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Purpose: This study evaluated the importance of routine pathological examination of contralateral breast specimens in breast cancer patients using reduction mammoplasty. Methods: The weight of breast tissue resected from the contralateral breast in 71 patients and the number of slices used for pathological evaluation were recorded. Breast lesions found in the contralateral breast and accompanying lesions with tumors were examined. Results: High risk proliferative lesions were reported in the contralateral breast of eight (11.2%) patients, and low-risk lesions were detected in 18 (25%). While the mean age of the patients with high-risk lesions was 45.6, it was 52.8 for the other patients (p=0.036). Conclusion: Bilateral reduction mammoplasty may be beneficial to delineate some pathologies in contralateral breasts even in those patients with normal clinical and radiological findings. The incidental discovery of these pathologies is much more likely in young breast cancer patients.
Purpose: Many patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have chronic renal insufficiency and erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between ED and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: We studied 183 patients undergoing coronary angiography owing to AMI. The GFR was calculated and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) was used to evaluate ED. The relations between erectile function, GFR, and the number of occluded coronary arteries were evaluated. Results: Of 183 patients with a mean age of 55.2±11.16 years who underwent coronary angiography owing to AMI, 100 (54.64%) had ED. The ED rate was 45.36% (44/97) in patients with single-vessel disease, 64.5% (31/48) in patients with two-vessel disease, and 65.7% (25/38) in patients with three-vessel disease. The ED rate in patients with single-vessel disease was significantly lower than in the other groups (p<0.001). The mean IIEF scores were 24.2±4.3, 20.4±4.9, and 20.5±4.2 in the three groups, respectively (p<0.001). Mean GFRs were similar in patients with single-vessel disease, two-vessel disease, and three-vessel disease (128.2±46.8, 130.8±70.9, and 110.8±44.6, respectively, p=0.171). The GFR was significantly lower in the presence of ED only for single-vessel disease (p=0.001). Conclusions: This study confirmed that the presence and severity of ED are linked to the number of occluded vessels as documented by coronary angiography. The presence of ED and reduced GFR are associated with single-vessel coronary artery disease. This relationship can be used to predict the likelihood of coronary artery disease.
Purpose: Surgical equipment used in breast cancer surgery that affects wound healing and minimizes complications seems to be a popular investigation topic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of plasmakinetic cautery on wound healing in patients receiving mastectomy. Methods: Forty-six consecutive breast cancer patients receiving modified radical mastectomy were evaluated prospectively. Plasmakinetic cautery was used in 24 operations and electrocautery was used in 22 operations in random order to manage skin flaps and excise breast tissue. In the postoperative period, vacuum drainage amount and duration time as well as the start time of arm exercises were recorded. Complications like seroma, surgical site infection, hematoma, and flap necrosis were determined. Results: Age, body mass index, breast volume and flap area parameters were similar in each group. Mean drainage duration was found to be 5.5 days in the plasmacautery group and 7.9 days in the electrocautery group (p=0.020). In the plasmacautery and electrocautery groups, mean drainage volume was 707 and 1,093 mL, respectively (p=0.025). There was no statistical significance between the groups when operation duration, amount of blood loss, time to start arm exercises, seroma, hematoma, surgical site infection, and flap necrosis were considered. Conclusion: Plasmakinetic cautery is a promising new surgical instrument that provides atraumatic, scalpel-like cutting precision and electrosurgical-like hemostasis, resulting in minimal tissue injury. So, plasmacautery shortens the drainage amount and duration time compared to electrocautery without elongating operation duration or increasing the amount of blood loss.
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The main aim of study is to identify the factors that affect the purchasing intention of young adults. The reference group is an important factor in determining the underlying causes of young adults' purchasing intentions. However, the literature states that young adults prefer to buy brands they trust in order to eliminate the risks that may arise when buying products they may not know. Moving from this perspective, the study proposes a conceptual model that including structural relationships between brand trust, reference group, and purchasing intention. The study aims to contribute to the literature by discussing the moderator role of brand trust in this structure. A series of hypotheses are tested via a survey completed by 749 young people between the ages of 20 and 30 living in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS-23 and AMOS-18 program. In addition to descriptive, reliability, and factor (exploratory and confirmatory) analysis, hierarchical regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. The results show that the reference group positively influences the purchasing intention, and brand trust plays a moderating role in this relationship. The findings are discussed and some practical suggestions are made for mobile phone manufacturers.
Prolonged release micro particles of clarithromycin (CL) were prepared using Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 by spray-drying and casting-drying techniques. For the characterization of those microparticles, preparation yield, particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, thermal behavior, active agent content and in vitro dissolution from the microparticles were performed. HPLC was used for the assay of clarithromycin and the assay method was validated. All the formulations obtained showed prolonged release when compared to pure clarithromycin. Microparticles prepared by spray-drying method had a slower release compared to those of casting drying method. Spray-drying method seems to be a more suitable method to prepare microparticles for prolongation in release.
