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The relationship between acute and chronic exercise and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in muscles is unknown. There happen some alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance due to ex-ercise. This study aimed to investigate the levels of MMP-1, tissue in-hibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), hyaluronic acid (HA), total anti-oxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) following acute and chronic exercising in rats. Twenty-six Wistar Albino male rats were di-vided in to three groups: control, acute, and chronic groups. In acute group, treadmill exercise was performed 3 days/wk, 10 min/day for 1 week. In chronic group, exercise performed 7 days/wk, 60 min/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, plasma MMP-1, TIMP-1, HA, TAS, and TOS levels were measured. In current study, the MMP-1, TIMP-1, HA, and TOS levels not observed statistically significant difference among all groups, but in chronic group, there was a significantly differ-ence (P<0.05) between the control and experimental groups in terms of TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels. TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly different between control and chronic exercise group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively). According to these results, we can say acute and chronic exercise does not effect on plasma MMP-1, TIMP-1, and HA levels.
Purpose:Workplace violence in the emergency department is a significant problem world wide. The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of staff subjected to the types of violence, its sources, factors affecting violence experiences, reporting the incidence and the emotions of the victims after violence. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between March and August 2009 in the the emergency department of six hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected from 270 staff working in various emergency settings. The instrument was a 36-item questionnaire on types of violence, its sources,feelings, and ways to cope with violent behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed 85.2% of participants had been subjected to at least one kind of violence:41.1% to physical assault, 79.6% to verbal abuse, 55.5% to verbal threats and 15.9% to sexual harassment. Patients' companions (90.9%) were identified as the primary perpetrators of violence. The rates of violence types were highest towards security officers and housekeepers. The most common reactions to violence were sadness and anger. "Did nothing and keeping silent" was the coping method used most commonly by the staff. Participants exposed to physical assaults and verbal threat did not report the incidence of violence to managers were at 43.3% and 65.3% respectively. Conclusion: Based on results of the study, it is suggested that every hospital institute reliable reporting procedures that staff members feel comfortable using, and also provide a comprehensive program of support services for staff that has been assaulted.
The airline industry has become an inevitable part of the lives of American passengers. Along with that, dissatisfying flight experiences have always been associated with this industry since the beginning. This qualitative research explores flight experiencerelated moments of truth in the minds of airline passengers as reflected in their comments shared on social media, namely Skytrax. In particular, this study utilizes sentiment analysis techniques to discuss negative, neutral, and positive sentiments regarding the top 10 US-based airlines according to US Department of Transportation statistics. Findings point that airline service complaints were related mostly to failures in the core service such as connecting flights, flight attendants, checked bags, mechanical problems, in-flight entertainment on long distance flights, ground staff, and customer service. What created the highest level of positive sentiments were the flight attendants, flight crew, and ground crew. Avenues for future research were suggested along with managerial implications.
Different types of exercise occurs damage at the cellular level in the muscles. Muscle damage caused by exercise is determined creatine kinase, myoglobin, and increase in levels of acute phase protein and in-terleukin in blood. The purpose of this study was investigated the levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) following acute and chronic exercising in rats. Twenty-six Wistar Albino male rats were divided in to three groups. A treadmill exercise was per-formed 3 days/week, 10 min/day for 1 week in acute groups. In chronic group, exercise performed 7 days/week, 60 min/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, plasma PTX-3, IL-6, and CRP levels were mea-sured. In current study, the PTX-3, IL-6, and CRP levels not observed statistically significant difference among control, acute, and chronic groups. The levels IL-6 and CRP were not significantly different between acute and chronic exercise groups (P>0.05). However, the level of PTX-3 was found to be higher in the chronic group compared to the acute group (P<0.05). The PTX-3 level increase on chronic exercise-induced muscle damage. Accorting to our results, we think that PTX-3 may have a protect role on muscle damage during chronic exercises.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted mandibular third molars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to compare the CBCT findings with signs on panoramic radiographs (PRs). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 200 mandibular third molars from 200 patients who showed a close relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars on PRs and were referred for a CBCT examination of the position of the mandibular canal. The sample consisted of 124 females and 76 males, with ages ranging from 18 to 47 years (mean, 25.75±6.15 years). PRs were evaluated for interruption of the mandibular canal wall, darkening of the roots, diversion of the mandibular canal, and narrowing of the mandibular canal. Correlations between the PR and CBCT findings were statistically analyzed. Results: In total, 146 cases (73%) showed an absence of canal cortication between the mandibular canal and impacted third molar on CBCT images. A statistically significant relationship was found between CBCT and PR findings (P<0.05). The absence of canal cortication on CBCT images was most frequently accompanied by the PR sign of diversion of the mandibular canal (96%) and least frequently by interruption of the mandibular canal wall (65%). Conclusion: CBCT examinations are highly recommended when diversion of the mandibular canal is observed on PR images to reduce the risk of mandibular nerve injury, and this sign appears to be more relevant than other PR signs.
