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A new lunar calendar, called the Muhammadan calendar, starting with the year and month of birth of the Prophet Muhammad was introduced to cover all the history of Islam which began with the birth of the Prophet Muhammad. A lunar historical sequence of the most important Islamic events during the life of Prophet Muhammad was obtained by finding the dates of these events according to the Muhammadan calendar. After a profound study for the historical sources, the birth year of the Prophet Muhammad was considered to be 570 A.D. A computer program for determining the time and exact Julian date of the birth of new moons was used in addition to a manual method to determine the beginning of every Muhammadan month under consideration. The Mutammadan dates were converted into Julian dates. The exact Julian dates of the Islamic events before Hijra (migration) were found for the first time, as well as, the most accurate Julian dates of the Islamic events after Hijra. The results revealed that the most important Islamic events had occurred on Fridays, explaining why Friday is considered by Islam to be a sacred day.
Background WRKY proteins play a vital role in the regulation of several imperative plant metabolic processes and pathways, especially under biotic and abiotic stresses. Although WRKY genes have been characterized in various major crop plants, their identification and characterization in pulse legumes is still in its infancy. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the most important pulse legume grown in arid and semi-arid tropics. Objective In silico identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in chickpea genome. Methods For this purpose, a systematic genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the non-redundant WRKY transcription factors in the chickpea genome. Results We have computationally identified 70 WRKY-encoding non-redundant genes which were randomly distributed on all the chickpea chromosomes except chromosome 8. The evolutionary phylogenetic analysis classified the WRKY proteins into three major groups (I, II and III) and seven sub-groups (IN, IC, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe). The gene structure analysis revealed the presence of 2–7 introns among the family members. Along with the presence of absolutely conserved signatory WRKY domain, 19 different domains were also found to be conserved in a group-specific manner. Insights of gene duplication analysis revealed the predominant role of segmental duplications for the expansion of WRKY genes in chickpea. Purifying selection seems to be operated during the evolution and expansion of paralogous WRKY genes. The transcriptome data-based in silico expression analysis revealed the differential expression of CarWRKY genes in root and shoot tissues under salt, drought, and cold stress conditions. Moreover, some of these genes showed identical expression pattern under these stresses, revealing the possibility of involvement of these genes in conserved abiotic stress–response pathways. Conclusion This genome-wide computational analysis will serve as a base to accelerate the functional characterization of WRKY TFs especially under biotic and abiotic stresses.
The advantages of micro strip patch antennas have made them a perfect candidate for use in the local area network (WLAN) applications. This paper represents the new design of micro strip patch antenna for China Multimedia Mobile Broadcast (CMMB). In the designed micro strip patch antenna, we applied different techniques to achieve the resonant frequency of 2.7GHz with the bandwidth of 300MHz. Unique slots and conventional slits are introduced in such a way that not only enhanced the bandwidth but also provided us with the fruitful result of -74.78dB return loss. Its minor non-symmetry led to dual frequency i.e. 5.60GHz with the bandwidth of 600MHz and return loss of -15.41dB. Further the details regarding to the dimensions of the patch, ground and simulations are elaborated.
A series of aromatic hydrazides 3a-j were prepared by refluxing esters 2a-j with hydrazine hydrate in methanol, which were prepared by the esterification of 1a-j. Acetohydrazides 3a-j upon treatment with carbon disulfide and methanolic potassium hydroxide yielded potassium dithiocarbazate salts 4a-j, which on refluxing with hydrazine hydrate yielded substituted 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones 5a-j. The target compounds 6a-j were synthesized by condensing furan-3-carboxylic acid in the presence of polyphosphoric acid under reflux. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrometric studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their urease, acetylcholine esterase inhibition, antioxidant and alkaline phosphatase inhibition activity. Almost all of the compounds 6a-j showed good to excellent activities against urease and acetylcholine esterase more than the reference drugs. Compounds 6f and 6g were more potent scavenger of free radicals than the reference n-propyl gallate. Compound 6b and 6h showed excellent activities of alkaline phosphatase as compare to the reference KH2PO4.
This paper presents an application of a novel approach for detecting and tracking an object with a 2 DOF robotic manipulator which can be equipped with an array of electrically controlled actuators. The said approach utilizes the Image Based Visual Servoing (IBVS) technique. The developed system is able to determine the object pose in real time from features in the image. Object is detected using shaped based approach algorithms of image processing. The position and orientation of the world coordinates of the object being tracked are calculated from the coordinates of the object in image plane using camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed approach.
The ethanolic extracts of marine green, brown and red algae collected from Karachi coasts of Arabian Sea afforded a new enol-derivative of N-acylsphingosine named as coelarthenol (1) from Coelarthrum muelleri, two new glucose-derivatives named: botryenal (2) and botryenol (3) from Botryocladia leptopoda, α-tocopherol quinone (4) from Codium iyengarii, β-sitosterol and hexadecanoic acid from Stokeyia indica. The known constituents (4, β-sitosterol & hexadecanoic acid) have not been reported so far from their corresponding sources and the structures were determined through spectroscopic methods, whereas, the structures of new constituents (1-3) were elucidated with the aid of selective HMBC experiments. The phytotoxicity of 4 was also monitored.
Muhammad,Riaz,Rabia,Parveen,Muhammad,Saleem,Arif,Mehnaz,Roohi,Shermeen,Tahir,Muhammad,Atif,Riaz,Muhammad,Ibrahim,Sabir,Hussain,Shafaqat,Ali,Tahira,Yasmeen,Tanvir,Shahzad,Leon,Van,Den,Berg,Farhat,Abbas 한국토양비료학회 2014 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집 Vol.2014 No.6
Onion and ginger are rich sources of bioactive compounds which are lost during conventional drying process. The present study was designed to optimize the novel Microwave Assisted Drying and Extraction technique (MADE) for simultaneous drying and extraction/recovery of bioactive compounds from model food products. The time required for drying of samples was 11 (onion) and 16 (ginger) minutes with recovery yield of 87% (onion) and 85% (ginger). The drying time was reduced to 100 times compared to hot air drying and moisture ratio of dried samples was best described by Midilli model. The diffusivities of onion and ginger slices were 1.27 e-11 and 1.43 e-11 m2/s, respectively. Moreover, microwave-based extraction was compared with conventional one. The results of antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of condensates obtained through MADE were higher compared to conventional method. In short, MADE exhibited better yield of extraction and drying properties compared to conventional methods.
Muhammad,Rizwan,Maqsood,Muhammad,Hanif,Muhammad,Rafiq,Muhammad,Saleem,Sumera,Zaib,Aftab,Ahmed,Khan,Mazhar,Iqbal,Jamshed,Iqbal,Nasim,Hasan,Rama,서승염,Ki-Hwan,Lee 대한화학회 2012 Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society Vol.33 No.12
The target compounds 6-11a-e were synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones 5a-f with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrometric studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity. Almost all the tested compounds were potent against four different strains of bacteria when compared with that of reference drug ciprofloxacin. Compounds 6c, 6e, 8d, 9b, 9e, 11a and 11b showed nearly equal or lower MIC values than standard drug, against all four tested bacterial strains but rest of the compounds showed excellent antibacterial activities.