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Considering that the reaction of mind to exterior musical stimuli is more than a mechanical one, musical form is likely to have a specific subjective aspect of mind. In Confucian theory, it is defined as the 'emotional experience'of transcendental world. The conception of musical 'structure' is related to the organization of musical signs enumerated sequentially and therefore ex-timely, that are confirmed 'visually' on the score. The fact that 'memory' constitutes a musical structure in our mind from exterior sonic stimuli means that it takes time and brings it over to the spacial or visual dimension. By way of the memory itself, a musical work can become a 'text'. A specific objective matter systematically supplied from the exterior do not cause the corresponding systematic changes of mind. 'Structural listening' is just a partial aspect of musical appropriation. Musical appropriation is mostly likely to be the subjective and individual inspirations formed in our mind at every musical moment, and, if allowed, to be the scattered transcendental and cosmic responses of mind that are accumulated, then sedimented and subsisted in our consciousness. So musical form is more than the cognition of musical structure and it is founded upon the activity of mind which seems to be subjective and transcendental by its. nature. Supposing that musical form is more than the musical structure which is to be objective matter, and that it is rooted in the musical grammar which is to be communicative, we could presume the musical appropriation and the musical communication between human-beings would be achieved In the field of 'inter-subjectivity'; and it is likely to be an 'inter-subjective liturgy' that opens the entrance to the subjective or trancendental world.
Background: The purpose of this study was to document the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in combat and auxiliary police, living in a group, in Korea where the incidence rate of active TB in a general population is higher than in Western countries. Materials and Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all tuberculosis patients diagnosed at National Police Hospital from January 2002 through December 2004. Results:In 2002-2004, a total of 156 cases of tuberculosis were identified with the mean (Standard deviation) age of 20.6 (±1.0) years. Of these, 134 (85.9%) patients were registered as new cases, 11 (7.1%) as relapse, 2 (1.3%) as failure, 5 (3.1%) as treatment-after-default cases whereas 4 (2.6 %) patients were not included in any categories. Average annual new TB rate and smear-positive TB rate were 86.5/10^(5) and 17.4/10^(5) person-years, respectively. In 12 of 31 smear-positive cases, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was more than 30 days. Two multidrug-resistance TB cases were identified and two suspected outbreak episodes of TB had occurred during 3 years. Conclusion:There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence rate of new cases of TB between the general population aged 20 to 29 years and combat and auxiliary police in Korea. 배경 : 국내 결핵의 발생은 감소 추세에 있으나 여전히 후진국형 발생양상을 보이고 있다. 특히 집단생활을 하는 젊은이들에서 발생하는 결핵의 유행이 간헐적으로 알려지고 있어 우려를 낳고 있다. 이에 저자들은 최근 전경대원의 결핵 발병 양상에 대해 알아보고자 본 연구를 시행하였다. 재료 및 방법 : 2002년 1월부터 2004년 12월까지 3년간 경찰병원에서 결핵 진료를 받은 전경대원의 의무기록을 후향적으로 분석하여 연도별 결핵 신환발생률, 도말양성결핵 신환율, 진단 지연, 집단발병, 다제내성결핵을 조사하였다. 결과 : 연도별 결핵 신환자 수(10만명당 발생추정치)는 2002년 50명(83.6명), 2003년 42명(83.7명), 2004년 42명(93.5명)이었고 도말양성 폐결핵 신환자 수는 2002년 10명(16.7명), 2003년 11명(21.9명), 2004년 6명(13.4명)이었다. 3년간 도말양성 폐결핵 환자는 31명이 있었고 그 중 12명은 호흡기 증상 발생 30일이 지나서 진단을 받았다. 다제내성 결핵은 2명이 있었으며 결핵의 집단발병이 의심되는 사례는 2차례 있었다. 결론 : 전경대원과 20-29세 연령군 일반인의 결핵 신환발생률, 도말양성 폐결핵 발생률의 통계적으로 유의한 차이는 없었다.
