((x ⇒ y) & muốn ~x) ⇒ đừng ~y / không nên y 2. As a follow-up to the inferences, author presents a general method to investigate the implications in the complex sentences which include the structure of “nếu …thì”. After that, with a series examples, the author demonstrates indirect speech acts of these complex sentences as follows: - Vow, promise: ‘Lạy ông bà, chúng con có biết cái ví tiền của ông mật ngang mũi dọc thế nào thì chúng con cú chết một đời cha ba đời con!’ (NCH). (We (I) swear to you, grandpa, grandma, if we knew anything about the money in your wallet, we (I) would die, our kids would die, and our grandkids would die). - Advice: ‘Nếu ngài không ra tranh cử thì còn ai nữa?’ (If you don't want to run for office, then who will?) - Forbiddance, intimidation: ‘Con mà lấy nó thì đừng bao giờ về nhà này nữa. (If you marry him, don't ever come back to this house). - Assessment, appraisement: She loves you unless the sun rises in the West // Giá Ba chăm học, anh ấy đã đậu đại học (If Ba had studied hard, he would have passed the examination to the university). - Affirmation: ‘Nhưng chẳng tin vào bùa thì còn biết làm gì nữa’ (CĐBT, NNT) If you don't believe in amulet what else? - Announcement: ‘Làm vậy thể nào anh cũng sẽ bị ngồi tù đấy' (If you do that, and then definitely you’ll go to jail). - Proposition, requirement: ‘Nếu cậu không giúp mình chuyện này thì đừng coi mình là bạn nữa.’ If you don’t help me this time, then don’t consider me as your best friend. - Refusal: Tôi giúp anh, sếp biết được thì tôi mất việc. (I could help you, but if the boss knew, I would loss my job). 3. The author uses the inferences MP, MT, MV for investigating the pragmatic implication of the pair utterances of conversation. This pragmatic implication “conceals” in the later utterance which includes the word THI and indicates indirect speech acts such as affirmation, assessment, announcement, refusal, advice… Examples: 1) - Can I park my car here? - Yes, if you want to pay a fine 2) - Why did you beat the young brother? - I didn’t beat him because he is good-mannered) - Sao không cho anh ấy mượn tiền? - Giá như anh ấy giúp đỡ những người khác thì tôi đã cho mượn rồi (- Why didn’t you lent the money to him? - If he had helped others, I would have lent the money to him.) 3) - Em không tin chồng em có bồ. Họa có đứa điên thì nó mới theo không anh ta. - Vậy à? Thế mà bây giờ có đứa đang điên đấy. - (I don’t believe my husband is having a girlfriend. Most likely, she is not too crazy to get involved with him for nothing. - Oh, really? Look, who is a crazy one right now?) 4. Idioms with the word THI In conversation, there are utterances expressing speech acts which become the particular language patterns. A first speech act leads to second speech act. Hence, this is a cause-effect relation. Step by step, these patterns become to idioms indicating a specific speech act even though it doesn’t contain specific content. There are some idioms with the word THI that indicate a specific speech act: ‘A thì cũng x’. This is a rejection, a refusal to accept a role or influence (and consequence) of A to make an appearance x. ‘Không A thì cũng B’. This is a assertion that affirms an object having the property A or B (that a few lower than A). “A thì có!”. This is an affirmation. In that A is affirmed and an implicit B (in previous utterance) is rejected. “y thì không”. This is an acceptance. In that, we are agreed with one’s opinion about x although we affirm y is the same as x. ‘A(x) thì A’. This accepts a suggesting to realize A. ‘A thì phải’: This is a predict A. 5. The word THI and operation of division of a set The concept of word THI considering as a operation of division of a set permits us to explain several phenomena in Vietnamese language related to the word thì. In addition, other functions of THI are investigated.