Two types of gynecologic tumors are commonly described in the Turner syndrome, the first one is gonadoblastoma, which occurs in patients with Y chromosome abnormalities, and the second one is endometrial carcinoma which is mostly related with exogenous estrogen usage. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in a virgin woman with Turner syndrome. A 35-years old single, virgin woman referred to our Oncology Department with warty, necrotized, exophytic 6-7 cm vulvar mass. She had a history of primary amenorrhea and mosaic Turner syndrome was determined in her karyotype analysis. Biopsy specimen of the vulvar mass revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, and total vulvectomy with inguinal femoral lymphadenectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and there has been no recurrence of the disease up to date. Women with Turner syndrome have streak ovaries that produce very low estrogen and the squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva may have developed at an early age with Turner syndrome because of this low estrogen value similar to postmenopausal women. The current case is a special case due to its age of occurrence, virgin and Turner syndrome status.
Purpose: Guide-wire localization (GWL) has been a standard technique for many years. Excision of nonpalpable malignant breast lesions with clear surgical margins reduces the risk of undergoing re-excision. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of GWL biopsy for assessing surgical margins. Methods: This retrospective study concerned 53 patients who underwent GWL biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions and breast carcinoma diagnosed by histological examination. Age of the patients, tumour size, radiographic findings, breast density specifications, specimen volumes, menopausal status and family history of the patients and surgical margin status were recorded. Results: Median age was 53.3 years, median tumour size was 1.5 cm and median specimen volume was $71.5cm^3$. In fifteen patients (28%) DCIS and in 38 patients (72%) invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. There was positive surgical margins in twenty eight (52.8%) patients. The median distance to the nearest surgical margin was 7.2 mm in clear surgical margins. Younger age and denser breast specifications were found as statistically significant factors for surgical margin status. Median age of the patients who had positive margins was 49.4 years where it was 56.9 years in the patients with negative margins (p=0.04). 79% of the patients with positive margins had type 3-4 pattern breast density according to BIRADS classification as compared to 48% in the patients who had negative margins (p=0.03). Some 38 patients who had positive or close surgical margins received re-excision (72%). Conclusion: Positive margin rates may be higher because of inherent biological differences and diffuse growth patterns in younger patients. There are also technical difficulties that are relevant to denser fibroglandular tissue in placing hooked wire. High re-excision rates must be taken into consideration while performing GWL biopsy in non-palpable breast lesions.
Characteristics of nanocomposite films synthesized and deposited by atmospheric pressure Radio-Frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz) uniform glow discharge are examined. The nanocomposite thin film deposition is carried out in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) with polymerization of pyrrole,thiophene and furan monomers in acetonitrile medium containing lithium perchlorate (LiClO_4). The chemical, morphological, thermal and electrical characteristics of polypyrrole/TiO_2 (PPy/TiO_2), polythiophene/TiO_2 (PT/TiO_2) and polyfuran/TiO_2 (PF/TiO_2) composites are examined by FTIR spectroscopy,scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetry (TGA) and four-probe conductivity measurements. The presence of PT bands in the FTIR spectra of PT/TiO_2 indicates that plasma polymerization did not cause thiophene ring opening as was reported in the literature. The thermograms indicate that the PPy/TiO_2 composite has the best thermal stability, whereas PT/TiO_2 has the best electrical conductivity. Morphology studies reveal that the composite film deposition occurs uniformly through polymerization of the monomer onto TiO_2nanoparticles.
Purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla will ensure axillary dissection only for cases with lymph node metastasis and provide information about pathologic staging as accurate as the axillary dissection. It was shown that SLNB could be successfully performed regardless of the type of biopsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of SLNB after excisional biopsy. Methods:One hundred patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy or guide wire-localization and operated on with SLNB between February 2007 and March 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. SLNB was performed with 10 cc of 1% methylene blue alone or both methylene blue and 1 mCi of Tc-99m nanocolloid combination. Age, tumor localization and size, length of the biopsy incision, size of the biopsy specimen, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, tumor grade, staining with methylene blue, localization, number and metastatic status of the lymph nodes stained, and success rate with a gamma probe were evaluated. Results: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) could not be identified in 9 (16.9%) of patients in the methylene blue group (n=53). In the combination group (n=47), SLN could not be identified in one patient. Of 32 patients with negative SLNB, metastatic involvement was found to be present in 5 patients after axillary lymph node dissection (false negatives). The average numbers of SLNs found in the methylene blue group and combination group were 1.4 and 1.6, respectively. SLN detection and false negative rates in the methylene blue group were 83% and 15.7%, respectively. The rates for the combination group were 98% and 6.4%, respectively. None of the parameters related to patient, tumor or process were found to affect detection rates of SLN. Conclusion: Only SLNB using a combination method is a safe and reliable technique for breast cancer patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy.