http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
본 연구의 목적은 가족기업의 핵심역량 축적과정을 살펴보고 성공적인 가업승계의 중요성을 논의하는 것이다. 이를 위해 가족기업의 경쟁우위를 설명한 Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005)의 4C(Continuity, Community, Connection, Command)모델을 기반으로 3대에 걸친 성공적인 가업승계를 기반으로 한 에스엘의 핵심역량 축적과정을 조사했다. 국내 자동차부품회사인 에스엘의 성장과정에 관한 2차 자료를 분석하고, 대표이사와의 심층인터뷰를 통해 그 연관성을 구체적으로 살펴보았다. 분석결과 창업자 가족이 공유한 가치관과 비전, 노하우, 경험 등은 장기적인 지향성을 가지고 지속적으로 핵심역량을 개발하는데 큰 역할을 하였다. 또한 신뢰의 가치관이라는 사회적 자본을 효과적으로 전달받은, 다음 세대의 후계자는 가족 가치관을 토대로 대외 네트워크를 더욱 견고히 하고 지속적으로 발전시켰다. 에스엘은 성공적인 가업승계로 소유와 지배구조를 집중화 할 수 있었고, 이에 따라 외부 이해관계자들의 압력 없이, 가족 내부 조화를 통해 독립적이고 과감한 의사결정이 가능하였다. 이는 가족기업의 경우 고유한 공동체적 문화와 신뢰에 기반 한 외부 네트워크 형성을 통해 경쟁력 구축에 힘쓸 필요가 있으며, 일반기업의 경우에도 공동체 적 조직문화와 중장기적 관점의 외부 협력관계가 기업의 영속성 유지에 중요하다는 시사점을 제공한다. 또한 가엽승계가 기업경쟁력의 유지와 세대 간 이전에 중요한 기능을 함에 따라 이에 대한 적절한 정책적 배려가 필요하다. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of accumulating com-petences and competitiveness by family companies, and discuss the importance of successful succession of a family business. The core competence accumulation process and competitiveness sources of SL, which is based on successful succession of the family business for three generations, was examined based on the 4C (Continuity, Community, Connection, Command) model of Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005), which explains the competitive superiority of family companies. Secondary data on the growth process of SL, a domestic auto-mobile parts company, was analyzed and their strategic implications were examined in detail through an in-depth interview with the CEO. The 4C factors, which are antecedent variables of a successful family business, played an important role on the growth process of SL. The continuity factor existed through continuous research and development that focuses on and invests in improving technology quality such as mold pro-duction, lamp production, sash production, and design automation. 2 to 3 percent of the sales amount each year was spent on research and development, regardless of the condition of the economy. As a result, the intellectual property of the company reached 1,108 items (583 applications, 440 registered properties, 47 in review, 38 trademarks) by 2006. From a long-term perspective, the company is improving their technical power to an international standard through technical investments. The continuity of investments in research and development is apparent through three generations, and it can be said that this reflects the characteristics of family business management that shares a goal, and confirms and develops the core capacities of the company. The factor of community started with the "people first" business, management philosophy of the late presi-dent, Hae-joon Lee. Then, it expanded to "human respect" during the president Choong-kon Lee`s generation, and to "ethical management" for the CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation. The sense of community was revealed to be in the form of a community corporate culture based on a good welfare system for employees and com-munity awareness. Diverse benefits including a housing support system, housing fund support system, child-ren`s education fee support system, scholarship system, and company clubs support system were used to make people feel like "the company and I are one" and work with a sense of ownership. The fact that there has not been one conflict between labor and management since 1968, when the labor union was first established, is especially a noteworthy point. The business management based on "people first" stresses the responsibility and roles of employees and reflects the belief that a workplace should not simply be a place to make a living, but a part of life where you can cultivate character and fulfill your role as a member of society. The connection factor appears as continuous partnerships and networks with domestic and international parts suppliers and technologically advanced companies. The late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee maintained partnerships and networks with Hyundai Motor Company and Daewoo Motors. Then, chairman Choong-kon Lee expanded the network to include KIA and Ssangyong Motors and maintained long-term relationships with domestic automobile makers. In addition, the company is maintaining cooperative relations with the Japanese company Stanley and German company Hella, and has started dealing with the U.S. company GM, too. CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation improved the company`s relationship with GM and made the achievement of re-ceiving the QSTP Award (an award GM gives to selected skilled companies out of all the parts companies in the world) from GM for 14 consecutive years (1997-2010), solidifying its position as a skilled partner of GM. SL is also advancing into China through collaborations with the local branch to extract new cooperative relations. The value of "trust" is the motivation that helped SL maintain and strengthen relationships and networks. This value started with the founder of the company and was handed down to chairman Choon-kon Lee and CEO Sung-yup Lee, and worked as a core factor to strengthen external cooperative relationships. The factor of command is apparent from the decisions of business managers who take on a challenge, structural management that includes an endless will for innovation, and leadership. When the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee could not cultivate a road for the automobile parts industry because of smuggled goods, he recognized the importance of the automobile parts industry and folded his bicycle parts business, which was number one in the market at the time, without hesitation thanks to his owner-focused independent and bold decision-making