Firstly, this article gives an overview of the reality of Vietnamese country life in the last decade of the 20th and some early years of the 21st century. Being different from what many people expect, Vietnamese countryside is an area where is negatively effected by the market economy in its toddler stage. The article continues to give evidences and the prediction about the fluctuation of the country life in the next years of the 21st century after Vietnam became a member of The World Trade Organization. Moreover, this article also examines the main characters of the economic weakness, the disadvantages as well as the sensitiveness of Vietnamese countryside when it integrates into the market economy. Now it is the time for Vietnamese countryside to fumblingly find the ways to solve a series of issues, such as the considerable weakness in competitive ability, the very low incomes of almost all of people in countryside, the weakness of the purchasing power and accumulative ability, the redundance of labour source, the inequality in the incomes between rural and urban areas. These lead to the social issues like unemployment and semi-unemployment. As a result, a range of other issues occurs such as the wave of immigration to urban areas and the labour export to foreign countries. However, almost all of these labour forces are unskilled and low effective. Their integration into urban area is quite difficult and they have to face the risks of social evils. The article also warns that the lagging behind and the inadequate of the characteristics development is the risks of unconditioned characters and the lawlessness. In conclusion, the article summaries the main ideas and gives some solution to the anxious facts mentioned.
새로운 25종의 Imazethapyr 유도체, (2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-3-(N-methyl-N-(X)치환 -phenylaminooxoacetyl)-5-methylpyridine)들을 합성하여 치환기(X) 변화에 따른 발아 전 후, 피(Echinochla crus-galli.)의 제초활성에 미치는 3-(N-methyl-N-(X)치환 -phenylaminoozoacetyl) group의 영향을 검토한 바, 발아 전보다 발아 후의 제초활성에 더 큰 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 발아 후의 제초활성은 X-치환기의 전자밀게 효과와 입체상수(E_s)에 의존적이었으며 가장 큰 제초활성을 나타내는 화합물로는 bulky(E_s<O)하고 전자밀게 (б<O)가 치환된 화합물, 15(4-t-butyl group)와 20(3,5-dimethyl group)이었다. 그리고 높은 제초활성을 나타낼 것으로 예상되는 화합물의 조건들이 검토되었다. (1993년 9월 18일 접수, 1993년 9월 22일 수리). New twenty five Imazethapyr derivatives, [2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-3-(N-methyl-N-X(sub.)-phenylaminooxoacetyl)-5-methylpyridine] were synthesized. and The quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) between their post-emergence herbicidal activity(pI_50) values in vivo against Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and physicochemical parameters of substituents(X) of 3-(N-methyl-N-X(sub.)-phenylaminoo-xoacetyl) group have been studied. From the basis on the findings, in case of post-emergence, the activities were dependent on the steric constant(E_s<θ)and electron donating (o<O) effect by subsitituents(X) of 3-(N-methyl-N-X(sub.)phenylaminooxacetyl) group. Therefore, The most effective compound, 15 (4-t-butyl group) and 20 (3,5-dimethyl group) were examined in this study. And the conditions on the compounds predicted to show higher herbicidal activity were also discussed.
Dentro de la produccio´n picto´rica en el Me´xico de principios del siglo XX, Saturnino Herra´n (1887-1918), originario de Aguascalientes (Me´xico), ha sido considerado por algunos cri´ticos el pionero del muralismo mexicano. Su obra Nuestros dioses contempla representaciones que transcriben un sincretismo en el que se funden elementos religiosos espan~oles y prehispa´nicos, para dar lugar a un espacio en el que los contrarios coexisten. La forma en que se procede en el presente estudio es la siguiente: se analiza el sistema semio´tico del texto, esto es, sus formas de articulacio´n. Para ello se tomara´n en cuenta las particularidades de la materia significante. La imagen plantea, de entrada, cierta jerarquizacio´n de contenidos cuya base primaria, al menos, obedece a mecanismos codiciales muy especi´ficos. Toda funcio´n semio´tica inscrita en un texto guarda relaciones con conocimientos del mundo, es decir, con estructuras exteriores al texto, de manera que es necesario determinar el modo en que tienen lugar los procesos de transcripcio´n de una socialidad y mediaciones que la afectan. Nuestros dioses es una representacio´n picto´rica mexicana de Saturnino Herra´n, en donde los signos ico´nicos de lo indigena y lo hispano constituyen un sincretismo religioso.