Twenty different varieties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) from Turkey were analyzed for vitamin C level,lipid content, sterol determination, anthocyanin content, and elemental analysis (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, and K studies). VitaminC content range of 1,050312 mg/100 g, oil content range of 2.413.73%, sterol content range of 5.788.43%, anthocyanincontent range of 2,1004,400 mg/L, potassium range of 2501,200 ppm, calcium range of 35326 ppm, magnesium range of176427 ppm, iron range of 2146 ppm, sodium range of 3576 ppm, and phosphorus range of 1243 ppm were observed inthese varieties.
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and pulpal calcifications in young women. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 female participants between 20 and 31 years of age who were referred to our radiology clinic for a dental check-up, including 59 SB and 41 non-SB patients, were sampled for the analysis. SB was diagnosed based on the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. All teeth were evaluated on digital panoramic radiographs to detect pulpal calcifications, except third molars, teeth with root canal treatment, and teeth with root resorption. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for pulpal calcifications. The Spearman correlation coefficient was applied and the Pearson chi-square test was used for categorical variables. To test intra-examiner reproducibility, Cohen kappa analysis was applied. P values <.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: A total of 2800 teeth were evaluated (1652 teeth from SB patients and 1148 from non-SB patients), and 61% of patients had at least 1 dental pulpal calcification. No statistically significant relationship was found between SB and pulpal calcifications (P>0.05). In SB patients, the total number of pulpal calcifications was 129, while in non-SB patients, it was 84. Binary logistic analysis showed that SB was not a risk factor for the presence of pulpal calcifications (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.52-2.69, P>.05). Conclusion: No relationship was found between SB and pulpal calcifications.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital panoramic radiography (DPR) for the detection of pulp stones. Materials and Methods: DPR and CBCT images of 202 patients were randomly selected from the database of our department. All teeth were evaluated in sagittal, axial, and coronal sections in CBCT images. The systemic condition of patients, the presence of pulp stones, the location of the tooth, the group of teeth, and the presence and depth of caries and restorations were recorded. The presence of pulp stones in molar teeth was compared between DPR and CBCT images. Results: Pulp stones were identified in 105 (52.0%) of the 202 subjects and in 434 (7.7%) of the 5,656 teeth examined. The prevalence of pulp stones was similar between the sexes and across various tooth locations and groups of teeth (P>.05). A positive correlation was observed between age and the number of pulp stones (ρ=0.277, P<.01). Pulp stones were found significantly more often in restored or carious teeth (P<.001). CBCT and DPR showed a significant difference in the detection of pulp stones (P<.001), which were seen more often on DPR than on CBCT. Conclusion: DPR, as a 2D imaging system, has inherent limitations leading to the misinterpretation of pulp stones. Restored and carious teeth should be carefully examined for the presence of pulp stones. CBCT imaging is recommended for a definitive assessment in cases where there is a suspicion of a pulp stone on DPR.
Background: Breast cancer usually shows a slow development rate and when it is recognized in early stages very successful treatment results can be achieved. This research was planned to research the health beliefs of nursing faculty students about breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE). Materials and Methods: The first class students of nursing faculty formed the basis for this descriptive research (N=347). Sample selection was not made and all female students who wanted to participate voluntarily in the research during March-May of 2014 were included (n=331). Results: It was determined that 85.5% of students had knowledge about cancer, 79.5 % knew of breast cancer, and 65.3% were aware of how BSE is performed. According to the responses of students to the scale of the health belief model that is used to determine the health beliefs of students, item-point averages of trust and obstacle sub-dimensions were high. Conclusions: It is determined that more than half of students had knowledge about breast cancer and breast self-examination. Their health beliefs were affected by trust and obstacle perceptions, knowledge level about cancer, and awareness about how BSE is done. These factors should be considered in planning trainings that will be given to students. Social responsibility projects should have designed to create the awareness that cancer is a treatable disease.
Eryilmaz,,Melek,Karakurt,Mutlu,,Hasan,Salim,,Derya,Kivrak,Musri,,Fatma,Yalcin,Tural,,Deniz,Coskun,,Hasan,Senol Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.18
Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with pancreatic, colorectal, lung, gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between pathological complete response (pCR) and pretreatment NLR values in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Materials and Methods: Datawere collected retrospectively from the Akdeniz University School of Medicine Database for locally advanced BC patients treated with NACT between January 2000-December 2013. Results: A total of 78 patients were analyzed. Sixteen (20%) patients achieved pCR. Estrogen receptor (ER) positivity was lower in pCR+ than pCR-cases (p=0.011). The median NLR values were similar in both arms. The optimum NLR cut-off point for BC patients with PCR+ was 2.33 (AUC:0.544, 95%CI [0.401-0.688], p=0.586) with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, 51,6%, 21,1%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed no relationship between the pCR and pretreatment NLR values. Because of a considerable high NPV, in the patients with higher NLR who had luminal type BC in which pCR is lower after NACT, such treatment may not be recommended.