skills. In the mid-1990s, when most automobile production companies experienced difficulties because of the economic crisis where Korea was dependent on the IMF, and the aftershocks of restructuring affected automobile parts manufacturing companies, chairman Choong-kon Lee considered the crisis an opportunity and acquired and merged with Seogu Industry (currently known as SL Litech), Oriental Construction and Poongi Building (currently known as SL Seo Bong Co., Ltd. Shiheung factory), creating a turning point to develop further after the crisis. CEO Sung-yup Lee pursues continuous innovation including a corporate culture that places importance on learning and admitting mistakes, change of the structural system to a project based system, and a human resources system that focuses on human resources management, and is emphasizing corporate changes according to the situation of the times. An examination of the SL core competence accumulation process based on the 4C model shows that it is establishing positive relationships and continuity based on connection and trust, leading to a cooperation sys-tem based on the value of trust. It also establishes a positive relationship with command focusing on a com-munity structure culture, which leads to structure capacity based on community culture. The factors of con-nection and community were found to be especially strong at SL. The factor of connection was a core growth motivation, influenced by the key values of family. SL reveals its growth motivation to be "unification of all employees," shares the goals and visions of family with its employees, and offers a variety of different benefits. The active will of employees to participate in this community is seen to be the background behind big accomplishments such as innovations in the field, which are still being pursued. Successful succession of the family company and family business management are strengths that lie in the center of the motivation that allowed SL to continue to grow for three generations, starting with the founder, the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee, who provided a foundation of growth with values of trust and peo-ple first, moving on to the second generation chairman Choong-kon Lee, who accomplished a rapid development of the company based on technological developments and respect for people, and finally through to the third generation CEO Sung-yup Lee, who is making efforts for globalization and innovation based on ethical management and change. This shows that the values of trust set by the founder have continued on for a long time, through his son, chairman Choong-kon Lee, and grandson, CEO Sung-yup Lee. Chairman Lee, CEO Lee and executive director Lee Seung-hoon are learning corporate culture and management know-how through a great will to participate and actual participation in management. SL was able to gain competitiveness and continuously reach excellent management performance through cooperation based on the value of trust and structural management that focuses on community culture. As a result of analyzing the company through the 4C model and conducting in-depth interviews with man-agement, it can be said that the values, vision, know-how and experience the founder shared with his family largely contributed to continuous development of core competence with a long-term goal. This in turn had a positive effect on establishment of a corporate community based on trust. By inducing loyalty, participation, and focus on employees in the organizational structure with something more than just financial incentives, the core values of the company are relayed through generations and play an important role in maintaining the community, and also emotionally motivating members of the community. Another point is that the successor who effectively received the social capital of trust as a value, strengthened and continued to develop the ex-ternal network based on the family values. The value of "trust" started by the founder played a key role in strengthening external cooperative relations as it was succeeded through generations. This had a positive ef-fect on connection based on the value of trust, and especially decisively contributed to maintaining close rela-tions of cooperation in the external network and long-term cooperative relationships. SL was able to focus the possession and domination structure through successful succession of the family business, and make in-dependent bold decisions through internal harmony of the family, without pressure from people involved externally. The results above lead to the following points of discussion regarding corporate management. From a busi-ness management perspective, first, a family company needs to establish an external network based on a unique community culture and trust to work on establishing competitiveness. Second, there is a need to reflect the fact that a community-like structural culture and external cooperative relations from a mid- to 0long-term perspective have an important effect on maintenance of corporate continuity, even for companies that are not family businesses, on business management. Third, there is a need to focus on the fact that a structural man-agement method that uses values such as community help secure continuity of a company. From a policy per-spective, since succession of a family business can be not succession of wealth but succession of accumulated technological core competence and good management philosophy and know-how, it is important for improve-ing national competitiveness, to maintain corporate competitiveness, and transfer the competitiveness between generations. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate policies that support the successful transgenerational succession of family businesses.
