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Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), particularly carbon nanotube and graphene-based materials, are rapidly emerging as one of the most effective adsorbents for wastewater treatment. CNMs hold great potential as new generation adsorbents due to their high surface to volume ratio, as well as extraordinary chemical, mechanical and thermal stabilities. However, implementation of pristine CNMs in real world applications are still hindered due to their poor solubility in most solvents. Hence, surface modification of CNMs is essential for wastewater treatment application in order to improve its solubility, chemical stability, fouling resistance and efficiency. Numerous studies have reported the applications of functionalized CNMs as very promising adsorbents for treating organic and inorganic wastewater pollutants. In this paper, the removal of organic dye and phenol contaminants from wastewater using various type of functionalized CNMs are highlighted and summarized. Challenges and future opportunities for application of these CNMs as adsorbents in sustainable wastewater treatment are also addressed in this paper.
The eyes of male and female Rhagophthalmus ohbai are of very different sizes and possess approximately 3000 and 35 facets, respectively. In the male eye one can distinguish a smaller dorsal region with 500 facets and a larger ventral one with ca. 1800. Ultrastructural differences between them have been described earlier in this journal (Lau and Meyer-Rochow, 2006). Electrophysiological recordings from the two eye areas have now revealed that the ventral region is maximally sensitive to light of 600 nm wavelength, while the dorsal eye region responds maximally to light of 540-560 nm wavelengths. In the dorsal eye region sensitivity to UV-radiation at around 360 nm wavelength, being twice as high as that of the ventral eye region, amounted to ca. one quarter of peak wavelength sensitivity. The regional differences in spectral sensitivity seem to be a reflection of the different tasks of the two eye regions: looking downward to see the yellow light emitted by a female, sensitivity towards longer wavelengths would be advantageous, but looking upward into the twilight sky, sensitivity to shorter wavelength would be a more appropriate adaptation.
<P>Among different sterilization methods, heat-treatment of bone is recognized as one of the simple and practical methods to lower the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and overcome the risks of rejection and disease transfer from allograft and xenograft during bone transplantation. In order to best characterize the micro-structural mechanical property of bone after heat treatment, the nanoindentation technique was applied in this study to measure the localized elastic modulus and hardness for interstitial lamellae and osteons lamellae of bovine cortical bones at temperature 23°C (room temperature-pristine specimen), 37°C, 90°C, 120°C and 160°C, respectively. The elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) of interstitial lamellae obtained higher values as compared with osteons lamellae which show that interstitial lamellae are more stiff and mineralized than osteons. Moreover, as a specimen pre-heat treated at 90°C, the E and H values of interstitial lamellae and osteons were closed to a pristine specimen. For a specimen pre-heat treated at 120°C, both interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained an increase in E and H values. As a specimen pre-heat treated at 160°C, the interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained a slight decrease in E and H values. These findings are correlated to results reported by other researchers [1, 2] that calcified collagen molecules starts to degenerate at about 120°C and complete at 160°C. Interestingly, when a specimen was pre-heat treated at 37°C, both interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained significant decreases in E values of 57% and 40%, respectively as compared to the pristine specimen; while in H values, there was a decrease of 27.4% and 15%, respectively. Thus, this paper will investigate the mechanical properties of bovine cortical bones under various temperature ranges by nanoindentation technique.</P>
The eyes of male and female Rhagophthalmus ohbai are of very different sizes and possess approximately 3000 and 35 facets, respectively. In the male eye one can distinguish a smaller dorsal region with 500 facets and a larger ventral one with ca. 1800. Ultrastructural differences between them have been described earlier in this journal (Lau and Meyer- Rochow, 2006). Electrophysiological recordings from the two eye areas have now revealed that the ventral region is maximally sensitive to light of 600 nm wavelength, while the dorsal eye region responds maximally to light of 540-560 nm wavelengths. In the dorsal eye region sensitivity to UV-radiation at around 360 nm wavelength, being twice as high as that of the ventral eye region, amounted to ca. one quarter of peak wavelength sensitivity. The regional differences in spectral sensitivity seem to be a reflection of the different tasks of the two eye regions: looking downward to see the yellow light emitted by a female, sensitivity towards longer wavelengths would be advantageous, but looking upward into the twilight sky, sensitivity to shorter wavelength would be a more appropriate adaptation.
In this paper, we have compared and contrasted competing influences of greenhouse gases (GHG) warming and aerosol forcing on Asian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall based on CMIP5 historical simulations. Under GHG-only forcing, the land warms much faster than the ocean, magnifying the pre-industrial climatological land-ocean thermal contrast and hemispheric asymmetry, i.e., warmer northern than southern hemisphere. A steady increasing warm-ocean-warmer-land (WOWL) trend has been in effect since the 1950’s substantially increasing moisture transport from adjacent oceans, and enhancing rainfall over the Asian monsoon regions. However, under GHG warming, increased atmospheric stability due to strong reduction in mid-tropospheric and near surface relative humidity coupled to an expanding subsidence areas, associated with the Deep Tropical Squeeze (DTS, Lau and Kim, 2015b) strongly suppress monsoon convection and rainfall over subtropical and extratropical land, leading to a weakening of the Asian monsoon meridional circulation. Increased anthropogenic aerosol emission strongly masks WOWL, by over 60% over the northern hemisphere, negating to a large extent the rainfall increase due to GHG warming, and leading to a further weakening of the monsoon circulation, through increasing atmospheric stability, most likely associated with aerosol solar dimming and semi-direct effects. Overall, we find that GHG exerts stronger positive rainfall sensitivity, but less negative circulation sensitivity in SASM compared to EASM. In contrast, aerosols exert stronger negative impacts on rainfall, but less negative impacts on circulation in EASM compared to SASM.
Steady and dynamic shear properties of two hydrophobically modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE), NPJI and NPJ2, were experimentally investigated. At the same polymer concentration, NPJ1 is appreciably more viscous and elastic than NPJ2. The high hydrophobicity of NPJ1 allows hydrophobic associations and more junction sites to be created, leading to the formation of a network structure. Under shear deformation, NPJ1 exhibits shear-thinning behaviour as compared with Newtonian characteristics of NPJ2. NPJ1 and NPJ2 exhibit a very high and a low level of elasticity respectively over the frequency range tested. For NPJ1, a crossover frequency appears, which is shifted to lower frequencies and hence, longer relaxation times, as concentration increases. Three different surfactants anionic SDS, cationic CTAB, and non-ionic TX-100 were employed to examine the effects of surfactants on the rheology of HASE. Due to the different ionic behaviour of the surfactant, each type of surfactant imposed different electrostatic interactions on the two HASE polymers. In general, at low surfactant concentration, a gradual increase in viscosity is observed until a maximum is reached, beyond which a continuous reduction of viscosity ensues. Viscosity development is a combined result of HASE-surfactant interactions, accompanied by constant rearrangement of the hydrophobic associative junctions, and electrostatic interactions.
The importance of technology in economic development is indisputable. A large part of the developmental process in East Asian countries has been greatly accelerated by the transfer of technology from developed countries. This paper, based on detailed data obtained from selected samples of about 100 companies in Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand , and Indonesia, examines several key determinants of the process of acquisition, assimilation and internalization of imported technology in business enterprises. Drawing on the findings, this paper also suggests several implications for regional cooperation in enhancing the process of technology transfer in East Asia.