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The series of forest Fires in Kangwon Province in April, 2000, were one of the mast serious ones in the Kang-won Province in recent years. The fire damaged areas are extensive and this paper investigates the utility of the satellite image data, particularly the RADARSAT SAR data. One of the main objectives of this study included evaluation of potential usefulness of the C-band RADARSAT data in the detection of forest fires in mountainous areas. Among several fire damaged sites, the area near Samchuk (city) was selected as the main study area and mufti-temporal RADARSAT(raw) data were acquired and the processed results were comparatively investigated with the IRS-1c data acquired shortly after the fire. To identify the burnt area from the undamaged background in the optical imagery, supervised classification and NDVI processing were carried out and tested with the IRS-1C data. For this experiment, several sets of raw RADARSAT standard and Fine mode (S4, F3, ascending orbit) data were processed and the final image was formed. In addition to the final image, sigma nought (σ°) was catnputed and compared for the burnt area against the undamaged areas. Because of the steep slopes in the study area and subsequent deviation from the flat surface scattering models, the fire scars in the sigma nought (σ°) image were not apparent. However, fire scars are slightly detected in the difference and ratio images obtained from the signal intensity data acquired at different dates (bath before and after fire). Texture analysis of the image data including the burnt areas were carried out using the Multiplicative Markov Random-Field (MMRF) algorithm. The detection of the fire damaged area from both standard mode and fine mode RADARSAT was not as straightforward as in optical data. However, Previous studies with ERS-1 S_AR and RADARSAT data in Indonesia and in the North American Plains indicate that C-band SAR data provide us with an effective tool for studying the forest fire damages. However, the application of C-band SAR data to the analysis of the forest fire areas requires careful processing of the data with realistic scattering models.
This study was conducted to identify requirements and improvements for policies related to energy welfare by investigating and analyzing household characteristics, residential building information, elements of energy use, and energy welfare status among the energy poverty. In this study, the energy consumption of the energy poverty and support policies are investigated, and characteristics of each are analyzed. The average number of household members in the energy poverty group was 2.3, and the average monthly household income of the households was 93.3 million won. The average expenditure on energy use per year was 947,957 won, which was the highest in January, February, and December. The most desirable energy welfare policy was the reduction or reduction of electricity cost.
저자들은 신부전이 동반된 당뇨병 환자에서 발생된 부비동형 모균증에 대하여 수술과 함께 liposomal amphotericin B 및 GM-CSF의 복합치료를 하여 성공적으로 치료한 1예를 경험하였기에 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) primarily affects diabetic or immunocompromised patients and typically progresses rapidly, necessitating surgical excision and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B. Large doses of amphotericin B are needed for cure, but it has the risk of causing significant renal toxicity. The recent development of liposomal amphotericin B allows antifungal therapy to be administered with potentially improved efficacy and reduced nephrotoxicity. We have experienced a case of paranasal mucormycosis successfully treated with surgery, liposomal amphotericin B and GM-CSF. A 59-year-old male suffering from diabetes mellitus for 6 years was admitted with pain at left maxillary area. He was diagnosed as mucormycosis after cytologic exam on the necrotic nasal mucosa, which showed typical hyphae. He have had diabetic nephropathy with macroproteinuria and had rapidly rising serum creatinine levels with the amphotericin B treatment: creatinine levels reverted to basal level with the use of liposomal amphotericin B. Despite surgical excision and continued antifungal therapy, his infection was not effectively controlled. Therefore, GM-CSF was administered additionally to improve phagocytic activity of leukocytes. He was finally cured after receiving a combination of aggressive surgery, liposomal amphotericin B and GM-CSF. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of the treatment of mucormycosis with liposomal amphotericin B in Korea.
The surgery of oral and maxillofacial area poses the risk of cranial nerve damage such as trigeminal nerve or facial nerve. Inferior alveolar nerve is prone to damage in the third molar extraction, implant installation, orthognathic surgery, open reduction and rigid fixation, and tumor ablation surgery. On the other hands,facial nerve is likely to be damaged or sacrificed with trauma or parotidectomy. In case of inferior alveolar nerve injury, the incidence is reported to be about 1.3%. The nerve function will almost recover in minimal damage, but it won't recover at last in total damage of a part of nerve unit. In latter cases, nerve regeneration in intended by allograft as nerve substitute or various route of merve condit. But the recovery with autograft is believed to be most relialbe mrthod in the rapair of long-span(longer than 15㎜)nerve defect. We have performed autologous sural nerve graft in the repair of nerve defect, which is caused by resection of benign or malignant tumor. Hereby we report the method of nerve harvesting, recovery of defected peripheral nerve and the complications of donor site with the discussion of sural nerve anatomy.