Background The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a saltwater fish, which is valuable to the economy. The olive flounder strives to adapt to environmental stressors through physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional responses. The rise in water temperature threatens the growth, development, reproduction, and survival of olive flounder. Each organ in the olive flounder can differentially respond to heat stress. Objectives The purpose of this study is to investigate organ-specific transcriptional changes in olive flounder tissues during heat stress. Methods In this study, transcriptome dynamics of the gill, liver, and muscle of olive flounder to acute or chronic heat stress were investigated. Results Principal component analysis plotting revealed that the transcriptome of each organ is quite separated. K-means clustering, gene ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed the differential transcriptome responses of each organ to heat stress. Heat stress commonly affects the pathways involved in the correct protein folding, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Conclusion Our results may provide a valuable molecular basis of heat acclimation in fishes.
Furfural, an organic solvent, is widely used as synthetic component material in producing chemical products. However, furfural has been reported that it shows strong toxicities to human being showing intense stimulus to skin, eyes, mucous membrane and nerve system. It is also known to cause anemia, liver cirrhosis, kidney failure and genetic toxicity in the human being working in the exposed area. LD50 of furfural for peritoneal injected mouse has been known around 20mg/kg, but the acute toxicity on aquatic organisms such as fish, daphnid or algae are not well known, compared to those on rodents. In this experiment, we studied on the fish toxicity of furfural using Japanese Meclaka (Oryzias latipes) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). We also observed histological changes in the fish organs. The LC50s were 12.8 mg/L in Japanese Medaka and 21.8 mg/L in Common Carp, respectively. When Common Carps were exposed to 120 mg/L of furfural concentration for 30 minutes, blood congestion in gills and lysis of secondary lamella were shown. Though the muscle of caudal fin was not completely eroded, its epidermic cells were shown to be necrotic in various parts. Tissue atrophy and cell necrosis were also shown in the liver of Common Carps exposed to furfural. From these results, furfural seems to cause histological damages on liver, an internal organ as well as on external organs such as gills and fins eventhough the fish were exposed for a short-term.