Effects of N fertilizer levels and stocking rates on beef production in a mixed pastiire of orchard-grass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, red clover and alsike clover were studied using 3 levels of N fertilizer (50, 100 and 200 kg/ha) and 3 stocking rates (3,4 and 5 head /ha). The summarized results are the following; 1. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer on the mixed pasture increased dry matter yield and protein content(P<0.05) of the pasture species. The stocking rate did not influence either dry matter yield or protein content. 2. The percentage of pasture species increased and that of weeds decreased with increasing N fer-tilizer levels. lncreasing stocking rate from 3 to 5 heads/ha significantly influenced that of the other pastures and weeds. 3. Herhage intake per animal increased at the lower stocking rate, but total herbage intake per ha increased at the higher stocking rate, Increasing nitrogen fertilizer decreased herbage intake per animal , but slightly higher intake per animal was obserbed at 5 head stocking rate. 4. No significant difference in weight gain/ha was found among N levels and stocking rates ussd. Live weight gain per animal was greater at the higher N level and also at the louer stocking rate.
Background: Acute renal failure(ARF) is a serious complication of rhabdomyolysis after multiple trauma, and may increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to elucidate predicting factors for the development of ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis at an early stage of multiple trauma. Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted at the emergency department of a level I trauma center. Patients with acute multiple trauma, whose plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase(CPK) were higher than 1,000 IU, were included in this study. We excluded patients with any history of myocardial infarction, stroke, underlying renal disease, and/or infectious disease. We collected clinical and laboratory data including age, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, injury severity score, serum myoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase, creating phosphokinase, and base excess. Collected data were compared between patients who had ARF and patients who did not have ARF. Results: Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients(20.5%) developed ARF. The injury severity score(ISS)(p=0.001), the base excess(p<0.001), CPK(p=0.003), and myoglobin(p<0.001) were higher in patients with ARF than in patient without ARF. Logistic regression analysis revealed that early predictors for ARF were high ISS, high base excess, high CPK, and high myoglobin. Conclusion: We could identify early predicting factors for acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis, these factors included ISS, serum CPK and myoglobin, and base excess in the arterial blood gas analysis performed at the emergency department.
The aim of study was to investigate genetic diversity for the calpain/calpastatin gene in three Hanwoo breeds [(Brown (n=62), Brindle (n=81) and Jeju Black (n=30)]. Random samples from three breeds of Hanwoo were selected and genotyped for the 7 SNPs of calpain/calpastatin using TaqMan method. Allele frequencies were investigated for CAPN1/CAST gene. Allele frequency of CAST2 SNP was 0.75, 0.59 and 0.22 for Brown, Brindle and Jeju black, respectively. The CAST3 revealed allele frequency of 0.59 and 0.57 in Brown and Jeju Black, while it showed very low allele frequency (0.07) in Brindle. In particular, favorable allele (G allele) for the CAPN1-2 SNP which was shown a strong association with tenderness in Taurine and Indicine cattle revealed 16% and 17% higher allele frequency in Brown Hanwoo (0.82) comparing Brindle (0.66) and Jeju Black Hanwoo (0.65). AMOVA demonstrated that among population variance occupied only 10% of total variance and among individual variance was 0%, while within individual variance was 90% of total variance. This result showed that population effect contributed very small portion of genetic to these three Hanwoo breeds, while within individual variance contributed large portion of genetic diversity within these Hanwoo breeds. In conclusion, three Hanwoo breeds (Brown, Brindle and Jeju black) showed a genetically homogeneous based on the 7 SNPs of CAPN1/CAST gene and it came from same ancestor to form modern Hanwoo breed.
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성장 또는 치료로 인한 악안면골의 변화는 두부 방사선을 중첩함으로써 판단할 수 있다. 중첩에 대한 평가는 중첩방법에 따라 변화되므로 좀더 정확한 중첩 방법을 선택하는 것은 치료 효과에 대한 분석이나 성장 변화에 대한 평가를 정확히 하는 선결 요건이 될것이다. 3년 정도의 비교적 짧은 성장기간을 가진 11세 전후의 여자환자 19면을 대상으로 가장 널리쓰이는 중첩방법인 Nasion-Sella line중첩과 Bjork가 주장하는 Anteirior cranial base(ACB)중첩을 비교하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. Nasion-Sella line중첩과 ACB중첩은 중첩오차(registration error)의 크기가 거의 같아서 reliability에 있어서 큰 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 2. 검사자간 차이(interobserver difference)에 있어서 Nasion-Sella line중첩은 7개의 측정 항목 모두에서 두 검사자간 차이가 없었으나 ACB중첩은 7개의 측정 항목중 4개의 측정 항목에서 두 검사자간 유의성 있는 차이가 나타났다. 3. 중첩방법의 차이(intermethod difference)에 있어서 Nasion-Sella line 중첩으로 계측치와 ACB 중첩으로 측정한 계측치가 유의성있게 차이가 나지 않았다. Spatial change of craniofacial structryes from growth or orthopedic force is usually evaluated by cephalometric superimpositions at different points in time. As the evaluation can be changed according to cephalometric superimposition method, selection for correct superimposition method is very important. Double registration of nineteen pairs of female lateral head films, their growth period is average 3.7years amd age is average 10.7 years, were performed by two observers. Comparisions was made between two methods and the results revealed the following; 1. NS line and ACB superimpositions are not markedly different in reliability due to almost same registration error of them. 2. The investigation was undertaken to examine interobserver difference. In ACB method, significant difference was revealed in 4 Measurements of 7 measurements was 3. In the investigation of intermethod difference, there is no significance between NS line and ACB superimpositions.