Individual identification of severely decomposed or skeletonized bodies is an important part in medicolegal field. 142 bodies were torn up and carried away by flood in a park cemetry, Kwang-Ju, Kyunggi province, Korea at Sept., 10, 1990. The authors examed the 56 bodies, which were gained, through medical, anthropological, odontological, radiological methods, and superimposition for individual identification. Among them, 41 cases were successfully identified, and remaining 15 cases were not identified because of sever destruction and no adequate information.
연구배경:골수이식은 비교적 젊은 연령의 환자들을 대상으로 하며 면역억제제의 사용기간이 비교적 짧으므로, 주로 고령의 만성 질환 환자에서 시행되는 고형장기이식에서와는 달리 당대사 및 지단백 대사에 있어서 많은 차이점이 있을 것으로 추측된다. 저자들은 전향적 연구를 통하여 골수이식 후 시기별로 혈당 및 혈중지단백 변화 양상을 알아보고 이와 관련된 임상인자들을 규명하고자 하였다. 방법:1998년 10월부터 1999년 8월까지 가톨릭대학교 성모병원에서 동종골수이식을 시행한 환자들 중 43명을 대상으로 이식 전 및 이식 후 1, 2, 3, 4주와 3개월, 6개월에 공복 혈당, 혈중 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방, 고밀도지단백을 측정하여 골수이식 후 시기별 변화를 관찰하고 여러 임상인자들에 따른 차이를 알아보았다. 결과:1. 공복혈당은 골수이식 수 첫4주 동안 상승하였고 이후 감소하였으나 이식 6개월 시점의 평균 공복혈당은 이식 전보다 유의하게 높게 관찰되었다. 혈중 총 콜레스테롤은 이식 후 1주에 최고치를 형성하였고 이후 기저수준으로 회복되었다가 이식 수 3,6개월에 다시 증가하여 기저치에 비해 유의하게 높았다. 혈중 중성지방은 이식 후 1개월까지 유의하게 증가하였고 이후 감소하여, 3,6개월에는 기저치와 유의한 차이가 관찰되지 않았다. 혈중 고밀도지단백은 이식 후 2,3주에 이식 전보다 유의하게 감소하였고 이후 이식 전 수준으로 회복되었다. 혈중 저밀도지단백은 총 콜레스테롤의 변화와 매우 유사하였다. 2. 골수이식 후 6개월 시점에서 공복 혈당이 126㎎/dL이상인 환자는 7명(16%)이었다. 이들 환자들과 공복혈당 126㎎/dL 미만의 환자 36명을 비교한 결과, 공복혈당이 126㎎/dL 이상인 환자군에서 스테로이드 평균 투여량이 많았고 고밀도지단백이 유의하게 낮았다. 3. 이식편대숙주질환이 발생한 환자는 그렇지 않은 환자보다 이식 후 1, 2, 3주 및 6개월의 총 콜레스테롤이 더 낮았고, 3개월의 공복혈당이 더 높았다. 혈연골수이식 환자군은 비혈연골수이식 환자에 비해 투여된 스테로이드 용량이 더 적음에도 불구하고 이식 후 1, 2, 3주 및 6개월의 총 콜레스테롤 수치가 더 높았다. 스테로이드 고용량 투여군(하루 평균 7.5㎎기준)은 저용량군보다 이식 후 3개월 시점의 공복혈당이 더 높았으나 나머지 시점의 혈당, 혈중 지질농도에 있어서는 유의한 차이가 관찰되지 않았다. 결론:골수이식 후 초기시기에 주로 당 대사 및 지질대사이상이 관찰되며 이는 면역억제제 투여와 관련이 있음을 알 수 있었다. 면역억제제가 고용량 투여되는 합병증 발생 시 이들 대사이상에 관심을 기울여 대처해야 할 것이다. Background: In bone marrow transplantation(BMT), recipients are usually younger and immunosuppressants are open used in shorter period than in solid organ transplantation. Therefore, there might be a difference in glucose and lipid metabolism between BMT and solid organ transplantation. However, the serial changes of metabolic parameters following BMT have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the serial changes of blood glucose, lipids and the putative factors that are related with these changes after BMT. Methods: We have prospectively investigated 43 patients who underwent allogeneic BMT. Fasting plasma glucose(FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein(HDL) were measured before BMT, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 weeks and 6 months after BMT. The serial changes of these metabolic parameters according to clinical factors including type of BMT, mean daily steroid dosage, and occurrence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) were examined. Results: 1. Mean FPG level increased during 4 weeks after BMT and remained above basal value at post-transplant 6 months. Total Cholesterol level was increased during initial 4 weeks after BMT and was above basal value at post-BMT of 3 and 6 months. Triglyceride level was progressively increased during initial 4 weeks after BMT, but returned to basal value there after. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased during initial 4 weeks after BMT, but returned to basal value there after. 