표준균주를 포함한 230여개의 김치유래 젖산균에 대한 균체지방산(FAMEs)을 분석하였다. FAMEs profiles는 Euclidian Distance 17.5에 의해 7개의 Major Cluster와 1개의 Single Cluster로 나뉘어졌다. 이중 A, B, C 및 Cluster는 Leuconostoc속으로 분석되어졌고, F는 Lactobacillus속으로 분석되어졌다. 그리고 E와 G cluster는 두개의 Genus가 혼재되어 나타났으며 보충적인 연구가 필요하다. 앞으로 김치유래 젖산균의 균체지방산 분석결과를 기반으로 한 데이타베이스에 95가지 탄소원을 이용하는 수치분류학적 접근방법 및 Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry 등의 화학적 분석 방법과 분자친화적 연구를 통한 종합적 분류정보 체계가 갖추어지면 젖산균의 신속, 정확한 동정 및 연구에 활발히 이용되어질 것이다. Two hundreds and thirty lactic acid bacteria, mostly isolated from Kimchi, including type strains were sued for analysis of cellular fatty acids. The 230 test strains were recoverd in 7 major and 1 single clusters defined a Euclidian distance of 17.5. These aggregate taxa were equivalent to the genus Leuconostoc (aggregate group A, B, C and D), and the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus (aggregate group G). It is concluded as evident that FAMEs (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) profile of cell can be used as a criterion in classification of lactic acid bacterial from kimchi. Additional comparative taxonomic studies need to be carried out on well chosen representative strains to determine the most appropriate methods of value.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Fifteen healthy male collegiate students(ingestion group, N=7; control group, N=8) participated as subjects after signing an informed consent following overnight, subjects completed maximal graded execise test on treadmill to determine exercise intensity(50%VO2max). To evaluate the fat oxidation using indirect calorimeter, it was performed submaximal treadmill to determine exercise lasting. 40min at 50%VO2max after 5day and consumed Cordyceps militaris on separate days. This study was used 2×4 two way repeated ANOVA to analyze physiological and metabolic variables between two groups and metabolic variables between two groups and four exercise periods(l0min, 20min, 30min 40min), and used Scheffe to post-hoc test. Significance was set at α=.05. The results of this study were as followed: First, there were significantly highest in ingestion group for V02, percentage of fat oxidetion(%fat), fat per kilocarolies(Fkcal), and total per kilocarolies(Tkcal)(p<.05), but respiratory exchange ration(RER) and heart rete(HR) were significantly lower in ingestion group(p<.05). Second, RER, %fat, Fkcal were significantly difference in 10, 20, 30, 40min of exercise period(p<.05). This results suggest that there is the effect of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation submaximal exercise. Additionally, to evaluate effect of Cordyceps militaris as ergogenic aid, it should be required the future study that included extend subjects, various dosage, and chronic consumption.
본 연구는 외부 위협탄에 의한 전투시스템의 취약성을 분석하기 위한 선행연구로써, 운동에너지 탄의 종류에 따른 가상의 전투차량 내부에 적재포탄에서 순간화재발생 여부에 대한 전산해석을 수행하였다. 본 해석은 Autodyn 프로그램을 사용하였으며 순간화재발생을 판단하기 위해 Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model을 이용하였다. 본 계산에서 운동에너지 탄은 type A와 type B 두 가지로 설정하였고, 고폭탄은 COMPB, TNT 및 PBX9404를 설정하였다. 전산해석 결과, 고폭탄의 재질이 TNT와 PBX9404가 COMPB 재질보다 순간화재발생 확률이 상당히 높음을 알 수 있고 type B의 운동에너지 탄이 type A 보다 순간화재발생 확률이 다소 높음을 알 수 있었다.
In this paper, numerical analysis was performed about whether the flash fire of loaded shells breaks out in the virtual combat vehicle according to sorts of the kinetic energy ammunition as the preceding research for vulnerability analysis inside the combat system by an external threaty ammunition. In this simulation, Autodyn program was used and the Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model was used to determine the flash fire outbreak. In this study, the kinetic energy ammunition was set of type A and type B in two kinds and the loaded shells was set of COMPB, TNT, PBX9404 and ANB. As a result, TNT and PBX9404 have much higher flash fire probability than COMPB in high explosive, ANB has very low flash fire probability.