정수처리 과정에서 수중 자연유기물(NOM)은 THMs과 HAA와 같은 소독부산물의 발생원인 물질로 잘 알려져 있다. NOM의 대표적인 제거 방법은 오존산화와 입상활성탄여과 공정, 그리고 최근 막분리 공정이 본격적으로 적용되고 있다. 본 연구는 막분리 공정을 정수처리공정에 적용하고, 운전인자들에 대한 고찰을 통해 적정한 운전 방법을 제시하고자 한다. 본 연구의 결과 한외여과막과 나노여과막의 경우 TOC 제거율을 각 41%와 88% 이상 높일 수 있었다. 또한 운전 인자들에 대해서는 J/k 비의 증가에 따라 막오염 증가와 제거율 감소가 크게 발생하였다. 적용 압력의 경우 최적의 적용압력이 존재하며, 이상의 압력조건에서는 오히려 낮은 효율을 나타내었다. Natural organic matter(NOM) was know to disinfection by-products as THMs, HAA in water treatment process. Its typical removal methods is ozonation +GAC process and membrane separation process. In this paper research on NOM removal character useing the membrane separation process in conventional water treatment plants. Consideration of membrane process operating factor, show that optimum operation condition. The result of this study that used of UF and NF membrane in TOC removal rate increased to over 41% and 88%. Operate factor was J/k ratio and trans membrane pressure. Increase of J/k ratio was to considerably increase membrane fouling and decrease removal rate.
The fine ceramics are very difficult to grind to get high efficiency because they have not only high strength and brittleness but also high hardness. In this study, the ultrasonic grinding set-up that is operating by milling machine with attaching special device has been developed to get efficient machining of fine ceramics having wear resistance and brittle material. The following results through the experiment for various grinding conditions by the ultrasonic grinding are obtained. 1. Both the ultrasonic and the conventional grinding have 4 times better the grinding resistance value in horizontal direction than the vertical direction. 2. In case of table speed is low and grain size of diamond wheel is fine, the surface roughness is improved. But in case of grinding depth is increasing, the surface roughness is not improved because of increasing of grinding resistance and wornout of diamond wheel. 3. It could get high efficiency grinding effect by increasing grain size of diamond wheel. Also, it showed that tool wornout appears to be decreased than in case of conventional grinding under same condition.
설비배치는 공장의 신설이나 설비의 추가 도입시에 주로 필요로 하는 것으로써 빈번하게 발생하지 않는다는 점과 배치안 개발을 위해 만들어져 있는 기존의 방법들이 너무 이론적인 측면으로만 치우쳐 있기 때문에 현실 적용이 원활하지 아니하여 큰 주목을 받지 못한 분야였다. 그러나 근래의 생산형태가 다품종소량화 됨에 따라 차량부품의 생산등과 같은 기계적인 가공 및 조립을 행하는 공장들은 빈번한 생산제품의 변경에 따른 생산설비의 재배치를 자주 필요로 하게 되자 그 관심도가 높아지고 있다. 본 논문에서는 이런 요구에 부응하여 기계적인 가공 및 조립을 행하는 공장에서 설비배치시에 고려하고자 하는 요소들에 대한 관리자들이 느끼는 중요도에 따라 교체 대상 부서를 선정하고 교체 순서를 결정하여 교체해 나감으로써 최적 배치안을 탐색할 수 있는 방법을 제시하였다.