2. Patients with FPG above 126 mg/dL and the other patients, the former received larger amounts of daily steroid and had lower HDL-cholesterol level. 3. The changes of metabolic parameters were different according to type of BMT, steroid dose, and occurrence of GVHD. Conclusion: Although there was increase of FPG, TC, TG and decrease of HDL-C during initial 4 weeks after BMT, these metabolic changes recovered slowly thereafter. Immunosuppressants are thought to be associated with these changes. Further observation will be needed for the long-term effect of BMT on metabolic changes(J Kor Diabetes Asso 24:689~698, 2000).
Object : The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal infection and ulcer on the feet of diabetic patients and the existence of correlation between ulcer and fungal infection. Methods : A total 21,693 outpatients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus at the department of endocrinology of 32 hospitals were examined. The diabetic patients with foot problems were consulted to the department of dermatology. Physical examination and KOH preparation were performed. Results : 13,271 patients had certain kinds of foot problem, accounting for 61.2% of 21,693 diabetics examined. Of these, fungal foot disease were found in 10,403 that constituted 78.4% (48.0% of the entire diabetic population). Tinea pedis was the diagnosis in 6,496 (29.9%), onychomycosis in 7,783 (35.9%), and coexistence was in 3,883 (17.9%). Foot deformity was in 1,346 (6.2% of diabetics; 10.1% of foot disease), non-palpable pulse in 1,051 (4.8% ; 7.9%), and foot ulcer was in 425 (2.0% ; 3.2%), following in a descending order of frequency. Odds ratios for diabetic foot ulcer were 2.5 in patients with the foot deformity, 1.6 with fungal foot disease and 2.2 with non-palpable pulse. Conversely, Odds ratios for fungal foot disease were 2.5 with foot deformity, and 1.6 with foot ulcer. A total of 5,486 patients paid a visit to the department of dermatology. Of these, 4,519 patients were diagnosed with fungal infection through physical examination and KOH smear by dermatologists. The population comprised of 2,272 males and 2,247 females, showing similar prevalence between sexes. However, age did have positive correlation regarding prevalence of fungal foot disease. The number of diabetic patients with toenail problems was 3,847 patients (70%) and onychomycosis was proven mycologically in 3,276. Onychomycosis of distal subungal type was the most common clinical finding, most frequently involving the great toenails. Abnormal skin findings of the foot were seen in 3,885(70.8%) and tinea pedis was found in 3,209 (58.5%), most commonly involving the soles. Conclusion : This study showed that fungal infection might be regarded as a risk factor of foot ulcer. Treatment of fungal infection in diabetic patients might prevent diabetic foot disease such as ulcer and reduce the disability, morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(7) : 908~915)
Individual identification is an important part in medicolegal field especially in mass disaster. At July, 27, 1989, KAL KE-803 was crashed on landing at Tripoli International Airport, Liba. The plane was caught in fire and sixty eight Koreans were sacrified. The majority of victims were severely charred and injured. The authors examed all dead bodies and successfully identified all the cases through visual, anthropological, odontological, radiological and pathological methods including fingerprint and blood typing.