목 적 : 최근 세계적으로 아토피피부염과 함께 여러 알레르기질환의 유병률이 증가하는 추세이며, 특히 소아에서의 발병률은 성인에 비해 훨씬 높은 것으로 알려져 있다. 구미, 유럽에서의 유병률이 매우 높으며 이러한 추세는 치료와 예방이 개선되고 있음에도 불구하고 계속 증가하고 있다. 이에 저자들은 대한소아알레르기 및 호흡기학회 주관으로 1995년과 2000년 초등학생과 중학생, 그리고 2003년 유치원생을 대상으로 전국적인 아토피피부염 유병률의 역학적 변화와 서울과 지방과의 유병률의 차이를 알아보고 아토피피부염을 유발하거나 악화시킬 수 환경적요인에 대하여도 알아보고자 하였다. 방 법: 1995년과 2000년에 동일한 설문방법을 이용하여 서울과 지방으로 크게 두 군으로 분류하고 나이별로는 초등학생 6-12세군과 중학생 13-15세군으로 분류하여 설문 조사하였으며, 설문 내용은 ISAAC 프로토콜을 한국어로 번역하였으며 일부 환경 설문은 국내현실에 맞게 추가하여 사용하였다. 대상자수는 1995년 조사에서 총인원 40,429명이었으며, 2000년 조사에서는 총인원 42,202명이었으며 2003년 조사에서 유치원생수는 총인원 725명이었다. 설문방법은 유치원생, 초등학생은 부모나 보호자가 응답하였으며, 중학생은 학생 본인이 응답하였다. 결 과 : '지금까지의 아토피피부염'에 대한 유병률은 총인원에 대한 통계는 1995년에 비해 2000년에 유병률이 6-12세와 12-15세 모두에서 증가되었으며, '지난 12개월 동안 아토피피부염'의 발병률에서도 1995년에 비해 2000년에 대상 모든 연령에서 증가되었다. 서울이 지방에 비해 '지금까지 아토피피부염' 유병률과 '지난 12개월동안 아토피피부염' 발병률이 1995년과 2000년 모두 높게 나타났으며, 진단율과 치료율도 서울이 지방에 비해 높게 나타났다. 1995년과 2000년에서 6-12세에서 여학생이 남학생에 비해 높은 진단율을 나타냈다. 나이에 따른 유병률은 1995년과 2000년에 서울과 지방에서 5세에서 가장 높은 유병률을 보이고, 나이가 많을수록 유병률이 감소되었다. 한편 부모의 알레르기질환과 아토피피부염 병력이 자녀의 아토피피부염 진단율에 의미있게 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 결 론: 1995년에 비해 2000년에 아토피피부염의 유병률이 증가되었으며, 지방이 서울보다 더 급격한 유병률의 증가를 나타내었고, 5-15세까지 연령이 증가함에 따라 유병률이 감소하며, 여학생이 남학생보다 유병률이 높게 나타났으며, 부모의 아토피피부염이나 알레르기 병력이 가장 위험한 요인 중 하나로 나타났다. Objective : Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. However, little is known about the prevalence of atopic dermatitis outside of North America and Europe. We evaluated the nationwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis with the comparison of prevalence between 1995 and 2000, and between Seoul and provincial cities in Korea. We also evaluated the risk factors for atopic dermatitis. Methods : A cross-sectional ISAAC based questionnaire survey was conducted on random samples of schoolchildren (6 to 15 year olds) in 1995 and 2000. And kindergarten children (5 year olds) were surveyed in 2003, throughout South Korea. Results : The lifetime and last twelve months prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korean school-aged children was increased from 1995 to 2000. The twelve-month prevalence of atopic dermatitis was higher in Seoul than in other provincial cities in 1995, but the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Seoul and Provincial Centers became similar in 2000. Conclusion : The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korean school-aged children was increased from 1995 to 2000. The further evaluations that include objective examination are necessary to confirm these outcomes because the environmental and risk factors may be different among the countries according to their life styles.
저등급 자궁내막 간질성 육종은 자궁의 악성종양 중에서 단지 0.2%를 차지하는 매우 드문 질환으로, 세포분열의 활성도에 따라 고등급과 저등급으로 나뉘어진다. 저자들은 3예를 경험하였기에 면역조직화학 염색 진단과 질환의 진행 정도에 따른 치료를 간단한 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하고자 한다. Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) of the myometrium compose just 0.2% of uterine malignant tumors. In terms of their cellular mitotic activities, they are named as low grade or high grade ESS. As low grade ESSre very rare, we would like to report our 3 cases with immunohistochemical stain method, treatment option as the disease progression and the brief review of literature.